Deconstructive Analysis Of Dubliners

Deconstructive Analysis Of Dubliners

Deconstructive Analysis Of Dubliners

Dubliner is a collected works containing short stories that were written by James Joyce. The short stories are a major boost to today’s play writers as well as essay writers. The first publication of the collection of the stories was first done in the year 1914. The stories were meant for the middle class of the Irish people in Dublin. Joyce’s stories were published at the time when nationalism of the Irish was leaning t its peak (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). At that time identity of the nationalists was at rage and also in its peak as well as with cultural backgrounds and history. This led to several influences been converged at Ireland. Joyce’s idea was mainly for epiphany was about experiences of a certain character and self understanding (Bowen & Zach 1974).

Actors of Dubliners

Several characters that are found in the Joyce’s Dubliners later appeared acting as minor actors in the famous novel of Ulysses which was liked and admired by many people all over the world. Stories found in the Dubliners today are a source of encouragement to many play writers. Child protagonists narrate the stories very well. The stories have passion for the lives of the older generation and their concerns. That was because Dubliners is in a collection of young generation, adult and the most mature generation.

The tale of the ‘The dead’

In the collection of Joyce’s Dubliners, the dead is final story but the longest and the most liked for its sweetness while reading. Gabriel Conrol finds himself in the center of the story. This is at the night when sisters of the Morkan were preparing for the annual dinner which was been celebrated annually, Gabriel surprises himself for discovering that he never understood much about the past experiences of his beloved wife

How and when- he discovers this by just making a joke hen he arrived at the party. The joke not towards his wife but towards the prediction of the maid’s marriage but in the process he is seriously and funky poked by his wife by bringing an old conversation that concerned about wearing of clothes hen the weather is very bad. This leads Gabriel to find himself in a pathetic situation but to show that he is a strong gentleman, he overcompensated some of his statements that he had dedicated to miss Ivors who was a citizen of the Irish origin (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). The two were dancing together at that evening.

Gabriels conventions led to Miss Ivor escaping away from the celebration before serving of dinner. Gabriel had talked issues that praised Irish nationals at the same time considered to hearing the past story on experiences of his wife. He never noted that his wife was standing far away from the staircases when he was talking all that. He got surprised at the last minute when he noticed her deep in thought. This was so amazing; he couldn’t believe it was her. What could he do next, just to stare on her as a real stranger? But Gabriel gains courage goes to her and envisages her as a real model in his illumination of distant heavy music.

Mrs. Gabriel was later so much diverted to a mood of sexual attention towards him but later becomes unresponsive when Gabriel confronted her to a private room. Gabriel notices that her wife had heard the song sung by D’arcy. Gabriel presses on his wife Gretta to openly tell him the reason she was that much affected by the Arcy’s song. Gretta agreed to tell her husband the whole story from her childhood when she fell in love with Michael Furey, a boy of her close age mate at the time when she was staying at her grandmother’s home. Later afterwards she was send away to Dublin and this led to distraction from her beloved boyfriend (Bowen & Zach 1974). Michael was so in deep with her such that regardless been very sick and bedridden he walked a long distance while raining to Gretta’s home whereby he climbed to the window and wished her all the best in her future. In one week’s period, Michael passed away. Michael’s death in the story of ‘the dead’ is like the death of Evelines mother’s death in the story of Eveline. Deaths of the two characters in these symbolize how they brought much effect to the lives of the main characters: that is Gabriel and Eveline. Gabriel was not aware of his wife’s past experiences and when he came to understand to notice, his life was not the same again. There is an indication in Gabriel’s mind that he believed his wife loved someone who was dead more than she loved him. In Evelines case, she realizes that she has to keep the promise of a dead mother rather than that of her boyfriend Frank.

Most of readers claim James Joyce wanted to prove to the world about the power of love (Bowen & Zach, 1974). The love in two dimensions-towards the parent and love towards the boy-girl relationships. The confession of Gabriel’s wife took him to another world of imagining about himself as well as of his wife, does he really feel insecure? This is what many readers ask themselves. Gabriel is also left imagining more about the living and the dead.

The tale of Eveline

This is a story of a young lady who passes through many experiences. She experiences the death of her mother as well as his older brother called Earnest. She tries to imagine how life has treated her poorly to an extend of thinking about leaving home. But will she really make it. The other brother of hers is busy with church activities that concern decoration. The girl is so much full of fear that her father will punish if he came to realize that she had a keen interest on jobs that do concern sales. She too like Greta in the story of the dead falls in love with a young man called frank. Frank has promised her girlfriend that they will tour Buenos Aires (Bowen & Zach 1974). The girl was much anticipating for that time and she hoped Harry, her boyfriend will keep the promise. Eveline hears music on organ grinder been played outside and this takes her memories back to the time her mother passed away. Eveline had promised her mother that she will always protect the home with due respect (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). The situation is very confusing to her. The sad memories over calm her, but will she leave her home and go away with harry.

Love that hurts

When ones love someone and he gets hurt, painful feelings come across. Frank was hurt by Eveline decision to remain at her own home; Gabriel was hurt by his wife’s confession- ‘Michael loved me to an extend of been rained on his way to visit me I was in love with him since childhood’ A difficult situation indeed. Frank was ready prepared for the journey but after been let down by her girlfriend will be a very hurtful situation. Gabriel was hurt by hearing the confession of his beloved wife that before him, he loved someone else. Greta’s love was for her first love Michael while in the tale of Eveline, the love is towards memories of her beloved mother who had died a few days ago. The big question several readers of the Eveline tale ask themselves is that; did Eveline really love frank?, why do they ask this? Its because after she declined to accompany frank in their adventurous journey, she never showed any emotions at all. She knew the situation will be so painful to frank but why did she not show any feelings. In the tale of the dead the readers can confirm that Michael truly loved Gretta! Why? This is because at one point he is seeing travelling all the way to the home of Gretta while it was raining and at the same time very sick, he goes to an extend of climbing to the top of the window to as to talk with his love. Eveline finds herself in an indecisive situation been confused on which way to go. After Michael passed away, Greta had no otherwise other than just to accept the fact and go ahead with his life. Another aspect that leaves readers of the dead tale with suspense is whether truly Greta loved Gabriel? Why? Because after Greta listened to Arcy’s song, his mind went back to the memories of his long time love, Michael. This shows that her true love was not Gabriel but Michael. The situation put Gabriel in an awkward position because he started becoming unsecure of his wife. Maybe he himself asked many questions starting with whether his wife’s heart was really for him or somebody else who passed a long time ago.

Gabriel may also have wondered why in all those years he never understood the life of her wife. In the tale of Eveline, frank may also wonder why he requested Eveline for an adventurous journey a few days after passing away of her mother. The confusing issue is that in the story of Eveline we are not told any other man she had fallen in love with. This to some readers can create a feeling that Eveline loved frank but due to the promise she had whispered to her mother at the time she was dying, her conscience can’t allow. Also in the story of the dead, Greta may have not had any option other than getting married to someone else despite her love death.

These two tales on James Joyce, elaborate on the decisions one may be able make when finds himself in a confusing situation, Greta is pressured by his husband to say why he was so emotionally affected by Arcy’s song. She never knows whether to confess the truth or to ignore, but she takes courage and tells her whole truth about her past. At some point Gabriel was put in a pathetic situation whereby he never knew how to quote one of the poem from the poet of browning Robert. This was mainly because he never wanted to be seen as just pretending. Gabriel gave himself courage and the audience believed on him (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). Eveline is confused whether on whose promise to keep. She gains confidence and decides o keep the promise of her dead mother over the promise of her man in love.


There is involvement of journeys in the two stories. Frank was to take Evelina to the Buenos Aires, for an adventurous tour while Greta was to be sent off away from Galway to Dublin at the time her love Michael visited him on the window of her house (Bowen & Zach 1974).

Emotional moments

The story of the dead and Evelina is full of emotional moments- Evelina tries to think of her mother’s death as well as that of her brother and feels sorry for herself and the life before her ahead. When Greta confesses her love for Michael, Gabriel is over calmed by an epiphany of artistic and emotions. Greta is also filled with emotions of Michael’s death. The tale of the ‘the dead’ and ‘Evelina’ sympathize so much on the feelings of love of the Irish nationality.

Works cited

Bowen, Zach, Musical Allusions found in the Works of James Joyce: Early Poetry Through Ulysses Albany: Suny Press publishers, 1974.

Jeri Johnson, “Composition and Publication History”, in James Joyce, Dubliners, Oxford University Press, 2000.

