Annotated Bibliography on Non-Physical Domestic Abuse

Annotated Bibliography on Non-Physical Domestic Abuse

Antai, Diddy, et al. “The Effect of Economic, Physical and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population Based Study  of Women in the Phillipines.” Hindiwi Publishing Corporation, vol. 2014, p. 11.

The authors explore intimate partner abuse and their effect on the mental health of an abused woman. They bring out economic abuse and control and its association with depression which is a mental health issue. It will help to prove that this form of abuse can negatively affect a person to the point of suicide and thus should carry the same penalty as physical violence. Diddy Antai is a researcher from the Center for Public Health Research and School of Sciences, City University London and the other three authors along with Diddy are from the Division of Global Health and Inequalities.

CCADV :: CT Domestic Violence Laws. . Accessed 19 Nov. 2021.

This website is managed by the Connecticut Coalition against Domestic Violence. It outlines the different charges that one can face if accused of domestic or family violence. It defines domestic violence in the state of Connecticut and shows that according to this statute verbal abuse does not constitute family violence. This will help to support the counterargument that non-physical violence does not count as domestic abuse. It supports the other sources in that it discusses other forms of non-violent abuse such as stalking and the consequences for that crime.

Copp, Jennifer E., et al. “STAY/LEAVE DECISION-MAKING IN NON-VIOLENT AND VIOLENT DATING RELATIONSHIPS.” Violence and Victims, vol. 30, no. 4, 2015, pp. 581–99. PubMed Central,

This author examines the factors associated with staying or leaving abusive intimate partner relationships. Married women and women with children in these relationships have a harder time leaving. Unmarried women and women without children may not be dependent on the abusers and are freer than others to leave. Copp says that “While it is true that physical and psychological forms of abuse are related, they are not perfectly correlated with one another. Failure to distinguish between types of abuse may result in misattribution of their adverse effects.” Some might use this to provide a counterargument and say there is no correlation at all. Copp is from the Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University and this article was published on the website for the National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Kaur, Ravneet, and Suneela Garg. “Addressing Domestic Violence against Women: An Unfinished Agenda.” Indian Journal of Community Medicine : Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine, vol. 33, no. 2, Apr. 2008, pp. 73–76. PubMed Central,

The source discusses domestic violence and what leads to it. It also discusses more about the impact of domestic violence and the reproductive health of a woman. It ties in with the other articles as they all work in harmony to show that they are detrimental to the health of the recipient. The source describes the effect on the children who witness the violence of the women and ties in nicely with Copp’s article regarding why women stay in abusive relationships. The author is from the Department of Community Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India and this qualifies him to write on the topic.

NCADV | National Coalition Against Domestic Violence. Accessed 18 Nov. 2021.

This author describes psychological abuse, its effects and why it is important to know these facts. The article goes on to provide statistics on domestic abuse, rape and other acts of violence. It ties in with the effect of economic and financial abuse, proving that non-violent partner abuse comes in many forms. A specific author is not listed for this website and articles but the information is on the website of the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence and their sources are the CDC, Bureau of Justice Statics and other reputable sources. This source supports the others by providing comparable information.

“Reproductive Health and Intimate Partner Violence.” Guttmacher Institute, 17 Feb. 2005,

This article documents the association between intimate partner violence and the reproductive health of an abused woman. It could lead to poor health for the woman and more importantly her unborn child. There are also indirect relationships to the outcome of the health of the child that can affect their development. This article further shows how intimate partner violence affects the mental, physical and reproductive health of an abused woman. This study ties in with the other sources to show that all domestic abuse has a negative effect. The author is Melissa Moore who is the daughter of an infamous serial killer. Moore is qualified to speak on the topic because she experienced domestic and dating abuse.

Violence against Women. Accessed 18 Nov. 2021.

This article is written by The World Health Organization which is a reputable source. It discusses the health consequences of partner abuse and discusses the scope of the problem. It goes over the possible preventative methods and what those in the health sector can do to help. It ties in with the other sources in that they all prove that intimate partner abuse is a serious problem that often goes unnoticed and should be addressed more carefully. It is global problem that poses an international problem.

Should a Community College Education (2-Year Degree) be Free?


The question of whether a community college education, which is usually a two-year degree program, should be free has been given much attention in recent years. Proponents support that providing tuition-free community college education can be instrumental in increasing access to higher education, reducing student debt, and enhancing economic growth. However, opposers point to the high costs and sustainability of such a program. This essay explores the arguments for both sides of this argument, ultimately asserting that a free community college education has the potential to promote equity in accessing education with the benefits enjoyed by individuals and society as a whole.


Most proposers of freecommunity college education support it because of its potential to increase accessibility to college education and reduce barriers to entry. This is important in the view that many students, especially those from low-income families have struggled to pay their tuition fees. Therefore, by making these studies free, accessibility to higher education can be broadened to those who might have failed to get higher education due to financial constraints. The benefit of this expanded access is the rise of a more educated and skilled workforce, which can benefit the community in many ways. In addition, it can allow students to get educated, develop marketable skills, and improve their job prospects without incurring debts in the form of student loans, which can hinder most students from pursuing further education Mountjoy (2022).

Another important reason for encouraging free community college education is that it has the potential to benefit the economy and social welfare of the people. Epstein (2021) notes that a well-educated workforce plays an important role in promoting the growth and competitiveness of the nation. By ensuring free access to community colleges, more people can get the knowledge and skills essential to securing higher-paying jobs, which can contribute to economic development. In addition, free community college education can be used as a way of addressing the issues of income inequality empowering individuals to get higher-paying jobs despite their socioeconomic background.


In conclusion, the debate over whether community college education should be free lies in its ability to expand accessibility, reduce barriers, and bring about economic and social benefits. Although, critics may point to concerns about the cost of such a program, both the individual and the community stand to benefit a great deal from such programs. For example, it can help in developing a better-educated workforce, foster economic growth, and promote social equity.


Epstein, R. A. (2021). College Isn’t Free–Nor Should It Be: Wiping out student debt would involve staggering costs and unfair taxation. Worse, loan forgiveness would violate the principle of making degrees pay for themselves. Hoover Digest, (2), 72-77.

Mountjoy, J. (2022). Community colleges and upward mobility. American Economic Review112(8), 2580-2630.

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Is Drug Use Testing of Students Who Participate in Extracurricular Activities Permitted Under the Fourth Amendment? 


The Fourth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States is meant to protect its citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures. However, the question of whether drug testing of students who participate in extracurricular activities is permitted under the Fourth Amendment is a subject that has elicited a lot of debates and legal challenges. This essay will look into this issue with the argument that while the Fourth Amendment offers protection against unreasonable searches, the legality of drug testing in schools should be dependent on specific circumstances and the extent of intrusion into the privacy of the students.


Important questions have been raised regarding drug testing of students who participate in extracurricular activities with a keen interest in finding the balance between school safety and student privacy. Proponents have argued that it is important to maintain a drug-free environment in schools as a way of promoting the safety and well-being of all students. Part of their argument is that these students voluntarily participate in extracurricular activities, hence they need to adhere to certain rules and expectations, including drug testing. However, opponents insist that such testing may be an infringement on the student’s Fourth Amendment rights since it is a search without probable cause or warrant. The Supreme Court, in the case of Board of Education v. Earls (2002), ruled that it is constitutionally permissible to do mandatory drug testing for students involved in competitive extracurricular activities, being a measure for ensuring the safety of the learning environment (Mawdsley,2003). The decision also emphasized that this process minimally intruded into student privacy and that it is voluntary to participate in extracurricular activities, providing students against testing with an option to refrain from participating.

Although the Fourth Amendment permits some drug testing in schools, it is important to consider safeguarding individual rights. The scope and nature of drug testing programs differ across school districts, and their implementation should focus on minimizing intrusion into students’ privacy. Moreover, Clegg (2002) urges that clear policies should be put in place to ensure the confidentiality and appropriate use of drug test results. Schools should also ensure students are well informed about their rights and testing procedures. It is critical to balance the interest of the school in maintaining safety and the protection of the constitutional rights of students. This requires accountability, transparency, and sensitivity to the dignity and rights of students while upholding the broader goal of creating a secure educational environment.


In conclusion, the issue of drug testing of students who participate in extracurricular activities in the context of the Fourth Amendment is complex. Although the Supreme Court has permitted such activities through its rulings, it is essential to ensure that the rights and privacy of students are safeguarded. Clear and transparent policies must be put in place to ensure a balance between safety and individual rights with a focus on minimizing the intrusion into students’ privacy.


Clegg, B. J. (2002). Suspicionless Drug Testing of All Public School Students Wishing to Participate in Extracurricular Activities: The United States Supreme Court Has Held the Process to Be Constitutional, but Will the Process Survive under Article I, Section 8 of the Pennsylvania Constitution? Duq. L. Rev.41, 205.

Mawdsley, R. D. (2003). Random Drug Testing for Extracurricular Activities: Has the Supreme Court Opened Pandora’s Box for Public Schools? BYU Educ. & LJ, 587.

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Should Abortion Be Restricted?


The topic of abortion continues to draw polarizing and contentious opinions from various sectors. The main issue under discussion is the fundamental question of the right to choose whether to terminate a pregnancy. The debate has led to diverse viewpoints, with some supporting unrestricted provision of abortion services as being a matter of personal autonomy and reproductive rights, while those opposing it argue that abortion should be restricted to protect the potential life of the fetus. This essay will examine the question of whether abortion should be restricted and is for the argument that while the concerns about the rights of the unborn are valid, providing comprehensive access to legal and safe abortion services is critical in safeguarding the autonomy, health, and well-being of women.


One of the main arguments against restricting abortion is the vital need to increase accessibility to abortion services. The reproductive health of women usually involves an interplay of complex and deeply personal decisions. As a result, restricting abortion could result in unregulated and dangerous procedures, risking the lives and well-being of women. Countries having restrictive abortion laws have seen many women resorting to unsafe procedures, causing serious medical complications and even death (Fathalla, 2020). Therefore, it is essential to provide safe and legal abortion services to protect the health of women and empower them to make informed decisions about their bodies.