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Debate on Collective Memory

Debate on Collective Memory

Debate on Collective Memory

One of the most distinguishing aspects in Maurice Halbwachs’ discourse in social frameworks of memory is the strong association of memory with cultural perceptions. Through various examples, Halbwachs illustrates the existence of collective memory and social memory frameworks. He goes further to assert that our personal thoughts reside in these social frameworks which actively play a role in the process of recollection. We are able to remember things more vividly and with a higher degree of clarity when parents, friends, or fellow members of our society recall them for us. The associative ability of our memories largely relies on our cultural surroundings.

Clifford Geertz maintains that our expectations are conceptualized through our general stock of theoretical concepts as defined by our cultures. In this view Geertz is in agreement with Halbwachs’ concept of social frameworks of memory. In response to his critics, Michael Foucault invokes Halbwachs’ social frameworks by asserting that theories are results of “established regimes of thought” (Halbwach 38). He attributes criticism against him to features and events that have been socially accepted by virtue of our being in contact with them repeatedly. He calls the recalling and accepting of these virtues “a return of knowledge” (Foucault 81). His description of these virtues that form culture is in agreement with Halbwachs’ social frameworks of memory.

Halbwachs maintains that individuals should be considered as isolated beings as most psychological treatises try to portray. Such arguments demand that in order to understand human mental operations we first have to sever all connections of the individual with the society. He calls this an erroneous process since the individual derives a large part of his or her memory from the society. It is from the society that they are able to “recall, recognize and localize their memories” (Halbwachs 38). All our daily recollections in any day are the result of our direct or indirect association with other members of the society since we appeal to our memories to answer questions that have been asked or we believe they might have asked us. In providing answers we put ourselves in the same social context as the other people in order to be properly understood. Our memory is therefore subjected to the kind of society we are in.

Michel Foucault recognizes the social framework of memory while describing the phenomenon of insurrection subjugated knowledges. He describes subjugated knowledges in two ways. The first way is as “the historical contents that have been buried and disguised in a functionalist coherence or formal systemization” (Foucult 81). Secondly, subjugated knowledges refer to the historical content of the society that would help us discover who we truly are from where we came from but are disguised. Subjugated knowledges can thus be defined as blocks of historical contents that make it possible for us to keep on rediscovering the adverse effects of the struggle between our true selves and the norms imposed on us by the functionalist or systematic mental disguise. The mental disguise he is referring to is the social framework of our cultural memory.

Foucault states that criticism thrives well when people have lost the perception of differential knowledge which does not rely on unanimous acceptance but instead rely on local popular knowledge to disqualify the truth. This opinion lends credence to Halbwachs’ viewpoint of the society being the determinant of how concepts, items, and other phenomena are called to memory.

While describing the relationship between memory and language, Halbwachs renounces the idea that our pasts are stored in our memories like cabinet drawers. He argues that people living together in a society are held together by the use of words they find to be commonly intelligible. This is a major condition is for collective thought. Every word that they use brings a recollection of an item or idea. All words are accompanied by appropriate recollections such that a word that does not call to mind a specific event, item, idea or person is considered to be alien in that particular language. It is described as un-understandable. On the other hand, there are no recollections that come without corresponding words to describe them within the society. “We often speak of our recollections before calling them to mind” (Halbwachs 173). These words make up the language we speak therefore it is language in combination with a host of many other social conventions, that give us the ability to reconstruct past events.

The function of language as a social framework for memory is an issue that Clifford Geertz includes in his definition of culture as a complex whole. He uses Clyde Kluckhohn’s definition culture in eleven ways that are all in agreement with Halbwachs social frameworks of memory. Geertz gives Kluckhohn’s definition of culture as “the total way of life of a people” (Geertz 4). This definition implies that culture relies on the unifying concepts that people can conceptualize through memory to agree that they are indeed one community. The conceptualization is only achieved through similar recollections of common values, beliefs, social systems, events, and any other aspect of life that they share. This conceptualization therefore relies on social frameworks of memory and recollection.

Another definition is about culture being “the social legacy the individual acquires from his group” (Geertz 4). This description of culture calls to attention Halbwachs’ association of memory with cultural perceptions where an individual’s thoughts reside in social frameworks that actively play a role in the process of recollection. It is in the same way that one would ask how our recollections are stored. Halbwachs describes this phenomenon of locating recollections by stating that it is done “with the help of landmarks that we carry within ourselves, for it suffices to look around ourselves within the social frame work to retrieve them” (175).

Geertz also describes culture as “a way of thinking, feeling, and believing” (Geertz 4). This definition is similar to Halbwachs’ assertion about the associative ability of our memories largely relying on the way we think and believe as members of one society. When Geertz talks about the definition of culture as a storehouse of learned attributes pooled together, he is borrowing from Halbwachs’ argument on memory being subject to the kind of society we live in such that all learned attributes are defined by the social recollection. For example, a hot-dog is a type of food eaten in most western cultures and is therefore a cultural attribute. However, a person from a different culture will have to learn what it is before he or she can recollect what it is whenever it is mentioned. The meaning of the term resides within the storehouse of that community. Anyone from outside might misconstrue the real meaning and end up recollecting visions of a hot canine.

Halbwachs addresses the question of how we can with a degree of certainty confirm that our recollections as individuals and as members of a society are actually as a result of social schemes or frameworks. How are we able to achieve the colorful representations of our recollections? To answer this question, he first considers the relationship between an image and a concept. The image is considered as being independent of intellectual significance while the concept is considered to be devoid of the image. This makes it possible to reconstruct memory-images without having to pull out tangible images. The concepts on the other hand can be recollected on an intellectual level without the need for tangibility. While writing about nationalism, identity, ethnicity, and revolution among other subjects, Geertz assumes a similar outlook on life as Halbwachs does about images and concepts.

Geertz takes a stand against sociological aestheticism and concentrates on separation of biological and physical entities from political and economical realities in order to place such issues in a comprehensible and meaningful frame. He takes a symbolic dimension on social action like art, morality, and ideology to show that the function of “interpretive anthropology is not to answer our deepest questions but to make available to us the answers that others, guarding other sheep in other valleys, have given” (Geertz 30). This argument can be equated to Halbwachs’ position on the social frameworks of memory where an individual relies on the other members of the society to recollect issues and events from his or her natural surroundings.

Works Cited

Foucault, Michel. “Power/Knowledge.” Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977. Ed.Colin Gordon. New York: Pantheon, 1980. 78-108. Print.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Print.

Halbwachs, Maurice. The collective memory. New York: Harper & Row Colophon Books, 1980.Print.

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Decision making is fundamental

Decision making is fundamental



Institution affiliation



Decision making is fundamental in order to have successful public administration. However, there could be an uphill task to choose the most suitable model for policy choices. Decision making is important and one must be ready to face consequences of decision made

Root decision making has following advantage and disadvantages. Advantage is that there is increased accuracy and efficiency of decision making because of comphrensive analysis of decision and considers also appropriateness of decision. Disadvantages include ignorance of inability to take action as result of comphrensive analysis. It does not also favor community participation hence has centralized bias. Root decision making is not also adapted to sufficiency of information and costliness analysis.

Branch decision making has the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include it encourages democratic politics and also avoids colossal mistake which happen due to inappropriate decision making. Interest of both parties involved is catered for due to comprehensive analysis. It is elastic and can accommodate changes before implementation. Disadvantages include lack of innovativeness in finding suitable decision to problems. It may also underestimate policies which have not been proposed by successive chain policies.

There are major differences between root and branch decision making. Firstly, in root decision making, there is clarification of objectives prior to marginal evaluation and empirical analysis. The end refers to goals and objectives to be pursued and not a particular is rational and aims at maximizing value of decision makers while branch decision making there is close intertwining of marginal evaluation and empirical analysis rather than being distinct as it is in root decision making (Henry, 45).Secondly, in root decision making, there is thorough analyzing comprehensively policies with relevant factor taken into account. While branch decision making depicts limited analysis(Stillman, 78).Branch decision making tends to ignore alternative possible and significant potential outcomes.Thirdly,Root decision making uses mean end analysis that entails isolation which is opposite to branch decision making where there is no isolation.

Hurricane Katarina disaster case was one of the most tragic encounter in USA history. Failure of government in managing disasters and poor response from Katarina led to this tragic occurrence. This was as result of poor decision making.

There were basic coordination problem. This caused disagreements on what is to be done at specific time and who is to do it. This led to delay in disaster management, recovery bodies and attending to those affected. For example FEMA tried to push for government to take control but the officials and locals were overwhelmed and disagreed accusing FEMA of slowness to act accordingly.(House report,2006:75).Although management literature suggest that large disaster are difficult to manage, the government should have been able to take full control of situation.

Unresponsiveness to early warnings. The disaster that happened cannot be classified as a surprise as scientists had already warned about that yet no action was taken. The consequences of major Hurricane had been long anticipated especially in New Orleans and there were fears of collapse of coastal city because it was built below sea level. But concerns about such danger were not met with required way of curbing them. It took 5 years for FEMA to file report of Hurricane hitting New Orleans which is extremely long time. Scientists warned people adequately consequentially convincing Governors of Mississippi and Louisiana to issue states of emergency three days before disaster. However some decided to stay because of previous false alarm and others due to lack of transport. Lack of urgency from federal government eventually led to disaster happening.

Failure of Government to understand system nature of risk led to delay. There unprecedented demand for services e.g medical attention, search for survivors, evacuation and setting temporary shelter proved impossible to cover fully. Reduction of response and communication due to scope of disaster made transportation of food difficult due to flooded roads. Many rescue and police vehicles were flooded and rendered unusable. Wireless phones were also affected and emergency calls were difficult

Problem of dealing with dispersed responsibilities. There was lack of clearly authority to guide through disaster in major organs of state. Federal responders waited for so long for certain Aid from the government. Lack of clear directing authority led to freelance hence coordination problem.

Organizational capacity. The size of disaster was so huge for ant network to control. However failure in deployment of personnel, not taking sufficient measures to deploy communication gadgets, not prestaging enough commodities and failure to unite and form joint office led to management of disaster so hard.FEMA for example had been run by political appointee with limited experience in natural disaster management.Furthmore under President bush administration FEMA had lost key functions political influence and resources. All this factors contributed to failure of Katrina


Natural Disasters can cause a lot of harm and we cannot be able to control them fully, however we can take anticipatory measures in order to curb with this menace. Many Lessons emerge from Katrina we must covert the failures into successes of the future. Taking responsibility, assigning roles, faster responsiveness of emergence lines are example ways to stir forward.REFERENCES

Stillman, R. J. (2005). Public administration: Concepts and cases. Boston [u.a.: Houghton Mifflin.

Henry, Nicholas. Public Administration and Public Affairs. New York: Pearson Education Canada, 2009.

Milakovich, Michael and George Gordon. Public Administration in America. New York: Cengage Learning, 2012.

Stillman, Richard. Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.

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Decision Support Systems

Decision Support Systems

1. Identify the problem the DSS will help decision makers solve

Implementation of the Decision Support Systems in running of organizational management needs will target specific problems in order to increase efficiency and eliminate poor performance. The most important elements of the DSS that every management setting aims to achieve are mainly driven by the need to remain vigilant on quality service delivery as well as cost benefit analysis results. While profitability may not be a reason good enough to facilitate appropriate performance reviews, certain industries must represent quality service delivery in their effective decision making processes. One of such industries is the healthcare industry whose sensitive interaction with human life dictates focus on quality ahead of profitability (Malhotra, 1989). It is imperative therefore that the effective DSS in such industries include some of the most important healthcare issues on the system blueprint to assist in tackling both quality and profitability in a single agenda. Patients’ needs are important in the system as human resource needs encompassed under the DSS. Some of the problems that will be targeted in the designed DSS will include various departmental issues that need management input in different respects such as;

Management of patients’ health records in terms of entry and retrieval

Provide an efficient patient progress tracking procedures

Consolidation of various facilities under the institution’s capacity for enhancement and elimination of idle capacity

Following up specific patient care through real time caregiver’s activities tracking systems

Collection of patients’ satisfaction scores for application in performance enhancement through efficient customer experience backed service delivery reviews

Assist in control and management of staffing needs through staff monitoring data

Drugs and equipment procurement management systems

Facility administration and related allocation and delegation of responsibilities to track performance

Human resource monitoring, performance appraisal and motivation management

2. Build: Describe the major steps in developing the DSS and define the various types of testing the DSS will need before implementing the prototype


Initial stages of the building process of a customized DSS will involve the internalization of the organization needs and outline in the basic structure. This will include determining the needs of the organizational decision making process and integrate them in the structural component of the DSS. The organizational and management structural designs will be dissected for integration in the DSS structural design to make it compatible with the computer based system. Various management areas that require focus and input through the decision making highlight will be pointed out and roles attached for enhancement through DSS (Dahm and Wadensten, 2008). Functional units of the entire organization will also be pointed out for easier monitoring via the computer system.

Using this functional and structural integration, it will be easy for the DSS to pick up various decisions making needs and prompt the management to act on a number of options that the system has. This will be the case for patient care processes, employees monitoring and welfare needs as well as the facility control and management decision making inputs. Connecting all the decision making needs to a central detection system will facilitate the building phase to be completed.


Testing the workability of the DSS will include various phases of implementation to avoid a system failure or clash disabling the operations of the entire organization. The three basic areas of input will be implemented and tested differently while the current management systems are still in place. Once the desired results are received, the new system will be full implemented and the ineffective system laid aside. Performance efficiency in coverage of the important input areas will be compared between the current system and the new DSS application.

Buy: Define the type of DSS you will buy and describe the major steps and criteria you will use in selecting the DSS vendor and software


The Horizon Expert system will be implemented as it befits the healthcare system as observed by McKesson (2007). Horizon Expert DSS application is a management program that enables the management of the healthcare facility needs with a side range of specificity and optimization opportunities. Some of the most important data sources that enable the implementation of Horizon Expert cover patient care needs, employee management as well as various facility monitoring and control needs making it an important tool in healthcare.

Selection Criteria

When determining the DSS vendor and type for buying, it was important to consider the cost element and the quality of the product with an aim of determining the best package in the market. Besides the quality and cost, the implementation aspects, ease of operation as well as compatibility with the organizational setting became very instrumental in the purchasing process. Based on the internal needs that need to be included in the decision making framework, it was inevitable to include the most important targets list that the effective DSS must cover. It came out clear that the Horizon Expert is better than most other healthcare DSS packages that the market had.

3. Describe the user and management involvement in the implementation approach, goal development and implementation and evaluation planning and how you will obtain management and user “buy-in?”

Implementation Approach

In order for the DSS package to meet the intended needs, both the users’ and the managements’ attention in the implementation program is irreplaceable. Cooperation and assistance from all sections of the organization are needed in the implementation of a new system that brings in changes to old ways of carrying out business. In respect to a healthcare needs that the management ought to streamline in a comprehensive management plan, the need to facilitate the appropriate understanding must be well served (Dahm and Wadensten, 2008). Some training may be needed to ensure that there is cooperation among the various stakeholders in the DSS implementation program.

Goal Development and Implementation

It is imperative that initial implementation targets are outlined in advance to enhance the realization of the desired changes. Various management levels and staff must set out their targets to be met through the DSS, to act as implementation yardsticks. Goal development regarding the implementation will need to be focused on the new management capacity created by the DSS application likely to factor in enhancements.


The evaluation of the DSS performance will be evaluated on the performance enhancement criteria that will focus on the changes brought in upon implementation. Since the DSS has clearly defined areas of management where input is needed in terms of enhancement, it is easy to monitor changes.

Obtaining Buy-In

Where some aspects of outsourcing are needed for the implementation of the DSS, it will be identified on the technical implementation needs against the current internal capacity. In case there are aspects of implementation that demand a buy-in arrangement, the necessary implementation outsourcing will be procured from the program supplier.


Dahm, M. & Wadensten, B. (2008) “Nurses’ Experiences of and Opinions about Using Standardized Care Plans in Electronic Health Records – A Questionnaire Study,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(16):2137-2145. <Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02377.x>

Malhotra, N. K. (1989) “Decision Support Systems for Healthcare Marketing Managers,” Journal of Healthcare Marketing, 9(2):20-28

McKesson, (2007) Making Care Planning Relevant. Retrieved from: HYPERLINK “”

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Deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly

Deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly

Deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly

600 Media 2day

Deconstruction refers to a technique which brings into a discussion what the same discussion expels in its formation. Deconstruction generally helps us to have an understanding of a text through identifying its dependency on what is excluded. This means that deconstruction is used to provide more information about information that is not clear in a text. This paper seeks to deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly. In this case, the paper will focus on Newcastle and Gateshead. The main aim is to deconstruct the scene of the Newcastle and Gateshead which was viewed from the rope works on the Newcastle bank of the River Tyne. This is a drawing which was taken from a distance and the artist drew what was seen from that particular point. In this case, there are some details which were omitted because the clarity was not attained.

As the drawing is constructed in relation to a long distance, it is clear that some features can be seen but it is not clear what they represent. The picture is drawn being viewed from rope works. This means that many features are expected because within this region there are various activities that take place. This is not the case because the artist does not show everything. There is information which is omitted which makes the viewer not to have a clear understanding of what the artist is trying to put across. There is an old stone Tyne Bridge which is seen at a distance. It is not clearly drawn as it is seen from afar. This gives a clear impression that the artist would have done something more to make certain that the bridge is seen as one (Norris, 2002, 112). To effectively do this, naming can be done on the drawing to show all features by names. Since the bridge is seen from afar, denoting it by name will help the viewer know exactly what the feature is. This ought to be done because viewers are different sighted. Labeling the drawing would be advisable because every viewer would then be able to notice it.