Although it is important to acknowledge women’s reproductive rights, it is also critical to consider the moral and ethical concerns surrounding abortion. Those supporting the restriction of abortion posit that it involves the termination of potential life and that considerations should be made on the rights of the unborn. Addressing these concerns should be done to find a balance that respects the autonomy of the affected women while acknowledging the ethics around the issue. In several instances, women are faced with difficult decisions owing to various circumstances, such as personal considerations, health complications, and financial constraints (Cioffi et al., 2021). Balancing these issues involves carrying out comprehensive sex education, providing social support systems, and increasing access to contraception, to lower the need for abortion while being respectful of women’s rights in making choices about their bodies.


In conclusion, the question of whether abortion should be restricted is a complex issue. Although valid concerns exist about the rights of the unborn, it is important to prioritize the autonomy, health, and well-being of women. It is essential to offer comprehensive access to safe and legal abortion services to help protect women against dangerous procedures and empower them to make informed decisions regarding their reproductive health. Balancing these considerations requires a comprehensive approach that respects individual rights while addressing the ethical complexity of the issue.


Cioffi, A., Cioffi, F., & Rinaldi, R. (2021). Reflections about abortion limitation. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva26, 3787-3790.

Fathalla, M. F. (2020). Safe abortion: The public health rationale. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology63, 2-12.

Police brutality in the USA and how it started with slavery

The History of Police Brutality: From Slavery to the Present

Police brutality is a complex issue that has deep roots in the history of the United States, with its origins dating back to the era of slavery. This analysis will comprehensively explore how police brutality has evolved, tracing its roots in US history, examining its various manifestations over time, and highlighting the contemporary examples that indicate the urgent need for reform.

Historical Context of Slavery

Slavery was institutionalised in the US from the early 17th century to the mid-19th century marking a dark chapter in the history of the nation. During this time, African Americans were subjected to much suffering, degradation, and cruelty by their oppressors. suffered unimaginable cruelty and degradation at the hands of their oppressors. One notable development in this era was the emergence of slave patrols, which was created as the earliest form of organized policing in the South. The main role of these patrols was to maintain control over the enslaved individuals, making sure they remained obedient and subservient (Spruill, 2016).

The slave patrols were tasked with the enforcement of stringent slave codes, which was crucial in preventing any rebellions or uprisings that may emerge from the slaves. They ardently performed this role, suppressing any form of resistance even at the expense of injuring and killing the slaves thereby preserving the rigid racial hierarchy that defined the era. In addition, the slave patrols in their operations were too embedded in slavery, thus becoming instruments of dominion and terror. Their mere presence was a constant reminder that those who were enslaved lacked agency and had degraded status (Spruill, 2016). The slave patrols, therefore, through this pervasive control, led to the entrenchment of the deep system of oppression that prevailed during this time.

Post-Slavery Era and the Reconstruction Period

The abolition of slavery in American society led to the birth of an era known as Reconstruction. This era also came with loads of trials and tribulations, especially for the formerly enslaved individuals who faced various challenges in their attempts to get freedom and equality. The African Americans were met with much resistance from the Southern states even as they fought for their rights and integration into society. For example, these states started to manipulate the existing laws while also creating new ones so that they gain control over and suppress the Black population (Garza, 2016).

During this post-slavery period, great tumult was witnessed even as the policing and racial oppression became increasingly apparent. In their attempts to carve out a place for themselves, the former slaves were faced with systematic attempts to maintain the racial hierarchy that had prevailed previously. Within this context, the new policing structures that were created during this time created an environment where racial discrimination and oppression became legitimized. Williams (2015) notes that this unfortunate cycle of subjugation was especially perpetuated by the very institutions that had the mandate to protect and serve all citizens.

Reconstruction was a time when the former slaves experienced great struggle and hardship, but it also showed the fortitude and resilience of those who were determined to break free from the chains of slavery. Although great were the efforts meant to control the Black population, they failed to kill the fire of hope that burned within the hearts of those fighting for their rights. This period is a stark reminder of the long-lasting effects of slavery and the deeply ingrained systemic racism that persisted long after its abolition. It provides the need for continuously reflecting and progressing in the journey towards an equitable and just society for all (Aiello, 2023).

Jim Crow Era and Racial Segregation

The Jim Crow era was also one of the eras where racial segregation became deeply entrenched in American society. During this period, law enforcement agencies became one of the forces at the frontline in perpetuating slavery. As an illustration, the police forces, which had the duty of protecting the law, were implicated in enforcing and perpetuating the racial hierarchy and discriminatory statutes that divided communities. Instead of being protectors of equality and justice, they became instruments of oppression, becoming active participants in the subjugation of African Americans (Hawkins & Thomas, 2013).

Moreover, the tragical rise of the Ku Klux Klan during this time resulted in the deepening of the atmosphere of fear and violence that was targeted to the Black communities. Emerging from the tumultuous aftermath of the Civil War, the Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1865 by ex-Confederate soldiers with the main aim of restoring white supremacy in the Southern states. The Klan originally served as a paramilitary force, but later transformed into an instrument of terror, intimidating, causing violence, and lynching African Americans to suppress those seeking civil and political rights during the Reconstruction era (Williams, 2015).

Notably, the Klan operated with a degree of impunity, often collaborating with law enforcement and local authorities sympathetic to their cause. Through their actions, the African Americans lived in constant dread and apprehension. It is a painful thing that the same institutions mandated to maintain law and order and safeguard the rights of all citizens became vectors of discrimination and violence.

Urbanization, the War on Drugs, and Militarization

The demographics of the American population greatly changed in the mid-20th century with rural-urban migration seen from African Americans as they sought new opportunities. Although the agencies in charge of enforcing laws adapted, systemic racism persisted, causing a strained relationship between the police and Black communities. For example, the emergence of the War on Drugs in the 1980s provided a new avenue for the escalation of police brutality. Rather than focusing on solutions based on rehabilitating and supporting the individuals, the approach used was marked with heavy-handedness and punitive measures (Echols, 2022). In the process, Black communities became disproportionately targeted and greatly affected by these aggressive tactics. This era was marked by selective enforcement of drug laws, coupled with racial biases that ensured that African Americans received unjust targeting. As a result of these unfair targeting, many families and communities were forcefully divided creating a wide gap between law enforcement and the people they were meant to protect.

This situation was especially worsened by the militarization of the police that started to take effect during this period. Police departments started getting surplus military equipment, eliciting fear among the public particularly within the African American communities. The presence of armored vehicles and other intimidating weaponry within local law enforcement agencies led to the use of excessive force and violence (Garza, 2016). The cumulative effect of urbanization, the War on Drugs, and the militarization of the police has perpetuated a cycle of marginalization, mistrust, and further entrenchment of racial disparities.

Contemporary Examples of Police Brutality

In the 21st century, several instances of police brutality have been witnessed through a series of deeply disturbing and widely publicized incidents. These cases starkly remind the people of the persistent racial biases that continue to plague law enforcement agencies. Recent cases on the killings of George Floyd, Breonna Taylor, and countless others have ignited powerful movements demanding justice and systemic reform. These incidents have helped expose the racial injustices that are deeply rooted and continue to ravage society, causing widespread protests, outrage, and calls for change. The high levels of brutality witnessed in these cases raise troubling questions about the excessive force used by some police officers (Aiello, 2023).  In particular, communities of color, continue bearing the negative impacts of racial profiling and unjust treatment perpetrated by law enforcement agencies.

This pattern of targeting specific people based on their ethnicity or race widens the existing divisions and fosters the cycle of mistrust between marginalized communities and law enforcement agencies. Thus, there is an urgent need to ensure that law enforcement agencies become accountable for their actions. Brand (2020) posits that the culture of impunity is a consequence of the lack of strict measures taken against officers found guilty of applying excessive force and misconduct. Thorough and impartial investigations should be done to help identify the perpetrators and bring them to book. Moreover, there is a need for urgent comprehensive reforms, such as increased community engagement, improved training,  and the implementation of effective oversight mechanisms to ensure that all individuals are treated with dignity and respect by law enforcement.


In conclusion, the roots of police brutality in the United States can be traced back to the institution of slavery. The oppressive tactics employed during slavery, the perpetuation of racial discrimination through subsequent eras, and the contemporary manifestations of systemic racism collectively contribute to the deeply ingrained issue of police brutality. Acknowledging this historical context is paramount in comprehensively addressing the problem and fostering meaningful reform. A multifaceted approach, encompassing policy changes, community engagement, and accountability measures, is essential to ending police brutality and working towards a more just and equitable society.


Aiello, T. (Ed.). (2023). The Routledge History of Police Brutality in America. Taylor & Francis.

Brand, J. N. (2020). Police brutality as an extension of white supremacy: Social control of African Americans in contemporary America. The University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

Echols, C. M. (2022). Anti-Blackness is the American way: of assessing the relationship between chattel slavery, lynchings, & police violence during the civil rights movement. Race and justice, 21533687211073299.

Garza, A. (2016). Who do you serve, who do you protect?: Police violence and resistance in the United States. Haymarket Books.

Hawkins, H., & Thomas, R. (2013). White policing of black populations: A history of race and social control in America. Out of order, 65-86.

Spruill, L. H. (2016). Slave Patrols, “Packs of Negro Dogs” and Policing Black Communities. Phylon (1960-)53(1), 42-66.

Williams, K. (2015). Our enemies in blue: Police and power in America. Ak Press.

Depression in Dementia

Depression in Dimentia

Depression in Dementia

Depression is a usual disorder that bedevils many people in the world. Research indicates that women are twice likely hit by the problem than men during their lifetime. The problem can occur at any stage of a person’s life regardless of their ethnicity, income, race, and education. Depression is a significant public health issue that brings about suffering, diminishes functioning and health and may lead to economic burden to the society, personal, and third-party payers. When proper treatment is not sought, the disorder may have a disabling influence that results in poor self-care, personal suffering, impaired personal relationships, and lack of follow-up of medical treatments, substance-use, and physical illness, loss of income, self harm, and even suicide (Storandt, 2003).

The subject under study is an elderly woman suffering from dementia. The woman was a client at Compcare. The reason for her choice is because assessment and follow-up gets easier and cheaper. Pharmacological medication is the form of treatment used for the patient. After she got diagnosed with dementia, depression set into her life. The study took a period of one month. It started on May 23rd, 2013 and ended on June 23rd, 2013. Most studies on dementia focuses on clinical recognition, prevalence, assessment, and treatment. The above study focuses on dementia and the effectiveness of various intervention methods. The client was under the supervision of a therapist and the agreement made was for her to cut down on screaming, cursing, and wandering. Counting the number of times the client defaulted those agreements formed the basis for asssessment. The subject signed an Informed Consent Form (Appendix).

Dementia is a group of symptoms brought about by disorders and diseases that affect the brain, including (AD) Alzheimer’s disease, strokes, (PD) Parkinson’s disease, and much more. It involves continuous loss of memory and other cognitive senses such as emotional control and problem solving. Research shows that the earliest stage that one gets diagnosed with the problem is commonly called MCI (mild cognitive impairment). As the problem advances, the victim’s ability to conduct instrumental and daily activities gets impaired.

In the year 2005, nearly 24.3 million people in the world had dementia and 4.6 million new cases crop-up annually. This number, according to some scholars will double after every 20 years. WHO (world health organization) report (2003) shows AD and other dementias ranked as the fourth course of problems and burden in adults 60 years old. The other diseases that outranked dementia include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease. AD is the most prevalent type of dementia, followed by VaD (vascular dementia), FTD (frontotemporal dementia), PD associated dementia, and DLB (dementia with Lewy bodies (Thompson, 2006).

Psychological and behavioral signs of dementia (BPSD), also called neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, affect almost all with dementia during illness and often manifest during the first stages. Developed classifications on dementia indicate that BPSD falls into two groups. One is behavioral and the other is psychological. Behavioral gets identified through observation of the patient, and include wandering, screaming, restlessness, sexual disinhibition, cursing, physical aggression, hoarding, shadowing, and culturally unexpected behaviors. Caregivers and patients give psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depressive moods, delusions, and hallucinations.

BPSD have adverse effects in older adults. They cut their quality of life of a patient, increase functional and cognitive decline, and get linked with increased mortality. Moreover, these symptoms give stress to caregivers, and get associated with advanced rates of depression in caregivers. They also add to the risk of institutionalization. Managing dementia costs close to a third of the total cost of caring for dementia.

Behavioral symptoms of dementia are usually more distressing and plain to observers than psychological signs, and are generally more common in medium to severe dementia. However, psychological signs may bring more harm to the patient during the earlier instances of dementia, as victims develop insight about the effect of the diagnosis on their future life.

For the patient picked, the use antidepressants and antipsychotics was the main form of medication. The woman had more adverse effects of depression in dementia compared to other patients. Men generally suffer less than women from depression in dementia.

Intervention and rationale

The symptoms exuded by the woman called for an intervention. Screaming, undesirable behaviors, wandering, and restlessness characterized her behavior. These problems formed the basis for the study and treatment. The medication options sought targeted reduction of such behaviors. The treatment option that this document discusses gets based on the most proper approach for reducing depression in dementia. Pharmacological medication is the treatment option used. The form of intervention used was for the patient to reduce most of these behaviors. The exact behaviors under study are: screaming, cursing, and wandering. A reduction in the number of undesirable behaviors would result in a handsome shopping from me and a waiver for her medication. An increase would lead to no waiver and no shopping at all. No behavioral change meant moderate help. This is the most effective method as behavioral change is accompanied by a reward. Rewarding the patient stimulated her behavioral change.

The client was under the supervision of a therapist. The therapist administered treatment to her as he checked her progress. There are both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment approaches for the problem. The two intervention methods help in cutting down the depression associated with dementia among older adults. Many forms of medications get used, and have varying degrees of success. Non-pharmacological treatments like structured activity programs and behavioral change programs reduce depression, but with modest outcomes. Dosing with gingko biloba extract is a new technique of intervention that has registered success (Rabins, Lyketsos, & Steele, 2005).

Pharmacological treatment got preference to other forms of treatments as it has a higher degree of success compared to other forms of treatment. It works better than non-pharmacological options, which has moderate outcomes.

Pharmacological treatment for depression in dementia

Neurotransmitters or receptors targeted by pharmacological therapists include amino acid receptors, cholinergic receptors, and catecholamine receptors. Clinicians have difficulties in treating depression with dementia. Old patients with dementia bear greater comorbid illnesses than non-demented peers, with almost three-fifths of those with AD bearing 3 or greater. This increased level of comorbidity comes from use of many medications. Therefore, polypharmacy and drug interactions help provoke depression in some patients diagnosed with dementia. Because older adults with dementia have cognitive and physical frailties, they are also susceptible to other adverse effects. Caregivers and clinicians must see patients’ behaviors carefully for evidence of adverse effects when new treatments get introduced because dementia patients communicate rarely. Medication options for the elderly should always take a slow approach. They should start slowly and continues slowly (Sarbadhikari, 2005).


Antidepressants get prescribed on continuous basis for older adults with dementia. A recent analysis, in 2007, endorsed treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic depressants in patients with dementia. The research findings of the analysis indicated that remission and patient treatment response got superior to the placebo response in the joined effort from all the studies. Other reviews support treatment with various antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, trazodone, movlobemide, and sertraline, on depression in dementia. Citalopram and sertraline get commonly prescribed. Reviews show trazadone and mirtazapine as other options but there are fewer trials that support their use.


Different categories of antipsychotics treat depression with varying levels of success. However, older adults with dementia who take haloperidol are at a significant risk of extrapyramidal signs including tardive dyskinesia and parkinsonism. Because of the above reason, most clinicians focus on “atypical” antipsychotics like olanzapine and risperidone, which have vital, thought moderate, effects, and fewer adverse effects than typical antipsychotics at lower doses.

Care is very imperative as both olanzapine and risperidone have increased risks of stroke and associated mortality, and many safety warnings limit their use for treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. There are disagreements over the real risk involved and people suggest that increased cardiac arrest occur at high doses. Other scholars claim that patients of stroke have other risk factors besides the use of risperidone in dementia (Hay, Klein, & Hay, 2003).

Reduced cholinergic activities, mainly resulting from reduced acetylcholine concenctrations brought about by dementia-linked changes; result from decreased cognitive ability in dementia, and increases in BPSD. Cholinesterase inhibitors, including tacrine and donepezil, gets used in targeting increasing levels of acetycholine, with success, especially in patients with mild to medium dementia. A review on the effects of rivastigmine on BSPD shows that there are positive effects on patients with a range of dementia, and that anxiety and apathy form the list of behavioral domains showing the most consistent positive response.


The above approach forms one of the most significant methods of treating depression in dementia. After a period of six months whereby the patient was under scrutiny and medication, good results got registered. The patient improved greatly and emerged with less stress than her first state. Earlier symptoms such as restlessness and screaming ceased completely.

The use of pharmacological approach for treatment of depression with dementia is very proper and effective. Antidepressants and antipsychotics have varying levels of success on reduction of depression in dementia. The use of various forms of antipsychotics and antidepressants served the purpose. They greatly cut down on the level of depression for the elderly woman. Since the medication worked well, this paper recommends its use.

EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s

Day of the week Behaviour Total tally

screaming wandering cursing Monday 10 8 12 30

Tuesday 8 6 10 24

Wednesday 4 4 8 16

Thursday 6 3 9 18

Friday 5 3 7 15

Saturday 2 2 6 10

Sunday 2 3 4 9


Hay, D. P., Klein, D. T., & Hay, L. K. (2003). Agitation in Patients With Dementia: A Practical

Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Arlington: American Psychiatric Pub.

Rabins, P. V., Lyketsos, C. G., & Steele, C. (2005). Practical dementia care. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Sarbadhikari, S. N. (2005). Depression and dementia: Progress in brain research, clinical

applications, and future trends. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Storandt, (2003). Neuropsychological assessment of dementia and depression. American

Psychological Association.

Thompson, S. B. N. (2006). Dementia and memory: A handbook for students and professionals.

Aldershot, England: Ashgate.



I am aware that this research design is being conducted by D.C., who is a Graduate Student in the Rutgers University School of Social Work. This intervention is to fulfill the requirements of a mandatory assignment for Research II, Section 19:910:595, with Professor Raymond Sanchez-Mayers.

The purpose is to measure the effect that moderate exercise, antipsychotics and, antidepressantswill have on my Dismentia. I am the only subject participating in this intervention.

The intervention will take 30 days to complete. The data recorded will be on Compcare wher I am recently receiving medication.

I understand that the following requirements are necessary for this intervention:

Week 1 (Days 1-6) – ingestion of antidepressants

Week 2 (Days 7-12) – ingestion of antidepressants and antipsychotics

Week 3 (Days 13-18) – ingestion of antidepressants and antipsychotics and moderate exercise

Week 4( Days 19-28)- exercise only

Every effort will be made to stick to the set schedule for my assesment. The Intervention consists of 10 minutes of warm-up, 15 minutes of brisk walking/slow jog, and 10 minutes of cool down after undergoing pharmacological medication.

I realize that there are risks involved with any exercise program. I agree to stop the intervention if at any time I feel pain, shortness of breath, or any other symptom of discomfort that seems above and beyond normal exercise symptoms.

It is understood that the benefits of exercising have been shown to parallel a healthy lifestyle, which my focus and reason for volunteering for this research project. I hope to have this be the incentive for me to continue exercising on a frequent basis.

il(student) for my participation.