The artist also shows a church which is on the left at the top part of the hill. This church is St. Mary’s Gateshead. There is smoke seen billowing from the Windmills Hill. The artist in this case has not clearly shown what it is that is producing smoke. This becomes quite hard for the viewer to understand the drawing (Royle, 2000, 213). It is hard to understand what the viewer is trying to put across. There are a few buildings seen at the scene. It is not therefore clear if the smoke is really originating from the buildings or elsewhere. The artist ought to have clearly separated the buildings from the smoke or shown the origin of the smoke for clarity. This is meant to make the viewer have a clear view to avoid confusion. A paddle steamer is also in the centre of the river. This is quite hard as a viewer who does not have knowledge of the place is not able to understand the feature (Parker, 1969, 12). They are a bit mixed up making it hard to understand what the artist is trying to put across. In this case, the artist should have used order to avoid confusion. Arranging them in an understandable manner also helps them to produce neat work which is attractive to the eye. All artists should have in mind that clarity of work does not only benefit the viewers but also benefits them because they get to market their products and make more sales hence earn more as their goal is to earn more.


Norris, C. (2002). Deconstruction: theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

Parker, H. P. (1969). Henry Perlee Parker Exhibition. New Bridge Street: Laing Art Gallery.

Royle, N. (2000). Deconstructions: A User’s Guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Decision Making

Decision Making

Decision Making

As a judge with a reputable name in the US to warrant consideration as a future candidate into the Supreme Court, decision-making procedures are clearly defined by the constitution as well as by court precedents on similar decisions. In line with the premise that constitution is the supreme law and any other law is rendered invalid to the extent of its inconsistence with the constitution, the work of a judge is cut out. For judicial rulings sought by the public where they are not clearly spelt out in the constitution, a judge is free to make rulings setting precedents that may not bind the courts. In view of the flexibility of a judge to rely on judicial precedents, it follows that the freedom to make reliance on past rulings is reserved to the judge. Based on the above facts, it is correct to state that all the rulings delivered as highlighted below pass the test of legal definitions.

In the case of farmers from a different state being barred from selling their wares in Oklahoma, it is against the constitution to exclude someone on a state-related reason. The inconsistence with the constitution renders the law enforced in Oklahoma null and void. In the second case, Oklahoma and Texas are inconsistent with the constitution since enforcement of the order that they are requesting does not serve the best interests of the public as protected by the constitution and the Statute assented to by the president. In the case of Julie Abrams, seeking to compel the Utah state to allow her to operate by circumventing around the laid out state laws is inconsistent with state laws. The election date case in Colorado is consistent with the constitution as it complies with the provisions of the constitution. In the case of Texas having a commemorative coin against the provision of the constitution regarding legal tender, it is inconsistent with the law therefore void to the extent of that inconsistence.

In view of the basic compliance with the constitutional provisions, all the rulings were correct. There were no major contestations on the application of contentious judicial interpretation such as in judicial precedents. Where the constitution is expressly clear on the position of a legal impasse, there are no discussions within the circumstances of the presenting legal challenge other than to implement the constitutional provisions. Apparently, I achieved the goal of a judicial officer under the oath to protect the constitution of the US. To this end, public opinion and ratings leading to proposals as a federal judge does not have an impact on the independence of my judgment. This would affect my duty to discharge my judgment as impartially as possible and without bias originating from conflict of interest.

I have learnt that the decision making process in certain independent positions may face obstacles such as conflict of interest. However, following the laid out procedures is always important in upholding professional values and protecting and national interests. In certain instances, independent judgment may call for extra strength of mind and character by rising above conflicting positions. Understanding the rules and guidelines for a specific job is important in the delivery of expected input, which calls for deliberation on all the available options and choosing for the most appropriate one. As an illustration, it would be embarrassing for a judge of a junior court to continuously make decisions that are contested in an appellate court and having all decisions reversed. This can be avoided by making accurate estimation that can be adopted by appellate court judges.

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Deception In The Investigative Process

Deception In The Investigative Process

Deception In The Investigative Process


TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058423” Ethics and Lying to Get the Truth PAGEREF _Toc377058423 h 1

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058424” Do Ends Justify the Means? PAGEREF _Toc377058424 h 2

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058425” Conflict between Code of Ethics and Law Enforcement Practices PAGEREF _Toc377058425 h 3

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058426” Physical Behavior and Non-Verbal Communication in Detecting Deception PAGEREF _Toc377058426 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058427” Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc377058427 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058428” References PAGEREF _Toc377058428 h 6

Ethics and Lying to Get the TruthDeception refers to an act of deliberately misleading a person in order to achieve a premeditated intention. In criminal justice procedures, deception is an investigative tool that is used prevalently by investigating officers. Deception is mainly used in the detecting process where alleged criminals are deliberately misled to give up information that is pertinent to the crime before the case is presented in court. There are other forms of psychological persuasion for information which include seduction, manipulation, and all other means of non-violent coercion through the use of what is generally referred to as “white lies.” An ethical question that arises from this sanctioned use deception is whether it is morally right to lie in the search for truth.

The question can be approached from two perspectives. One is from an ontological point of view which leans on a realistic justification for the use of deception on the basis of the good that will come out of it for the whole community. The second approach is from the more idealistic deontological perspective which is based on ideas by philosophers like Immanuel Kant who held that, “moral conduct means acting within a constraining framework of principles that are independent of consequential considerations” (Herman, 2006, p. 344). From this line of thinking it emerges that if lying is considered to be morally unacceptable, then it should not be used for any purpose regardless of what good it might bring.

From an ontological perspective, truth is an end that holds priority over the means used to achieve it. The close relationship between ontology and critical realism supports the premise that ultimate truth exists on such levels like scientific investigation but not morality. In this regard any pursuit of truth is justified regardless of its moral implication. Therefore if the objective is to arrive at an ultimate truth, then the use of lies is justified. A good example is the government’s duty to national security by eliminating existing and potential threats through investigative intelligence gathering. An ontological view maintains that covert intelligence, which is based deception techniques, is not only justified but necessary in ensuring national security (Pfaff, 2006, p. 4). This implies that in pursuit of legitimate information, nothing is off-limits, including matters to do with moral justification.

An opposing view is held by deontologists who are considered to be moral absolutists. From a deontologist perspective, the act of lying is wrong no matter how positive its consequences might be. According to Immanuel Kant, goodwill is the only absolutely good thing therefore the moral value of an action is judged by the will of whoever is doing it. If the action is performed under a negative maxim then it is wrong. Starting out by stating that “I shall lie to get the truth” is morally wrong regardless of whether the truth being sought is arrived at. Lying is accorded similar treatment with absolute maxims like “thou shalt not kill.” Kantian philosophy is based on “categorical imperatives” that are absolute since they value human dignity and treat people as ends in themselves. It is an idealism rooted on the universal Golden Rule that requires everyone to treat others as he or she would expect to be treated.

Do Ends Justify the Means?The argument on ethical implications of lying to get the truth can be taken a step further by asking whether the end really justify the means. The deontologists hold that any moral action must consider itself not only as a principle but as an end too. A good society should seek justice for all, therefore employing unjust means works against the end it seeks to serve. It is unethical to lie in pursuit of a good end like seeking for information. It would be like trying to construct a good house using wrong or inferior materials.

Deontologist emphasize on giving a closer examination of the perceived good end in before attempting to justify the means. Of great concern should be how the bad means affect the end. The use of lies to get truth does not produce a genuine response but one that is subject to the lie. Therefore a morally wrong means ultimately affects the end negatively. A case in point is in power politics games or in war where success determines the justification of the means used to achieve it. This is an ontological approach that pays very little or no concern at all to morality. Means used in this perspective are measured by their expediency which is a position that contrasts deontological ethics where expediency and moral justification are two different aspects.

It is quite obvious that anyone who violates his or her moral code in pursuit of a goal, no matter how good that goal is, takes a downward path of moral degradation. This is because after the first time, adopting unethical techniques like lying to find a truth becomes a habit in which the stakes are raised to a situation where any rule can be bent or broken. The problem lies in where this chain of logic stops. Invading a foreign country can not be justified on national security grounds or on the pretext that the invasion is the best thing for that country’s citizens, however true or false the claims may be.

Conflict between Code of Ethics and Law Enforcement PracticesAs professionals, law enforcement officers are expected to provide a service that benefits the society. In this regard, ethics and ethical standards pertaining to “doing the right thing at the right time in the right way and for the right reason” are important aspects in the practice (Hansen, 1973, p. 46). It is for this reason that the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) came up with a code of ethics in 1957, and later updated in October 1991, to govern the conduct of law enforcement officers. These officers are expected to follow the values and norms of the society and exemplify respect for the law and ethical behavior. Therefore law enforcement officers must lead the society in upholding social values and norms by living by the code. Law enforcement code of ethics works together with the police code of ethics by providing guidelines on how to act with impartiality, discretion, integrity and professional image at all times. Thus law enforcement agencies do not operate in a moral vacuum. However, at a practical level application of ethics in this field is not a black and white issue.

The conflict between ethics and law enforcement practices occurs when rules limit police conduct during investigation making the officers resort unethical practices. The irony is in the fact that when use of coercion is restricted, there is an increase in the use of deception. Deception occurs in the form Miranda admonitions, misrepresentation of the offence and its seriousness, false promises, and fabricated evidence. From an ontological perspective, deception is an effective tool because it can reach to the conscience of the suspect while he or she has a sense of right and wrong. It makes the work of the interrogator easier in uncovering the motive behind the crime. The conflict is further emphasized by the courts which, in as much as they do not openly support deception, they do not prohibit it either.

From a deontological perspective, deception is retrogressive because when it is used on an uncooperative suspect who is unwilling to divulge information, the investigator might be inclined to delve deeper and deeper into a tangle of lies until he or she crosses the line between legality and illegality. This is one of the reasons why defense attorneys often have to establish whether the investigator lied in the course of the investigation. The deontological imperative that lying is wrong pits investigation and interrogation practices in conflict with ethics for law enforcement officers. Maintaining ethical standards therefore acts as a limitation to efficiency in investigations.

Physical Behavior and Non-Verbal Communication in Detecting DeceptionDeception can be detected in non-verbal communication and physical behavior. The art of detecting non-verbal deception is often used by police and security officers in interrogating suspects. In detecting deception through body language on evaluates changes in physical expression which will be limited and stiff with very little hand motions when a person is lying. Avoiding eye contact has often been the easiest way to tell when a person is lying. Other body motions that indicate lying include touching face, throat, and mouth with the hands and scratching motions on the nose, behind the ear, and across the head. When the timing and duration of gestures and emotions is longer than normal, the person is lying.

ConclusionDeception and the use of lies have no place in law enforcement. It is undeniable that ethical concerns are integral in law enforcement practices especially in a liberal democracy. For interrogative and other investigative practices to be justified, they must subscribe to ethical standards that not only represent the goals of their profession but also adhere to the moral values of the community. The words of former CIA director Stansfield Turner put it more accurately when he states, “There is one overall test of the ethics of human intelligence activities. That is whether those approving them feel they could defend their actions before the public if the actions became public” (Quinlan, 2007, p. 2).

ReferencesHansen, D. (1973). Police ethics. Chicago, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Herman, Michael. (2006). Intelligence Power in Peace and War. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Pfaff, T. (2006). Bungee jumping off the moral highground: Ethics of espionage in the modernage. In Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence Professional. Jan Goldman (ed.).Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 3-56.

Quinlan, M. (2007). Just intelligence: prolegomena to an ethical theory. Intelligence andNational Security. 22(1), 2-11.

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New Product Pricing strategies

New Product Pricing strategies

New Product Pricing/Pricing strategies




Date of submission


The main reason as to why a marketer comes up with a product is so as to satisfy some particular need in the society. The producers thus intend to fill a particular gap in the market place by producing a particular good and at the same time make profits. Setting a price for this product is a very important task as price has to meet the balance between the utility of the product to a buyer and at the same time ensure that the seller gains a profit. This paper will explain the introduction of dietax meal free cholesterol takeaway boxes into the market, the market segmentation for the product, the target market as well as the pricing strategies. The product lifecycle will also be taken into consideration and the prices that will be charged at the different stages.

a) Product

Dietax is an already packaged takeaway meal that is new in the market and it is cholesterol free so as to cater for the needs of those consumers who want to live healthy by eating healthy. The main ingredients in this takeaway meal are raw foods that make it non perishable and thus making it to even be on the shelves and fridges of the supermarket as well as the retail shops. These raw foods including some varieties of vegetables and fresh vitamins and cereals

b) Market segmentation

Market segmentation requires that a producer should know their customers well as well as ensuring that the customers get exactly what they desire from the product (Art, 2004).Art (2004) emphasizes that the process also involves an establishment of strong relationships with the co marketing partners and in a nutshell he defines it as the process in which he a marketer partitions his market into customers who have similar needs thus their consumer behavior is similar or almost similar. In the case of dietax whole packaged meal market segmentation is developed so as to reach the various market segments. The method used for dietax whole meal market segmentation is benefit segmentation (Charles, W., Joseph, F and Carl, M., 2008).This sort of segmentation groups the customers according to the benefit which they derive from the consumption of a product. This group of people is the ones seeking for a nutritious diet without any artificial ingredients out of will or even doctor’s prescription. This particular clientele is derived form people who watch a healthy nutritional intake and at the same time they lack enough or appropriate time to prepare their own meals. This could arise due to their busy schedules that would render it inconvenient for them to do their meals and thus they buy.

c) The benefit market segmentation was arrived at as a method of market segmentation because the target market is composed of people who have similar needs to cut on their calories and to live healthy.

d) Target market

The niche market has been identified by use of psychographics which refers to a group of people who have similar lifestyles attitudes and values as far as diet intake is concerned. As earlier noted the dietax whole meal is free from cholesterol and is also rich in nutrients which are also balanced to ensure that the packaged meal meets all the diet requirements of those people who consume it.

The niche market therefore consists of the following classes of people;

The elderly people who are interested in the consumption of healthy meals and they may not make it to prepare their own meals. Research by the marketing team prior to the production of the dietax meal revealed that there is a large number of elderly people between the age of 60 to 80 years who would like to consume healthy meals but they also they are not in the constant behavior of preparing these meals in their homes.

The people who are suffering from maladies such as blood pressure problems or diabetes and are under the doctor’s prescription of consuming only healthy meals also forms a target market for the dietax whole meal.

Obese adolescent kids who are attempting to watch their weight and are thus on the lookout for the healthy meals and any other obese person attempting to cut down their weight.

Any other person who would like to eat healthy and thus maintain a healthy look and also live long.

e) This product has the benefit of being rich in nutrients and still low in cholesterol thus ensuring that the product is beneficial to the target market by helping them eat and live healthy.

f) The introductory price for dietax is $3.50 per package.

g) The pricing strategy that is used is skimming so as to recover the production costs incurred for the product and thus make it profitable. Skimming shall accomplish the objective of capturing a profit margin that is high and also in achieving an objective of recapturing the production costs.

h) The product is worth this price for the different costs that are have been incurred in the research prior to its production and also to recover the production cost as well as ensure that the producer makes a profit after the sales.

i) The prices charged at the different stages of production are

3.50$ at introduction stage which is relatively high so as to make high profit

3.00$ at the growth stage. The price is reduced so as to capture more customers in the market. At this stage the distribution is also more intense and the discounts are also reduced.

2.75$ is charged at the maturity stage in response to the rising competition from people producing similar products. At this stage incentives are offered so as to make sure competitive products will not drive product out of market,

2.75$ the prices are maintained at this stage as the niche market still identifies with the product and makes high purchases.


The dietax whole meal product as newly introduced in the market has to be promoted and brought to the doorposts of the clientele and this will be especially necessary especially in the initial stages of its production. The product is introduced using the skimming pricing strategy so as to recover the costs that are incurred especially during the research process. This price is reduced slightly after the introduction stage of the product so as to ensure that the price is favorable and also so that it competes effectively with the competing products. The product will also keep undergoing innovations so as to ensure that it meets the standards that are expected and thus maintain the loyalty of the customers.


Art, W. (2004) Handbook of market segmentation: strategic targeting for business and technology firms. Chicago. Probus Publishing Co.

Charles,W.,Joseph,F.&Carl.M.(2009) Marketing.USA. Cengage Learning

Malcom, M &Ian, D (2004) Market segmentation: how to do it, how to benefit from it. Oxford. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Walter,L., Michael,V &Craig,C (2010)The price advantage USA McKinsey and Company

William, M., Robert, J. &Jack, R. (2009) Business.USA. Cengage learning.

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New Required Suggest Reference

New Required Suggest Reference


the leader

·        Role of production in strategy ·         Total Quality Management (Journal of Business Ethics. Sep96, Vol. 15 Issue 9, p963-972. 10p)

Raiborn, Cecily

Payne, Dinah

Business Horizons. Jan/Feb95, Vol. 38 Issue 1, p67. 4p. Schonberger, Richard J.

The overall picture of TQM is technique design to improve performance. TQM mostly convince to encourage the high moral behavior. There has three main element for TQM. There is empowerment, involvement and abilities. All of this element lead the employee to push their self to achieve the goal by their objective. therefore, we will use TQM to conduct to quality of an organization by spread the main three factor into deeply function such as training, put the right man in the right job, give new skill, provide the organization plan, emphasize on the need of people to help each other in a cooperative team for effort the goal.