If I have any questions about this research that D.C. is not able to answer, or any complaints regarding this intervention, I may contact Professor Sanchez Mayers at:

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

School of Social Work

536 George Street

New Brunswick, NJ 08901

(732) 932-7520 Ext. 111

Email: write email

Signature on FileSignature on File


D.R.L. – Research Subject D.C., Student

Date: May 23, 2013

Depression in Patients after Cerebral Vascular Accident

Depression in Patients after Cerebral Vascular Accident

Depression in Patients after Cerebral Vascular Accident


Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is the abrupt disruption in brain function due to disturbance in the cerebral blood supply (Warlow, 2007). A third of these patients eventually develop depression. Depression is a mood disorder which significantly impairs the psychosocial functioning of a person, and further leads to somatic symptoms. Such depression is also known as post stroke depression (PSD) (Warlow, 2007). Therefore, it is imperative to identify aspects pertaining to this disorder that will help in according the best cure or prevention. In order to do these, this paper seeks to explore the topic of depression in post stroke patients by utilization of critically appraised articles and past literature.


Stroke is identified as the third leading cause of death and the most devastating and disabling disease. It has devastating emotional impact on the patient, family and society. According to Schwartz, Speed and Brunberg (2001), about 30% of the patients diagnosed with stroke develop depression within their lifetime. Following stroke, depression is often persistent and severe interfering with the rehabilitation process of the patient. The exact etiology of post stroke depression has not been identified. However, this type of depression is responsive to treatment.

Various research studies have been conducted seeking to identify the factors contributing to post-stroke depression. Advancements in technology have enhanced neuropsychiatric studies in understanding post-stroke depression. According to Astrom, Adolfsson & Asplund (2003), age and socio-economic status of the patient play no role in the development of post-stroke depression. Poor social function of the patient following stroke results from the depression rather than a cause of it. Astrom , Adolfsson & Asplund (2003) argue that the degree of disability following stroke is related to the development of depression. Previous social functioning, personality and mood disturbance play a crucial role in the development of post-stroke depression. Alcoholism and drug abuse before the stroke also contribute to the development of post-stroke depression.

Literature suggests a relation between the location and size of lesion after stroke and depression. Large, anterior lesions located in the left cerebral hemisphere have been shown to be associated with post-stroke depression. A study conducted by Herman (2001) revealed that post-stroke depression may be attributed to biochemical derangement. In the study, depressive stroke patients exhibited abnormalities in the neurotransmitter concentration, alteration of the sensitivity of the cortical receptor and derangement of the electrophysiological parameters. In addition, these patients have decreased cerebral blood flow.

Robinson (2003) highlighted that higher incidence of post-stroke depression are seen in patients with left hemisphere lesions. According to the author, the severity of depression is related to the distance between the anterior pole of the left hemisphere and the location of the distance. Literature also suggests that lesions located on the basal ganglia and left frontal lobe are linked with severe post-stroke depressive disease. In addition, lesions located in the left hemisphere basal ganglia play a vital role in the development of major depressive disease following acute stage of stroke.

According to the biological theory, children who are genetically predisposed to depression and suffer loss at an early age experience alteration of the biochemical state resulting in depression. According to this theory, family genetics and environment at an early age play a crucial role in developing depression during one’s lifetime. In the cognitive behavioral theory, depression results from low self esteem. Literature on the transactional theory reveals that depression results from interaction between the society and environment (Wade, Legh-Smith and Hewer, 1997). Certain disruptive changes, for example, family disruption and drug abuse, in the society and environment predispose an individual to depression. Stressful events, for example, separation at an early age, have been implicated as antecedents or precipitants of depression.

Post-stroke depression is associated with poor clinical outcome. This is because depression interferes with the recovery and rehabilitation process of the patient following stroke. The patient is not able to improve or maintain improvement following intensive rehabilitation if they are depressed. Clinically important results of post-stroke depression were found to be poor long term functional recovery, reduced social functioning, social contacts and quality of life (Lishman, 2008). This significantly interferes with the prognosis of the patient following stroke. Therefore, it is crucial to manage depression before engaging the patient in intensive rehabilitation.

Literature Review

3.1 Search Methodology

Inclusion Criteria

The articles included in this study are journal publications between 1st January 2002 and 2012. This particular data was chosen as it would reflect the current state of technology and not rely on outdated research (Vishweshwars, 2000). There were several databases used including Medline, CINAHL (EBSCO Host), BMJ, E-Journal, MEDLINE and PsyArticle and the Cochrane Library.

The studies included research on both males and females, and the type of papers that were included were clinical trials, meta-analysis and randomized control trials. Data was included from adult patients who developed stroke after the age of 18 years onwards. In the beginning of the review, 12 studies were obtained but, after reading through the abstract only 5 articles were found to be related to the topic. 7 articles hand searched were also included as they were relevant to the topic area. Altogether 12 articles were in included and appraised . Majority of the articles included in the study focused on the management of patients with depression following CVA.

The qualitative studies reviewed in this research included Vickerey (2008), Hackett (2010), Schonberger (2006), Williamson (2011), Tang (2011) and Yi (2010). Vickerey (2008) focused on the relationship between self-esteem and recovery in stroke patients while Hackett (2010) discussed the development of negative cognition in stroke patients. Schonberger (2006) described the relationship between stroke brain injury and various parameters of patient compliance during stroke rehabilitation. On the other hand, Williamson (2011) elaborated on validating various tests in patients with acute stroke to identify neglect. Tang (2011) demonstrated the link between cerebral micro bleeds and development of post-stroke depression. Yi (2010) described the assessment of the anti-depressant flouxetine in the management of PSD.

The quantitative studies included Kim (2012), Fatoye (2009), Buijck (2012), Tsai (2011), Schmid (2012) and Mikami (2011). These studies were conducted to demonstrate the quantitative parameters of evidence including higher incidence of depression in stroke at a community level (Kim, 2012), greater incidence of PSD in poor nations (Fatoye, 2009), the presence of a greater number of neuropsychiatric symptoms in elderly patients following stroke (Buijck, 2012), importance of social role functioning in the rehabilitation of PSD (Schmid 2012), and the prevalence of PSD following treatment with antidepressants (Mikami , 2011).

Exclusion Criteria

These included books, non-medical journals, journal reviews, letters, comments and clinical practice guidelines. In addition, articles that focused on depression in children following CVA were excluded from the study. Further, articles that did not provide clear scientific methodological approaches were excluded from the study.

3.2Qualitative Studies ——you don’t have to put this as a sub heading . you need to just mention that the study is a qualitative as you appraise the paper .

All studies used appropriate tools to collect and analyse the data as per the study designs. Vickery (2008) elaborated on the relationship between self-esteem and functional recovery in patients with acute stroke by conducting a bivariate correlational analysis and multivariate regression analysis on the functional status and self-esteem of patients with depressive symptoms. The research methodology utilized in the study was appropriate.what is the rationale of using appropariate method with textbook reference . The survey was conducted in an acute in-patient rehabilitation hospital which was appropriate for the study. The researchers recruited 176 participants for the research. This sample size is sufficient to give reliable results that can be used to demonstrate on the general population what is the rationale of using appropariate sample size with textbook reference .. However, information generated from this sample population can only be applied in patients who have suffered an acute CVA attack. The analysis method used in the survey was adequate and appropriate to produce reliable results. The authors concluded that self-esteem ratings may have a moderating role in the relationship between emotional outcome and function. The information generated from this survey can be used for future studies. However, the authors did not consider the potential biasness resulting from the relationship between the participants and surveyor.

Hackett (2010) conducted a prospective, hospital based cohort study that sought to find out whether significant negative cognition measures were missed in conventional approaches used for screening patients with acute stroke for depression. The methodology and analysis technique utilized by the researchers was appropriate for the study what is the rationale of using appropariate method with textbook reference . However, the sample size recruited for the study was not adequate to generate results that can be reproduced on the general population. In addition, the follow-up period for the study generated inconsistencies as a majority of the patients recruited in the initial study did not return to the hospital for follow-up results.

Schonberger (2006) used tools such as WAI, EBIQ, awareness and compliance levels to collect data, and prospective tools to analyse the data. The methodology used was appropriate for the study. However, the sample size was not adequate to generate results that reflect the general population. In addition, the analysis techniques used was adequate to address the hypothesis of the study. The information generated in this study is reliable and can be applied in future studies.

Williamson (2011) reported on the validation and functional correlation of patients in chronic and acute stroke using Apple’s Test. The study was conducted in three stages seeking the functional and validation correlation of patients diagnosed with acute and chronic stroke. The methodology was extensive generating complex data that address the purpose of the study. The analysis procedure was adequate and information generated from the study is reliable. However, the sample size used in the study is not adequate to generate results that can be practical for the general population. In addition, the methodology used in this study generated complex and cumbersome results, which served as a source of limitation when analyzing the results.

Tang (2011) examines the relationship between cerebral microbleeds and post-stroke depression. The methodology and analysis used in the study was appropriate. The research setting and population size was adequate to generate reliable results. The use of an MRI to confirm the diagnosis of cerebral microbleeds and structural brain changes resulting in post-stroke depression is appropriate for this study as the findings are scientific based. However, the relationship between the researcher and patients during the follow-up period introduced potential bias in the study results.

Yi (2010) collected data using relevant information from the literature reviews on fluoxetine. Statistical tools like odds ratio and weighed mean difference were used to analyse the data. The literature review adequately addressed the research questions for the study. In addition, the methodology and analysis method employed by the researchers was appropriate for the study. The sample population was adequate to generate reliable information that can be applied in the general population.

3.3 Quantitative Studies

Kim (2012) used the data collection tools CESD (Centre for Epidemiology Studies – Depression including the components Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)), and Mini-mental state Examination (Korean Version). For the analysis, he used SPSS 17.0 and AMOS 7.0, for CFA, EFA, and internal consistency of Cronbach’s alpha. Kim (2012) had a sample size of 203 patients undergoing stroke rehabilitation in primary care settings, in Korea. This was nearly similar to the 118 patients who were undergoing rehabilitation in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital demonstrated in Fatoye (2009). The results of Kim (2012) study suggested that CESD scale is an imperative tool when it comes to screening for depressive symptoms. Comprehending the psychometric properties of the CESD scale would help health professionals in the assessment of community-residing stroke patients.