·         Just-In-Time and Lean Operation Implementing just-in-time philosophy to reverse logistics systems.Chan, Hing Kai, Yin, Shizhao, and Chan, Felix T. S. (2010)·         Product Screening ·        Operational competitive priorities Analysis and synthesis: Chapter 8: Operations strategy as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, Strategic Operations Management. 2002, p155-181, Lowson, Robert H (COMPETITIVE DIMENSIONS)

·         Capacity Planning A review on strategic capacity planning for the semiconductor manufacturing industry, International Journal of Production Research. Jul2009, Vol. 47 Issue 13, p3639-3655, Geng, Na

Jiang, ZhibinIt is significant that company need to make a decision on capacity in order to meet a demand. This journal detail about strategic capacity planning and decision making on investment in capacity. The leader can use this strategy in our production.

·        Demand Management Strategy Managing demand uncertainty through fuzzy inference in supply chain planning, International Journal of Production Research. Oct2012, Vol. 50 Issue 19, p5415-5429

Jung, HosangJeong, Suk-Jae

Demand Chain Management: Factors Enhancing Market Responsiveness Capabilities, Journal of Marketing Channels. Apr-Jun2012, Vol. 19 Issue 2, p101-119, Agrawal, Durgesh Kumar

This journal provide the information about demand chain management (DCM) by focusing on supply chain management and marketing in order to effectively meet differing customer needs.

·         Learning curves Using Learning Curves for Revenue Recognition, CPA Journal. Apr2013, Vol. 83 Issue 4, p60-64, McKee, Thomas E.

McKee, Linda J. B

Extracting Value from Learning Curves: Integrating Theory and Practice, Creativity & Innovation Management. Mar2013, Vol. 22 Issue 1, p10-25, Linton, Jonathan D.

Walsh, Steven T. This journal detail about learning curve can increase productivity and can use it as forecasting curve to forecast resource consumption.

·        Inventory Management Dynamic planned safety stocks in supply networks, International Journal of Production Research. Nov2010, Vol. 48 Issue 22, p6859-6880, Kanet, J. J.

Gorman, M. F.

Stosslein, M

Inventory Management, Logistics Management. Jan2014, Vol. 53 Issue 1, p42-45, SAENZ, NORM

DEREWECKI, DON This source provided key considerations and practical recommendations related to inventory management. To have a good inventory management can avoid to excess space that relating to cost control and lower labor cost.

Effective inventory management can help company to reduce the cost. This journal explain about good inventory control to avoid excessive space related costs, higher labor costs, and loss of business.

Research and Development Management Microeconomics (Demand and supply)



Ping & Co.

·        Role of production in strategy Operations Strategy

by Ted James (2011) Chapter 1 covers the role of operation, what operation management is and its strategies.  chapter 3, operations strategy in organisations as the implementation of an improvement approach such as lean operations. Chapters 4 to 8 cover various improvement approaches including JIT, lean system and TQM (Total Quality Management)

The book covers most of the task outline.

·         Total Quality Management Total quality management : NVR      Naidu ·         Just-In-Time and Lean Operation Lean materials planning and execution a guide to internal and external supply management excellence by Donald H. Sheldon this book apply lean to the planning process and how it affects materials planning in supply management. we choose it because you can know how to make decision effectively and using minimum resources in the simulation.

·         Product Screening Innovation management and new product development by Paul Trottin chapter 11, introduces the new products strategy and how to compete with other products by screening the most suitable product. And you will know how to make decision effectively when you need to think about your products in every round during the simulation.

·       Operational competitive priorities marketing strategy and competitive positioning by Graham J.Hooleythis book focuses on the identification of target markets and the creation of a differential advantage. it helps to build the competitive positioning.

·         Capacity Planning operations management :Kumar. S & Anil sureshThis book addresses key topics such as mrp and crp , material requirement planning and capacity required planning.

MRP abbreviation for material required planning precisely identifies the key objectives of how , where and how many units are required . this helps in planning production and storage . this also helps effectively reduce inventory costs and schedule the operation process  effectively.

CRP helps determine the personnel and the equipment requirements to deliver the required units.

both CRP and MRp are key drivers to operation planning.  

·        Demand Management Strategy Demand Management Best practices: Process , Principles and collaboration

Crum collen et al

On demand operating environment: creating business flexibility by IBM Redbooks this book is completely dedicated to demand management. this book gives the overview of the demand management the definition , the process and the best practices .

a chapter dedicated strategic planning to manage uncertainty , performance measurements and   managing demand.

this helps the team decide the decisions based on demand. Prioritising and managing the demand and working or making the  decision based on it.

this book introduces the on demand operating environment what enable integration between people, processes, and data start deploying. analysis this book can know how to manage the demand.

·         Learning curves ·        Inventory Management Operations Strategy

by Ted James (2011) Chapter 11 of the book covers the area of infrastructural decisions which should be made in the context of the operations strategy. These cover how structural elements should be managed such as Inventory management, capacity management and supply chain management.

Research and Development Management management development perspectives from research and development by Rosemary Hill this is a book which is helpful when you need to know how to do research about the business and make development plan

Microeconomics (Demand and supply) Microeconomics: Optimization,Experiments and behavior by Burkett this book explains what the microeconomics is and how it be applicated when do business.


sanz consultancy ·        Role of production in strategy # Foreign market  entry: production related strategies.  Tang M & Yu JMC. 1990. Journal of Management Science.

#SKU classification: a literature review and conceptual framework. 2009. Kampen, T. Akkerman R. Van Donk D P.

This article discusses production planning methods companies adopt in foreign markets such as joint ventures, greenfields, etc. The authors highlight areas of production planning, pricing, and strategies in any form of foreign investment. This article is key to the business simulation as it helps us do succinct product plans, and investments for the different regions our product is available at. It also helps us guide in decision making, how to minimise production costs, and how to prioritise the efficiency of production when making decision. It also helps in deciding to invest in plants in other regions as well.

Discusses how companies distribute and produce their products. It identifies how companies can use production strategies to maximise demand. It classifies product groups based on either demand value or

demand volume.

This journal will be helpful for heads in their respective divisions to make decisions solely based on demand. As a learning outcome for this simulation, this article would also be helpful in each round of decision making and through analysis.”

Within production and operations management, inventory management and forecasting are fields where a variety of SKU classifications is traditionally used to support decision-making’

·         Total Quality Management *The intervening effect of business innovation capability on

the relationship between Total Quality Management and

technological innovation.

Ortiz, J. P.,

, Benito, J. G. and Galende, J. (2009)

-Performance Management. Whittle, N. (2014)

# Taking an innovative approach to quality practices: exploring the importance of a company’s innovativeness on the success of TQM practices. 2013.  Frank W. Brian F, Edwin T.C, Roberto C. International Journal of Production Research *Total Quality Management (TQM) and innovation management are key subdivisions under operations management division and these areas are essentials to increase company’s competitive advantage. Moreover, from most scholars, TQM is considered to have a positively effect on business performance. There are two types of TQM, Total Quality Control (TQC) and Total Quality Learning (TQL), which are also known as hard focus on efficiency and soft concentration on learning respectively. Consequently, it suggests that companies adopting the hard TQM practices support better innovation performance.

-Total Quality Management programs aim to offer  products at the highest quality.  Two basic principles are that cost of prevention are lower than cost of reduction and  continuous improvement.

Improvements can be achieved via two approaches, i.e. target costing and kaizen costing. In target costing  you set a price  according to customer perception whereas kaizen costing is adapted when a product has already reached acceptance. In the second case efforts are done to reduce variable costs. Moreover by keeping the initial pricing the profits can be increased. Sanz needs to consider customer needs. according to that a price can be set and in the later stages cost reduction measures performed.

·         Just-In-Time and Lean Operation -To Study the Impact of Just-In-Time System. Yap, J.  and Shahryar, S. (2013). -In the Just-in-Time (JIT) approach goods are only produced when there is an customer demand. Inventories can  be lowered in this case.  Furthermore it can help to increase the firms performance. As one of the goals of JIT is to  reduce  the need for raw materials and work-in-process, there is a thrive to produce in the right quantity and quality. Financial performance can also be enhanced  through JIT. For that reason it is important to take JIT as an option in the  decision making of Sanz. Costs can be reduced by holding  less inventory and by shifting responsibilities to the suppliers. Lower costs can be adapted into pricing and would create higher revenues.  The net income and the return on assets will rise as a result of the mentioned aspects.

·         Product Screening *Technology-based service proposal screening and decision-making effectiveness. Van-Riel et al. (2011).

*Rapid technological development and unstable consumption trends are the two biggest factors that cause product lifecycle in the technology industry to become shorter. Having said that, without innovation, companies are not able to survive in a long-term.  Innovation for tech-based products and services involve high investments and failure rates. Therefore, Sanz have to make the innovation process more manageable and less risky by dividing the innovation process gradually into many stages.

·        Operational competitive priorities #Operational ·         Capacity Planning *Capacity planning and performance contracting for service facilities. Jiang, Y. and Seidmann, A. (2014).

-Essentials of Operations Management. Slack, N. et al. (2011).  Essex: Pearson Education Ltd

*It is very challenging for operation managers to make decisions on capacity investment and managerial incentives for the fact that it is time-based competition and the market demand is unpredictable. Investing in capacity is normally based on capital investments and involves considerable up-front fixed costs and its high utilisation can create high profit. If, Sanz over-estimates the demand, allowing capacity to be larger, the company will be over-investing as if it is the vice versa, the company will be under-investing, originating long lines and lost profit opportunities.

-The management of capacity is important to set an effective capacity which responds

to the given demand. In this connection the fluctuation of demand determine the decisions about the capacity. In the capacity planning  Sanz needs to pay attention to following objectives:

– quality of product

– speed of adjustment to customer demand

-dependability of supply

-flexibility through surplus capacity



-working capital.

·        Demand Management Strategy -Demand Planning Needs Customer Profitability. Lapide, L. (2014). – Demand-shaping, which is the most important part of demand planning, cannot be done without having supply chain and corporate profitability in mind. The demand-supply planning process can be done in Sales and Operations Planning meetings and  profitability traced back through Enterprise Resource Planning.  

The true customer profitability model gives a comprehensive idea of the  customer costs-to-serve. These include supply chain landed costs such as transport, product and ABC costs but also program and service costs as well as financial operation costs.  Apart from the costs-to serve true customer profitability is defined by customer net revenues.  This interrelation of various costs and the revenue will help to make decisions regarding the demand but also to reduce costs and maximise profits.

·         Learning curves *Extracting Value from Learning Curves: Integrating Theory and Practice. Linton, J. D. and Walsh, S. T. (2013)

-Experience, Learning, and Returns to Scale. Arce, D. G. (2014).

*By understanding the behaviours of the learning curve, managers can have a better use and at the same time acquire a product underlying value. For instance, it is essential to consider in which stages learning occurs as it will help avoiding hasty and wrong decisions such as if technologies should be abandon when they are very beneficial from learning and/or to abandon mature technologies with small chances for further improvement.

– The learning curve demonstrates the relationship between cumulative volume and decreasing average costs. Analysing the experiences, costs can be reduced and return to scale increased. For example if  Sanz would consider to reduce pricing to capture learning effects sales/production can be increased leading to reach or exceed the capacity. As can be seen Learning curve effects are interrelated to number of topics of production and needs contemplation.

·        Inventory Management *Production & Operation Management. Bisen, V. and Srivastava, S. (2009).

#The effect of inventory management on firm performance. Koumanakos. D.P. 2008. International journal of inventory management on company performance.

*Effects of operational and structural conditions on inventory management in large manufacturing enterprises. Başaran, B. (2013) *In the chapter 6 of this book, it can be found the three main reasons to keep inventory. 1- Time: as in supply chain, it is important to maintain a certain quantity of inventory in a “lead time” from suppliers and to consumers at every stage. chain, 2- Uncertainty: as “inventories are sustained as buffers to meet uncertainties in demand, supply and movements of goods.”

and 3- Economies of Scale: it is a costly process in terms of logistic as situation of “one unit at the time at a place where user needs it,  when he needs it”.  Therefore, Sanz may use the LIFO accounting methods also know as “first in, last out” which is suggested in the book to record the value of inventory. One of the particularities of this method is that allows the production division to record the sale of the most expensive inventory first as prices increase over time because of inflation. In addition, this approach can be used to balance current costs and current revenue.

*Normally, Large Manufacturing Enterprises(LMEs) are able to hold more input supplies (equipment and raw material) and output (components and finished products) compared to medium sized manufacturers. Having said that, inventory management needs to have effective applications as it allows costs to be reduced. For instance, Sanz needs to avoid holding extensive inventories as it will affect net cash flow, reduce revenue and profitability, and increase costs.

Research and Development Management -Knowing When to Leap: Transitioning between Exploitative and Explorative R&D. Mudambi, R and Swift, T. (2013).

*Top management attention to innovation: The role of search selection and intensity in new product introductions. Li et al. (2013).

-In general it is assumed that R&D is beneficial for the companies performance. R&D can be of explorative or exploitative nature. Explorative R&D  are associated with the high investments at the early stage of product development. In contrast exploitative R&D is based on existing knowledge. After weighing  a number of factors Sanz needs to choose the right strategy according to the existing situation.

*New products and services are essential for companies to achieve higher performance as well as survive in a very competitive market. Such new products in the market is the outcome of search and identification of new knowledge and information, which is responsibility of Top Manager Teams (TMTs). For instance, if Sanz performs a more effective search and obtain new knowledge and information, the production manager will be able to make better strategic decisions in terms of innovation.

Microeconomics (Demand and supply) *Demand, supply, and their interaction on markets, as seen from the perspective of evolutionary economic theory. Nelson, R. R. (2012).

-Principles of Economics. Mankiw, N. (2012). 6th edn. *Companies must conduct a marketing analysis in which explains prevailing prices and quantities purchased and sold within the targeted market. Evolutionary economics believe the existence of long dynamics of the supply side in relation to development of technologies as pace and pattern of technological advances impact tremendously in the economy and industries. Therefore, there is a great value from consumers in terms of the changing and expanding range of goods and services available to be bought.

– The supply and demand model shows the relationship between the two factors and how it determines the price. For example an increase of demand would rise the equilibrium price for the an unchanged supply. Whereas the increase of supply would decrease the price for an unchanged demand. These implications can help to decide about capacity based on potential demand changes based on the situation analysis conducted.


green ·        Role of production in startegy1).

Production & operation managementVikram Bisen 2009

Lucknow, India : Word-Press 2009.


Vickery, Shawnee K., Cornelia Droge, and Robert E. Markland. “Production competence and business strategy: do they affect business performance?.”Decision Sciences 24.2 (1993): 435-456.

This textbook data contain  how companies produce their products and how to manage the production to fulfill the demand of the market without cut product. It identifies how companies can use production strategies to maximise demand.Which can be use to decide the amount of product that going to produce in simulation production part.

2)This journal directly describe why production effect to the company strategy and how production relate to the demand of the product. Knowledge from this journal can use to analyze the amount of the product that company going to produce in the simulation.

·         Total Quality Management 1).

Total quality managementWorld Congress for Total Quality Management (1st : 1995) Gopal K Kanji

London : Chapman & Hall 1995


Porter, Leslie J., and Adrian J. Parker. “Total quality management—the critical success factors.” Total quality management 4.1 (1993): 13-22. The main purpose of TQM is to improve the performance of the production. The knowledge from this textbook about TQM can use in simulation when company want to analyze their production result and sell result with the competitors. Lots of method and theory about TQM contain in this textbook. Which is very useful to use for the analytical part of the simulation.

2) This source provide how important of the TQM to the product in the company. In the highly competitive market, TQM for the product is very important to make a difference to the market share in the market. This data can also use to help when analyze the result with the competitor.

·         Just-In-Time and Lean Operation 1)

Lean operations management gekwantificeerdVandaele, Nico 2008

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven


Just-in-Time Systems

By Roger Rios, Yasmín A. Ríos-Solís1) One of the main purpose of JIT is to produce the product to meet the exact demand of the market and  reduce  the need for raw materials. These is the factor that production department manager have to consider.

2) This source give more understandable about the JIT system which can help to support and describe in the simulation result for each round and the solution to solve the problem that happens.

·        product screening 1)

Product innovation leading change through integrated product developmentDavid L. Rainey 1946- MyiLibrary.

Cambridge : Cambridge University Press 2005.


Product Management

2nd Edition

Dr. Canandan

1),2)The data from this source show that in business world there are many factor to considering in the selection product to sell or launch in the market. This data can use in simulation to product screening and decison before selling in to the market to gain the most profit and market share.

·        Operational competitive priorities 1)

Solutions business problem solving


Burlington, Vt. : Gower Pub. 2012.

Chapter 9 page 182


Marketing principles and practice.

Dennis Adcock 2001

Harlow : Financial Times/Prentice Hall 2001.

Chapter 5 , Page 63

1)In simulation there are many competitors in the market. So it is very important for the head of production part to look at the result after each round and try to find the best solution to make the most effective way to win in the competition between their competitor. This source contain data about how to solve the situation that happen from the result.

2)When the result for each round come out. We can use this data to analyze what happen and preparing new competitive priorities for next round to make a better result and gain market share from the competitors.