Fatoye (2009) used Beck’s Depression Inventory and the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) to collect data, and statistical methods used to analyse the data. The method employed to conduct the study was a clinical trial of comparing cases with controls, and was relevant as it involved comparing cases with controls in a third-world nation (Nigeria). The results were that there were three variables that had a significant correlation with depressive symptoms. This included low education, paresis and cognitive impairment. Post stroke depression patients with any of these variables had higher symptoms.

Buijck (2012) undertook a study to determine that course and prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in post-stroke elderly patients admitted to rehabilitation facilities. It was a longitudinal multicenter study (involved 15 facilities). The author studied the neuropsychiatric symptoms in elderly patients that were admitted to skilled nursing facilities (across the Netherlands). The author used a sample size of 145. Data was collected using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) at admission, and compared with discharge. Data was analyzed using statistical methods. The findings of the survey revealed that the overall prevalence of Neuropsychiatric symptoms was lower than that reported by other studies. The findings of this study suggest that neuropsychiatric symptoms should be optimally managed so as to improve the rehabilitation outcome.

Mikami (2011) was a clinical drug trial involving comparison of a case with a control in an RCT setting. Treatment with antidepressant (escitalopram, an SSRI), psychotherapy (Problem-solving therapy/PST) and a placebo were studied. Data was collected using DSM-IV-TR and HRDS, and analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test (for continuous variables), along with Fisher’s extract test (for categorical variables). In the findings, Hamilton Depression scores and new onset major depression scores were increased 6 months after drug discontinuation, compared to the PST or placebo group. Therefore, antidepressants have an imperative role in decreasing post-stroke depressive symptoms.

Tsai (2011) was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, and like Mikami it was also relevant as it included studying a drug (milnacipran in patients with acute ischemic stroke) with placebo. Data was collected based on the DSM-IV-TR tool at frequent intervals (0, 1, 3, 6,9,12 months) (for identifying the signs of depression) and analysis done using appropriate statistical methods. DSM-IV-TR in both the drug trials was used as a tool to determine the presence of depression in post-stroke patients. Mikami and Tsai were both drug trials that compared an antidepressant to a placebo and other forms of treatment. The sample size of both the studies was similar (108 and 92 respectively). Tsai found out that Milnacipran had a significant role in preventing the development of Post-stroke depression. Therefore, the drug might prevent the development of depression within one year after stroke.

Schmid (2012) undertook a quantitative study to determine the role of social role functioning in the development of depression in post-stroke patients. This study was a cohort study, and data was collected using interventions such as phone calls for Patient Health Questionnaire Version 9 (PHQ9), which was ideal to complete information on the questionnaire. The social section of Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale tool was used to determine social role functioning. Schmid (2012) study had the highest sample size number with 372. Comorbidities and depression were found to have an independent association with a twelve week social role functioning. Therefore, improvement in social-role-functioning leads to depression improvement. It is important for rehabilitation providers to screen for and manage post-stroke depression.

All studies involved obtaining an appropriate sample, as the studies were conducted on patients with stroke and were undergoing or were supposed to be undergoing stroke rehabilitation. The duration of the studies were also appropriate as it would take PSD the same duration of time to develop as noted in the quantitative studies mentioned.

4.0 Themes in the Literature Review Articles

Several major themes were recurrent in these articles. These include: risk factors for depression and stress after stroke; symptoms and diagnosis of depression in cerebral vascular accidents (CVA); self-esteem and depression in CVA; therapeutic working alliance and antidepressant use in these patients; functional outcome and recovery; and lesion location after stroke in determining depression.

4.1 Risk factors for Post Stroke Depression

Previous history of depression is also noted as a strong precursor for the development of stroke by Miller and McCrone (2005). However, Burvill et al. (2005) study disputes some of these factors as being risk factors for depression development in these patients. These factors include sex, age and severity of stroke.

According to the findings of a study by Fatoye et al. (2009), the rates of post stroke depression are similar in African and western society. From this finding, it is possible to draw a conclusion that race or ethnicity may lack a significant role in influencing the development of depression following a stroke. However, it is imperative to note that cerebral vascular accidents are more common in African Americans than in Caucasians. Therefore, the overall ratio of patients with depression after a stroke may be higher in this group.

4.2 Self esteem and depression following acute stroke

According to Vickery et al (2008), self esteem is associated with individual functioning status following acute stroke. Following stroke, patients tend to have low self esteem because of their inability to perform various tasks. Anson and Ponsford (2006) suggest that self esteem acts as a mediator of improved psychosocial functioning and quality of life by allowing individual to adjust to stressful conditions. On the other hand, Schroevers et al. (2003), argues that self esteem is a personal attribute that buffers individuals against negative effects resulting from stressful events in life.

Vickery et al. (2008) also demonstrated a direct relationship between self esteem, depression and treatment outcome. According to the authors, self esteem acts as a modulator that moderates the effects of depression in patients undergoing intensive rehabilitation following stroke. The exploratory analysis conducted by the authors suggests that self esteem ratings facilitate the relationship between individual report on depression and functional outcome following discharge. On the other hand, Fatoye et al. (2009) relates depressive symptoms to lower education levels, age, motor and cognitive disabilities of the patient following acute stroke.

Vickery et al (2008) clearly elaborated on the effect of low self esteem on the functional recovery of the patient. Fatoye (2009) argues that decreased functioning of the stroke survivors is negatively influenced by the cognitive and motor deficits of the patient following rehabilitation. Both articles agree that depression in the post-stroke patient negatively influences the overall functioning status of the patient.

4.3 Symptoms and Diagnosis of Post-Stroke Depression by the Therapist

There are various studies, which show that primary care givers in the health sector under-diagnose depression, in up to 50% of patients (Kim et al., 2012). This is supported by a randomized controlled trial carried out by Williamson et al. (2011). According to Kim (2011), problems in the diagnosis of depression in the primary care setup arise because not many patients present with clearly identifiable symptoms and signs of depression. This means that some of these patients fail to reach the diagnostic criteria threshold for major depressive disorder. Problems may also arise because the patients fail to accept the diagnosis or when the patient has much mental comorbidity that competes for the attention of the clinician (Klinksman, 2005).

Tools such as Centre for Epidemiology Studies – Depression (CESD) are imperative in the assessment of Post-Stroke Depression (Kim et al., 2011). This will enable early initiation of appropriate management (Schmid et al., 2012). Depression symptoms according to Miller and McCrone (2005), with decreasing order of frequency, include: depressed mood; fatigue or loss of energy; insomnia or hypersomnia; alteration in appetite; diminished interest in activities; suicidal ideations; and decreased concentration. This is relevant to the scope of this paper in that it helps the primary care giver, including the nurse, in identifying patients with depression. Other symptoms that have been noted include feeling guilty, worthless or hopeless.

4.4 Lesion location and depression after stroke

According to Schonberger et al (2006) study, patients with right hemispheric lesions were more predisposed to developing depressive symptoms after six months. There was no notable discrepancy in the severity of depression in relation to anterior and posterior lesions. However, right hemispheric lesions were associated with major depressive syndromes. Unlike depth of the lesion, the size of the lesion directly correlated with the severity of depression. Patients with right anterior lesions reported a higher incidence of emotionalism than patients with lesions at other regions. Vickery et al (2008) and Fatoye et al (2009), relates low self esteem to emotionalism that is characteristic in patients with depression following acute stroke. Tang (2011) related geriatric cerebral microbleed resulting in stroke to depression. The MRI changes following cerebral microbleeds resulted in focal lesions that affected the functional outcome and neurological functioning of the patient.

4.5 Therapeutic Working Alliances

In providing treatment for those with depression after cerebral vascular accidents, it is imperative for the health providers to work in synchrony in affording the patient with the best care possible. In their retrospective case control study, Miller and McCrone (2005) note that mental health clinicians agree with primary care givers in the diagnosis of depression in 66-76% of the time. This shows that primary care givers have the skills needed in identifying depressed patients. Hackett (2010) noted that significant negative cognitions may be missed when post-stroke patients are screened for depression. It is thus imperative to include a sensitive exploration technique on the psychological effects of stroke in the patients so as to determine whether they are at risk of developing depression. Williamson (2011) recommended the application of Apple’s Test in predicting the functional outcome of the patient. The functional outcome of the patient plays a significant role in determining the development of depression following CVA.

Shmid et al., (2012) noted that of the best care that a patient with depression can be afforded with. Patients who were treated for depression in primary care setting with the collaboration of the psychiatric unit experienced better outcomes. In order to increase the therapeutic efficacy in treatment of depression, it is imperative for physicians to be alert to the most essential aspects of post stroke depression. Therapeutic collaboration is imperative in proper management of these patients (Schmid et al., 2012). In a randomized control study by Fatoye et al. (2009), physicians who were aware of depressive symptoms and associated factors of post stroke depression had better outcomes in affording a cure for their patients. Treatment of this condition leads to quality of life improvement among this group of patients.

4.6 Antidepressant treatment of patients with CVA

Post-stroke depression significantly affects the cognitive functions and motivation of the patient to engage in the treatment process. Vickery et al (2008) acknowledged that depression in stroke patients interferes with the patient’s ability to improve and maintain improvement following intensive rehabilitation. Tsai (2011) attributes poor functioning recovery to inability to cope with rehabilitation challenges in post-stroke depressed patients.