·         Capacity Planning 1)

Capacity Planning and Its Implications on the Infrastructural Development Needs of Some Selected Higher Institutions in the Eastern Senatorial District of Kogi State

by : Sule, Ja’afaru Garba, Dr. Ogbadu, Elijah Ebenehi & Olukotun, Gabriel Ademola

2)Design of advanced manufacturing systems : models for capacity planning in advanced manufacturing systems

Andrea Matta 2005

Springer 2005.

The management of the capacity is very important to fulfill the demand from the market. Planning for capacity is another factor that company have to consider. The factor for capacity that company have to consider in simulation is how many product that company can produce etc. which this source can use to plan the good capacity for company production.

2)In production department one thing that manager have to consider is the capacity of the product and its relate to the demand. This article provide data about how to plan this product capacity for the production. This data can also use to support the decision for each area production.

·        Demand Management Strategy 1)

Demand management best practices process, principles, and collaborationColleen Crum 1953- 2003

Boca Raton, Fla. : J. Ross Publishing 2003.

2)Production control and demand management in capacitated flow process industriesFransoo, JC (Jan) 1993

Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Demand management is very important in the simulation. Because we have to use theory to support our demand forecast decision for each round of the simulation. This source give us many useful knowledge about how to decide to make the demand for each round to gain the most market share from the competitors.

2)Production and demand always the two critical factor for the successful company. The production that’s not suit the demand can cause the big loss to the company. This source explain how to manage this two important factor together to make profit in the simulation.  

·         Learning curves 1)

PV Learning Curves: Past and Future Drivers of Cost ReductionKersten, F. ; Doll, R. ; Kux, A. ; Huljic, D.M. ; Görig, M.A. ; Breyer, C. ; Müller, J.W. ; Wawer, P. 2011


learning curves theory, models, and applications

Mohamad Y. Jabar1)This source provide data about learning curve and the reasons why produce more can reduce the price. We can use this source to describe the theory of learning curve that effect to the price of the production in simulation.

2)Learning curves is one of the most complicated theory in this simulation. So this source will describe more about learning curves. This is very important theory to use in support the idea.

·        Inventory Management 1)

World class production and inventory managementDarryl V. LandvaterNew York ; Chichester : Wiley 1997


Essentials of inventory management

Max Muller c2011

New York : AMACOM c2011.

The data provided from this source is about how to manage the product to satisfy the demand of the market and what process that the firm should do about the cut product that left from sell. In simulation we have to select the area that produce the product and also where to start to sell the product. Which the data from this source can help to making decision about the order of place that product going to sell.

2)It is important to company to have a good inventory management because without a good inventory management can make loss from cut product that left in the market. This source provide lots of theory to support the idea in simulation about how to manage the inventory in production department.

Research and Development Management 1) Universal methods of research complex problems, develop innovative ideas, and design effective solutionsBella Martin Brudesign : M HaningtonBeverly, MA : Rockport Publishers 2012.

2) Business-driven Research and Development: Managing Knowledge to Create Wealth

Ganguly, Ashok In simulation we have to do research and development for the product.But there’s condition in R&D so we have to plan before do R&D. This source can help a lot about the decision and also the methods that going to use before making any R&D decision in the simulation.

2) This source provide data about how to make the most successful R&D for the company. It is important for company to do in house R&D to decrease the cost of production to gain more profit in the simulation. This source can help manager in production department decide when and when not to do the new R&D.

Microeconomics (Demand and supply) 1)

On-demand supply management world class strategies, practices, and technologyDouglas A. Smock 1948- c2007

Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. : J. Ross Pub. c2007. 2007.


EconomicsJohn Sloman 1947- 2006

Harlow : Financial Times Prentice Hall 2006.

The data from this source is useful when determine the market outlook in the simulation because we should calculate

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New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus

New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus

New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus

The main reason why Charles C. Mann wrote the book ‘New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus’, was to expose a chain of myths that surrounded the pre Columbian. The author writes that the history they were taught while in school about the pre Columbian America was wrong nearly in every aspect. The author writes that Indians were in Columbia much longer and were there in much greater number than earlier thought. The Indians were so successful at working on the landscape.

Mann tries to come up with three main points, synthesizing decades of academic work on the pre Columbian inhabitants, the effect of the aged world pathogens, animals and plants, migration of the Ice Age, the configuration and fall of complex societies in Mesoamerica, Northern and Southern parts of America and other related topics. The work of Mann is very wide in capacity ranging from space and time from the Ice Age of Beringia to the Amazonia’s 20th century and illustration on the minor literature in archaeology, anthropology and history.

Mann’s book was written to general audience and his conclusions were based on interviews, personal observations and also on academic literatures. Most of Mann’s findings are recognizable to educational historians. The most fascinating features of the Author’s book is how learning in the past twenty and over years had little effects on dispelling the pernicious and tenacious myths of what the Americans were like before the Europeans arrived.

The first asset of the book is its expert preference part, in direct and lucid writing style of the underpinnings of the outlook. The asset of this book also shows how the thoughtful Indians known as the Paleo hippies deprives the Europeans of the human agencies they are always thought of possessing. Mann clearly states that the great collapse of the population was due to disastrous decisions on the roles that were played by the leaders. The Indians begun to experience pathogens like drought immediately they sited accountability in the hands of the Europeans.

The other asset of the book to scholars who have the Atlantic belt is the balance it creates between the civilizations of Mesoamerican and the Northern and southern America. The Europeans reached in the landscape when their population had already gone down. The third asset is where Mann summarizes the tense and dense scholarly arguments that surround his various subjects and the implications these subjects have on the today’s political questions. For example, the author argues that the presence of the large Columbian population that was at the centre of the Amazon lead to the constant expansion of the area and has posed destructive effects to the region’s ecosystem. The Indians, Europeans and Americans were very wasteful.

The book is very important especially for undergraduate classes because it works as means of introducing scholars to the expansive implications and minutia and of educational debates. Mann makes interesting assertions on food and food production. The author claims that the first cities in America dating from 3000 years B.C were on the Peruvian coast and one of them was Norte Chico. Mann dismisses the connection between the complex, urbanization and Neolithic Revolution societies that are found in most of the world civilization books. Notre Chico was not interested in food crops because they fed on prolific fish that came from the Humboldt Current therefore cultivated only cotton.

The other food related point in the book is the cultivation of maize and the combinations of beans, squash and maize from both horticultural and nutritional perspective. This theme of this story is an assertion that the New and the Old world were equal in their accomplishment, population and civilization. In the author’s view, the unexplained and unexpected difficult progression whereby maize was hereditarily engineered from discouraging and ambiguous wild grass makes it an artistic accomplishment on same level with those of traditional and antique Eurasian civilizations.

The most striking and unfamiliar assertion in the book is the confirmation for numerous inhabitants centers that were found in Amazon. The author argues that the region had a large population because of the type of the soil found in there which is known as terra preta. The soil is enriched with charcoal therefore more durable and fertile as compared to the acidic soil found in the rain forest.

The author of the book has a marvelous eye for detail and imagery. The suggestion that the Europeans got into a world that was distorted by diseases attacking non local plants and animals is outdated. The evidence of an ecology that was thrown out of balance and the newest way to articulate the point are the images that were used by the Europeans to express the recompense of the American continent like, the boundless herds of bison and the enormous flocks of traveler pigeons.

Despite these virtues, there are boundaries in the attempt to cover so much in single volume. In his comparison of Eurasian and American civilizations, the author is very fast in seizing the dimension of cities and the probable populations so as to compare them. During his comparison, Mann is slow in stressing that London and Cahokia played very different roles.

The final section of the book is very disappointing. In the section, the author describes how the Europeans observation of and interaction with five or six nations stimulated the Americans morals of freedom and person autonomy. The author ropes his element by pointing out that the English settlers always ran off to reside with the Indians during the early time of settlement.

Mann incorrectly assumes that the white Indians were primarily drawn by entice of Iroquois traditions and those in Plymouth were likely to flee hunger. There were no Indians who ran away to unite with the Haudenosaunee: English who were in England were terrified by the Mohawks as they regarded them as the as fierce cannibals while those in Jamestown were far away. Some Indians were captured and Mann tries to explain why most of the captives were unwilling to return from the French families. Mann outlines another scholarly controversy which is known in other word as the Iroquois influence thesis.

The author outlines the scholarly controversy and for the first time, exclusive of naming it or acknowledging the fact that there are wiles on both the sides of the matter. In this section, the author abandons the important distinction between later reminiscences and the first hand accounts. The members of the Tea Party in Boston famed themselves as the Mohawks and not because they had affirmed themselves as rebels but because they wanted to depict themselves as Americans. The moment Indians stopped playing vital role in daily lives, source of food, esteemed allies and feared enemies, many writers came up who wanted to right about them concerning misinformed motivation.

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