Miller (2005) argues that antidepressants are effective in countering the depressive symptoms associated with negative effects on the rehabilitation process. According to Mikami (2011) early detection and treatment of depression significantly contributes to the patient’s ability of full recovery. Drugs such as escitopram are imperative in decreasing the symptoms of post-stroke depression (Mikami, 2011). Yi (2010) highlighted that flouxetine is effective in preventing post-stroke depression in patients who are at risk. However, Fatoye (2009) urged that improvement of the cognitive and motor functioning of the patient influenced the functioning recovery of the patient. According to Fatoye (2009), antidepressant drugs were not necessary in the rehabilitation process of post-stroke depressive patients.

5. Discussion

The incidence of depression following stroke is clearly higher especially between 6 months and 24 months following the stroke episode. The exact cause for the development of depression following stroke may be difficult to determine, though in general, it may be multi-factorial in origin. Some of the factors that are responsible for the condition include biological factors, familial factors, social factors among others. Biologically, depression may be associated with biochemical changes in the brain. During stroke, certain focal areas of the brain are involved, and this may also be responsible for the development of depression. Tang (2011) demonstrated that the cerebral micro vascular bleeds noted through MRI scans, was closely associated with the development of depression. MRI Scans are also useful in a variety of neurological disorders to identify the presence of lesions in the CNS (Hamdy, 2011). In the developing world, some of the associated factors of depression in post-stroke patients include cognitive problems, low education levels and paresis (Fatoye, 2009).

Anderson et al. (2004) reported from 12 trials involving 1200 subjects that antidepressants did not have a prophylactic effect compared to a placebo. However, PST was found to have a positive impact and needs to be pursued by long-term and large studies. The finding of the inefficiency of antidepressants also needs to be substantiated from long-term and larger studies. Tsai et al (2011) noted that antidepressant therapy administered prophylactically at an earlier date (one month compared to the third month), had a better functional outcome in post-stroke patients. This drug employed as a prophylaxis in this study was milnacipram. The effect of the antidepressant drug lasted for about 2 years. Supported by Reid et al (2011), Narushima et al (2003) also notes that the effect of antidepressants such as SSRIs and others is much more superior to a placebo.

Miller et al (2005) noted that in primary care settings, the referrals for patients with depression with mental health specialty clinics were high when a diagnosis of CVA or CVD was being made. The referrals and the problems were especially high when a large number of medications were taken.

Vataja (2004) noted that a brain lesion in the pallidum strongly predicted for depression following stroke. Earlier, several studies were disproved as they could not precisely suggest the location of the brain infarct that could result in depression (Rickards, 2005). When the brain rehabilitation programme enabled greater rapport between the client and the therapist, the outcomes were better (Schonberger, 2006). Neglect in post-stroke patients increased risk of depression (Williamson, 2011).

6. Conclusion

Incidences of cerebral vascular accidents are on the rise. This is attributed to lifestyle changes and increased longevity. A significant proportion of the stroke patients will develop depression. Depression in stroke patients is associated with poor outcomes. It is futile if we as the health care providers fail to address the CVA and its risk factors. With good dietary habits and exercise, most of the CVAs can be prevented. Though screening for depression in post stroke patient has been shown to be effective, minimal research has been done in assessing the best screening tools (Miller and McCrone, 2005). This is a potential area for further research. It will enable disease prevention, rather than cure, which will decrease the disease burden. Henceforth, a research question that comes up is “what are the best practices in screening for depression in stroke patients?”

References List

Anderson CS & House AO (2004) Interventions for Preventing Depression afterStroke: The Cochrane Library Issue 3

Buijck B Zuidema SU Geurts AC Spurit-van EM Koopmans RT (2012) Neuropsychiatric symptoms in geriatric patients admitted to skilled nursing facilities in nursing homes for rehabilitation after stroke: a longitudinal multicenter study. Int J Geriatric Psych 27(7) p734-74 online at: HYPERLINK “″ [ Accessed on : 01 December 2012]

Burvill P W Johnson G A Jamrozik KD Anderson CS Stewart-Wynne EG Chakera T (2005) Prevalence of depression after stroke: The Perth Community Stroke Study. British Journal of Psychiatry 166 pp. 320 – 327

Calpadi VF & Wynn G (2010) Post stroke depression: treatments and complications in a young adult Psychiatr Q 81(1) p73-79 oneline at: HYPERLINK “″ [ Accessed on : 10 December 2012 ]

Chau JP Thompson DR Chang AM Woo J Twinn S Cheung SK Kwok T (2010) Depression among Chinese stroke survivors six months after discharge from a rehabilitation hospital J Clin Nursing 19 [21-22]

Psychotherapy in Depression Intervention

Depression Intervention

Depression Intervention

Psychotherapy is a term for treating mental health problems which entails consulting with a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health providers. During psychotherapy, an individual learns about their conditions, moods, feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It does help one in learning how to take control of their life and respond to challenging situations with essential healthy coping skills (Minuchin, & Fishman, 2004).

There are various specific types of psychotherapy, with each psychotherapy approach being unique on its own. The type of psychotherapy that is right for an individual varies within the diverse individual needs and demands. Therefore, each person is entitled a choice of psychotherapy that suits his/her personal conditions. Psychotherapy is a distinct profession in its own right, with many different types of professionals and practitioners engaging in it regularly with a range of qualifications. Such qualifications include psychiatry, clinical psychology, counseling psychology, clinical or psychiatric social work, mental health counseling, marriage and family therapy.

Rehabilitation counseling, school counseling, play therapy, music therapy, art therapy,drama therapy,  dance/movement therapy, and occupational therapy are among other professional qualifications. Besides, this group of professional specializes in psychiatric nursing, psychoanalysis, and other psychotherapies. Individuals wishing to practice this lucrative profession may opt for clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, counseling psychologists, marriage and family therapists, counselors, social workers, mental health counselors, occupational therapists and psychiatric nurses (Compas, & Gotlib, 2002; Minuchin, & Fishman, 2004). Psychotherapy may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated, or unregulated based on the jurisdiction. Requirements of the mentioned professions vary, but they often require graduate school and supervised clinical experience.

Clinical psychologists are largely responsible for the intervention and reduction of depressions among patients. These clinical specialists are charged with the responsibility of assessing and treating mental illness, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric problems. Psychotherapy incorporates science of psychology with the treatment of complex human problems. Clinical psychologists, in most instances, work in medical settings, private practice, or academic positions at universities and colleges. Some of the specialists in the private practice work directly with clients, those suffering from severe psychiatric disorders.

Some of the clinical psychologists prefer working in private therapeutic settings offering short-term and long-term outpatient services to clients who need help coping with psychological distress. Others will work in other settings specializing in research, teaching university-level courses and offering consultation services (Henrik, 2010). One needs to graduate with a degree in psychology followed by professional examination and evaluation to qualify as a psychiatrist. Besides, psychiatrists must have medical and clinical training. A masters or doctoral degree, and a license, are required for senior psychologists. A doctoral degree usually is required for independent practice as a psychologist.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy use in Depression Intervention

The cognitive behavioral therapy model entails a vast number of techniques focusing on the construction and re-construction of people’s emotions, behaviors, cognitions (Minuchin, & Fishman, 2004). The therapist, through CBT, helps clients assess, realize, and deal with problematic, dysfunctional ways of behaving, thinking, and emoting. CBT model’s characteristics are time limited, among the most rapid in terms of results. It normally offers a sound therapeutic relationship between the therapist and client, based on the scientifically supported assumption that most emotional and behavioral reactions are learned, it is structured and directive in the sense that therapists have a specific agenda for each session (Compas, & Gotlib, 2002).

Study samples have shown that CBT is an effective method in getting rid of depression. Therefore, it is worth recommending CBT to people suffering from depression and for sure, this form of therapy would be very effective for such group of people. In most instances, depression entails one’s feelings and emotions having been hurt (Henrik, 2010). Through consulting with counselors and psychotherapists, studies have shown that the counseling session is very effective in reducing depression and hence, relieving the patients of the despair.


Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, Psychologists, on the Internet at HYPERLINK “”

Compas, Bruce & Gotlib, Ian. (2002). Introduction to Clinical Psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Henrik, R. (2010). The Psychotherapy Handbook. The A-Z handbook to more than 250 psychotherapies as used today. New American Library.

Minuchin, S.& Fishman, H. C. (2004). Family Therapy Techniques. Harvard University Press.

Depression in Canadian Adolescent Females

Depression is the most well-known mental issue among adolescents


Depression is the most well-known mental issue among adolescents with commonness rates going from 15-20% among adolescents between the age of 14-19 year, and it is accepted to be a significant helping variable in Adolescent suicide. In addition, depressive issues are fundamentally more regular in females than in males, with lifetime predominance of 14.1% for females and 8.6% for males. Some epidemiological, group and clinical studies have demonstrated that girls commonly have been found to show more elevated amounts of depressive side effects than young men. This has been ascribed to hereditary qualities, expanded predominance of nervousness issue in females, organic changes connected with pubescence, cognitive inclination and sociocultural variables. Few Canadian studies were directed to research the commonness and symptomatology of pre-adult gloom (). In a study including an example of essential and preparatory schools in the city of Alexandria 10.3% of students showed depressive scores, which were most astounding among the most established age amass (20.3%) (Kerr et al,. 2010). Girls had higher depressive scores when they were contrasted and young men. Adolescents who had a constructive history of suicide endeavors had essentially higher melancholy scores (93.7%) (Kiesner, Poulin & Dishion, 2010).

In the 1999 national study of Canadian adolescents, 59% of the example reported encountering sentiments of apprehension or tension. Forty for every penny of kids with tension issue had a comorbid depressive issue. In the National Comorbidity Survey, most cases reported intermittent depressive scenes and critical part debilitation, including endeavored suicide among 21.9% of those with MDD. Conceal gloom could be diagnosed in adolescents showing hyperactivity, forceful conduct, or misconduct on the off chance that they showed discouraged influence and indicated depressive or negative subjects on projective tests (Kiesner, Poulin & Dishion, 2010).

Dysphoria and/or fractiousness may take the spot of satisfaction and euthymia as the youngster’s prevailing inclination state. Expanding levels of misery, mournfulness, outrage responses, or candid wraths set off by insignificant or minor incitements may be taken note. Abnormal amounts of ecological push and also a couple of key distressing occasions were connected with suicide endeavors; a late sentimental separation or being attacked added to suicide endeavor hazard, past the impacts of psychopathology (Leatherdale & Ahmed, 2010). Once in a while do adolescents look for, all alone, contact with mental wellbeing experts for assessment of creating state of mind indications, in spite of the fact that they might all the more every now and again reach accessible experts or administrations spotted on location in school settings. Adolescents uncover their depressive sentiments all the more frequently through reports toward oneself than to their guardians

Aim of the study

Through this study, the creators pointed:

1- To gauge the predominance of depressive issue in Canadian adolescent females.

2- To gauge the trademark side effect profile of Canadian adolescent females (if there is a trademark profile).


The speculation of this study was that depressive issue are profoundly predominant among Canadian female adolescents, and that there is a particular symptomatology describing the depressive issue in this age bunch. However accessible writing gives no direction in this matter. Methods

Design of the Study

This study is a descriptive, cross-sectional, school based study.

Site of the Study

This study was led in Ontario, Canada. A specimen of female Adolescent school understudies in Eastern Ontario was drawn. Six schools were chosen from two instructive regions, one locale speak to higher financial status (3 schools) and alternate less well-off status (3 schools). From each one school, 3 classes were chosen and all understudies in each one class were incorporated. Selection (Leatherdale & Ahmed, 2010). Essentially a strategy for examining was taken after permitting every significant variable to help in the constitution of the example an impart that was proportionate to its weight in the guardian populace. Determination of the span of this example was carried out after the interview of a statistician, examining was performed arbitrarily at five levels:

The city (Ontario) has 5 major geological territories from which one was chosen (Eastern Ontario).

2- Educational framework in Eastern Ontario was isolated into two real classifications (Private and Public) focused around financial profile.

From every classification three schools were picked.

Schools were looked over two instructive regions, one speaks to higher financial status (non-public schools) and alternate less well-off status (state funded schools), and those locale were (Heliopolis and El-Zaytoun).

From each one school, 3 classes (one class speaks to every auxiliary evaluation) were chosen and all understudies in each one class were incorporated. Choice of the classes was dictated by the school powers.

Ethical considerations

Amid the time of information gathering there was no moral panel (as of late settled in McGill University), be that as it may; the creators got the acknowledgement of power figures in McGill University and the Ministry of Education before beginning the study methods. Likewise, an educated assent was gotten from every member; they were educated about the surveys being utilized as a part of the study and acknowledged their offering in the study.


The information were gathered by immediate talking with of the subjects in suitable settings inside their schools amid a period from the earliest starting point of November 2006 to the end of March 2007. At the time of the examination, an aggregate number of 602 pre-adult female understudies took part in the study, while the quantity of non-partaking female understudies was around 74 understudies. The clear explanation behind non-investment was their unlucky deficiency from school at the time of the study or being missed amid lessons or the time of the break.

The subjects of the study completed the following tools:

The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), it is a screening instrument for psychiatric sickness so as to recognize potential cases which could then be checked and the way of which could be dictated by utilizing a second stage instrument as it shouldn’t be utilized as a sole standard for analysis, it is basically used to discover casernes. The form utilized as a part of this study is the Canadian rendition of a short 28-things scale with the example scorer technique which is (0-0-1-1). The cut-off purpose of GHQ was 7 as per comparative past national studies to minimize the related misrepresentations with the first low edge score.

The Children Depression Inventory (CDI), which is intended to be utilized as a screening instrument for melancholy in an ordinary adolescent specimen or as a measure of indication seriousness. It is helpful for furnishing the clinician with organized, age and sexual orientation standard referenced data about the tyke symptomatology. The scale is suitable for adolescents and adolescents from seven to eighteen years of age. It comprises of 27 gatherings of proclamations; each gathering comprises of three announcements speaking to the subject’s inclination at the most recent two weeks. The score is from 0-2 as per the manifestation seriousness and the aggregate score extends between 0-54. The cut-off point utilized for this study was 24 as comparative past national studies. It has been institutionalized and meant Canadian dialect. Adolescents who scored more than 24 on (CDI) were further assessed by the accompanying polls:

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder (clinician rendition) (SCID-I), a semistructured demonstrative meeting focused around a productive yet careful clinical assessment. The study utilized the Canadian adaptation of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV hub I Disorders (SCID-I).

The Hamilton Rating Scale for misery (Ham-D) intended to measure the seriousness of depressive manifestations in patients with essential depressive indications, it is the most ordinarily utilized eyewitness evaluated depressive side effects rating scale. Its interior consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.76, and 0.92. It is an agenda of things that are positioned on a scale of 0-4 or 0-2. Scoring: extremely serious >23, extreme 19-22, direct 14-18, mellow 8-13 and typical < 7.

Statistical Analysis

All information were recorded and exchanged on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17. The results were classified, assembled and factually examined utilizing the accompanying tests:

• Descriptive detail were accounted for as means and frequencies.

• Pearson Chi square test (X2): to distinguish whether there is a critical relationship between diverse downright variables.

• Student t-test: used to test for measurable centrality of fluctuation between two examples implies.

• P quality: used to demonstrate the level of importance: critical is P < 0.01.


The mean age for the mulled over specimen was 15.7 + 0.9 years and 15.4 + 0.99 years for higher and lower social class schools individually. A rate of 15.3% of the mulled over specimen were assessed to meet criteria for sadness as indicated by the CDI cut-off point. While, by the utilization of SCID-I around 13.3% of the mulled over populace was found to have depressive issue, appropriated as 5% sub-edge depressive side effects, 5% MDD and 3.3% dysthymic issue. As per Ham-D, 10% of discouraged female adolescents included in the study were named having moderate depressive state, while 30% had gentle depressive state and 60% of them had subthreshold depressive state (Table 1)

Table 1. Circulation of seriousness of dejection among discouraged understudies, as measured by Ham-D.

In this study the exhaustion or absence of vitality (discovered by Ham-D) was by a long shot the most widely recognized side effect among discouraged female adolescents (81.3%) took after by negativity with respect to the future, feeling miserable, low self regard, psychomotor hindrance, absence of focus, blame, suicidality, sleep deprivation, anhedonia, hypersomnia, weight addition, and ultimately weight reduction and psychomotor unsettling (Table 2).

Table 2. Dispersion of depressive side effects among discouraged understudies, as measured by SCID-I.

This study uncovered that 75.5% of youthful females evaluated as having moderate depressive state had suicidal indications (recognized by Ham-D), 52% of Adolescent females appraised as mellow depressive state accomplished the same side effects, and 43% of understudies with subthreshold depressive state additionally had suicidal manifestations.

Suicidal ideations (answer 3 for the inquiry regarding suicide in Ham-D) were the most well-known of the suicidal indications in Adolescent females, 20% of the specimen of discouraged female adolescents, while the rate of genuine endeavors was 2.5% of the example.

Concerning between depressive issue and other psychiatric issue (evaluated by SCID-I) summed up uneasiness issue was the most pervasive comorbid finding (32.5% of discouraged understudies), emulated by social fear (20%) then substance misuse (8.8%) then over the top impulsive issue (0.1%) (Table 3). Likewise screening by GHQ uncovered minor psychiatric bleakness in 46.4% of Adolescent females.

Table 3. Dissemination of comorbid psychiatric conclusions among discouraged youthful females as per SCID-I.


I-Prevalence of depression

A rate of 15.3% of the mulled over specimen were assessed to meet criteria for sorrow as indicated by the CDI cut-off point. The study addressed the first piece of the fundamental theory of the study. It uncovered the point commonness of depressive issue among this specimen of Adolescent females as indicated by SCID-I to be around 13.3%. This commonness is moderately high when contrasted with comparable studies. Kessler and Walters inspected adolescents and youthful grown-ups and discovered the 30-day commonness was 5.8% (significant misery) and 2.1% (minor despondency) as indicated by DSM-IV (Morse et al,. 2008).

Higher predominance of depressive issue among pre-adult females in an Canadian group may be the consequence of a foundation of social, social and enthusiastic insecurity describing this particular age amass notwithstanding the oppression females predominating social orders in a large portion of the underdeveloped nations some of the time announced and more often than not denied, trying to wear cultivated behavior and practices.


The second piece of the primary speculation was a trial to outline a particular symptomatology describing misery among Adolescent females. The symptomatology portraying melancholy in pre-adult females was prevailed by weariness and absence of vitality (more than 80%), at times with psychomotor impediment (around 2/3 of the example). Likewise negativity, trouble and low self regard were communicated (around 3/4 of the example). A sleeping disorder was accounted for (45%) ordinary citizen than hypersomnia (33.8%). Weight put on and weight reduction were accounted for, both were accomplished practically ambiguously (around 1/3 of the example for each). Sociality was discovered to be generally high (around 1/2 of the specimen) (Morse et al,. 2008).

Somatic symptoms

In this study the exhaustion and absence of vitality were by a long shot the most widely recognized side effects among discouraged female adolescents (81.3%), notwithstanding psychomotor impediment (62.5%), and psychomotor fomentation (20%). This was as per aftereffects of more established Canadian studies. The clinical profile of psychiatric issue (DSM-III and III-R individually) in the Canadian group was formerly mulled over and they found that physical indications were the most well-known manifestation, among the discouraged Canadian populace. The results were about like that of McCormick, Mathews, Thomas & Waters (2010) who found that the most widely recognized depressive manifestations (measured by CBDI) were exhaustion and physical indications in an example of Canadian adolescents.

Notwithstanding; these results were not the same as those of different studies performed in western nations, the most widely recognized manifestations among discouraged adolescents were sentiments of pity, dismalness, discouraged temperament and slumber aggravations. The error in the middle of eastern and western groups as respects the way the youthful females experience and express their discouragement may be an intriguing zone for future investigates.

In Canadian society, individuals have a tendency to cover their influence with substantial protests, which involve the closer view and the emotional part of their ailment subsides to the foundation. This may be because of more noteworthy social acknowledgement of physical objections than of mental dissentions which are either not considered important or are accepted to be cured by rest or begging. Physical disease and substantial sign of mental misery are more satisfactory and prone to incite a minding reaction than the dubious objections of mental trouble which can be ignored or considered as a shortcoming or a level of craziness. A late study performed by Stein et al (2010) inspected ethnic/racial contrasts toward the start of treatment among members in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). African American and Latino youth were contrasted with Caucasian youth on indication presentation and cognitive variables connected with sadness. In opposition to speculation, there were no noteworthy contrasts in indication presentation as measured by the meeting based things of the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) (Kendall et al,. 2010).

Emotional symptoms

Adolescent females in this study demonstrated a scope of passionate and cognitive side effects in the setting of depressive manifestations. Negativity (75%), pity (73.8%), and low self-regard (73.8%) were the commonest (Table 2). The self-impression of discouraged adolescents normally are checked by sentiments of insufficiency, mediocrity, disappointment, and uselessness. Assessment of this rule is testing on the grounds that numerous adolescents don’t straightforwardly recognize such negative self-observations. Numerous adolescents specifically report a discouraged disposition a great part of the time, in any case; sorrow in adolescents generally communicates as a bad tempered inclination, on the grounds that numerous adolescents fail to offer the passionate and cognitive advancement to effectively distinguish and compose their enthusiastic encounters

In agreement to the current study, Kendall et al,.(2010) showed a solid relationship between depressive manifestations and thought toward oneself. Contrasted and alternate gatherings, adolescents in a custom curriculum at danger for passionate and behavioral issue demonstrated a noteworthy diminishing in thought toward oneself after age 15. Also, high disguising conduct was connected with more depressive side effects and lower thought toward oneself. In spite of the fact that unequivocally denied by the Canadian group, sentimental connections and fizzled relationships may assume a real part in the etiology of depressive side effects among pre-adult females. These adolescents need to face their disappointments and fix their mix-ups either alone or looking for the assistance of the unpracticed companions and associates.

Vegetative symptoms

Adolescent females in this study had vegetative indications extending in the middle of run of the mill and atypical side effects of discouragement: (45%) experienced sleep deprivation, while (33.8%) accomplished hypersomnia. Audit of writing uncovered distinctive patterns: an inclination to portray atypical depressive indications in the pre-adult age bunches. This may be ascribed to the personality disarray and revolting state of mind towards customs and standards intimated by the family and the general public, prompting evident changes in the slumber example and beat. Rest aggravation is normal in discouraged adolescents, (interviewed by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-and finished the inclination and emotions report toward oneself misery poll) a large number of whom depict their slumber as non-remedial and report trouble getting up in the morning. Rest aggravation shows as a sleeping disorder, hypersomnia or huge movements of slumber example over the diurnal cycle. These discoveries were not as per the current study. Definite dissection of the slumber example ought to be assessed in further research (Hankins et al,. 2010).

As respects weight changes, weight increase was an indication in (33.8%) of the discouraged females, and weight reduction was accomplished by (30%) of them (Table 2). The adolescents are demonstrating an over concern with their physical appearance which is generally the aftereffect of their adjustment to companion gathering impact. Different studies demonstrated distinctive comes about longing and weight changes: anorexia is more common in juvenile girls. While a few adolescents with depressive issue want and consume more particular sustenance (i.e. trash nourishment and carbs) and as needs be put on more weight than anticipated amid their youthful development spurt. Further assessment of longing and weight changes among discouraged Adolescent females is required.


In this study suicidal manifestations (counting last requests, suicidal ideation and suicidal endeavors) were pronounced by (48.8%) of discouraged adolescent females. The recurrence of suicidal side effects was 75.5% among subjects with moderate depressive express (8 subjects). While of the adolescent females enduring of mellow depressive express (23 subjects), 52% accomplished suicidal indications. Interestingly, of the subjects who accomplished sub-limit depressive express (49 subjects) 43% additionally accomplished suicidal indications. These discoveries are higher than the discoveries of different studies however as per them: One of these studies demonstrated that 35% of discouraged adolescents had suicidal indications, Another study demonstrated the rate of suicidal side effects to be 30% among discouraged understudies while a third study uncovered endeavored suicide among 21.9% of the adolescents with real misery. An alternate Canadian study uncovered that suicidal ideation and endeavors were regular among discouraged Canadian adolescents, 30% of the specimen reported that they had solid last requests (measured by CDI) or had a plan to damage themselves (Paus et al,. 2010).

The rate of suicidality in the current study was much higher than the rate recognized by Torros et al (2004) who found that suicidal indications (measured by CBDI) were sure in 6.9% of discouraged Canadian adolescent girls, this variety in results may be clarified by social and religious contrasts bringing about underreporting of suicidal side effects because of alarm of disgrace or blame. The current study uncovered that discouraged adolescent females may have suicidal side effects, notwithstanding the seriousness or number of depressive indications. This discovering shades light on the way that the sub threshold depressive indications in youthfulness -not simply clinical sorrow ought to be considered important. Subjects with sub threshold sorrow ought not to be delegated “non-cases” not one or the other to be dealt with just as they have a comparative anticipation to the individuals who are asymptomatic.

A study performed by Paus et al,. (2010) analyzed suicide endeavors among discouraged essential forethought youthful patients, youth named suicide attempters demonstrated hoisted levels of psychopathology, particularly depressive manifestations, externalizing behavioral issue, nervousness substance utilization, lunacy and PTSD indications. Further assessment of suicidality in this particular age gathering need to be carried out in future exploration.

III-Psychiatric comorbidity

In this study, summed up uneasiness issue was the most common co-horrible conclusion among discouraged adolescent females, notwithstanding social nervousness issue, and substance use (Table 3). This is consonant with different studies which demonstrated that uneasiness issue was the most well-known comorbid issue with despondency.

In the study led by Paus et al,. (2010) aggregate nervousness and stress and oversensitivity side effects were found to anticipate later depressive manifestations more unequivocally for girls than for young men. Physiological nervousness predicts later depressive side effects for both young men and girls. These discoveries which are consonant with the aftereffects of the current study, highlight the criticalness of uneasiness for the advancement of sorrow in youth, especially stress and oversensitivity among girls.

Strengths and limitations

As one of the few studies that have explored the commonness and the symptomology of juvenile gloom, the present study has utilized an extensive battery of psychiatric devices for screening, conclusion and appraisal of seriousness of sadness, the utilization of a semi-organized clinical meeting for finding, not depending on the reports toward oneself. The meetings utilized were straightforwardly tended to understudies not in vicinity of their families which is additionally easing to female adolescents, they want to discuss their emotions in their associate surroundings instead of before parents.

In spite of these qualities, there are a few confinements of this study that require cautious attention in the translation of the discoveries. In the first place, the extent of the example was generally little. Second, the psychiatric analyses were chiefly focused around clinical meetings of study subjects without questioning their guardians. Past studies have demonstrated low assention among kid, guardian, and instructor witnesses in reporting adolescents’ passionate and behavioral issues and the need to join educators’ reports into the distinguishing proof of depressive symptomology. Third, a more complete study would include an instrument for a definite identity evaluation, to prohibit the impact of some identity characteristics on the subjects’ conduct, e.g.suicidality. Fourth, the estimation of suicidality was focused around inquiries inside the Ham-D, this would better be surveyed by a particular scale for suicidality. At last, the setting for the study, as it is realized that administrating self-reports in non-clinical populace may bring about expanded scores. The absence of complete data in psychiatric conclusions for all study subjects has hindered the likelihood for detailed longitudinal examines of psychiatric indications.


The physical side effects were by a long shot the most well-known exhibiting indication for female adolescents experiencing depressive issue. Depressive phenomena including unexplained weariness, diminished vitality, psychomotor changes, absence of fixation, weight changes and self-destructive ideations may be the exhibiting objections rather than the exemplary miserable state of mind.

Further studies are required to check if early recognition of depressive issue in adolescents may influence the course of the depressive disease, and its entanglements i.e. Substance misuse, educational disintegration and suicidality. Further examination of danger variables, longitudinal course of depressive manifestations, level of working, examples of comorbidity, and the psychopathological foundation of juvenile populace at danger would be finishing the picture around there of exploration.


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Toledo‐Rodriguez, M., Lotfipour, S., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Richer, L., Veillette, S., … & Paus, T. (2010). Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with epigenetic modifications of the brain‐derived neurotrophic factor‐6 exon in adolescent offspring. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 153(7), 1350-1354.

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Depression and Counselling Theory

Depression, Counselling Theory

Depression and Counselling Theory

Counselling Theory Paper

George is an elderly man, aged 68 years, who showed serious signs of depression and addiction to alcohol and narcotics. He also exhibited signs of being a mentally ill man, who knows his past mistakes in life and sees no reason to even try changing his current situation. He is a divorced man who has little contact with the social world and the only relationship that he currently has is with his dog Spike. I decided on using the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), as the most appropriate counselling theory to help him.

Rationale for Selection of CBT

The rationale behind choosing this specific theory is due to the capabilities of the theory and the nature of the case at hand. According to David, 2006 CBT, it is based on the premise that people should learn to let go of their past and focus on improving the future. Central to this therapy is that it focuses on talking. This allows people to express what they feel without fear of judgement (Williams, et al, 2013). According to Blehar, 1997, CBT works also when used with people who have an addiction to something.

George can very well express himself and his life with detail and precision; this is why this therapy best suits him. For a person of his age, he has good memory and is able to remember issues that had happened earlier in his life even under the influence of alcohol. George has serious cognitive impairments; he was able to score 15 in the MMSE test and a 45 out 60 in the CES-D score which is a clear indication of cognitive impairment. George is also an alcoholic, he uses drugs like marijuana and even hard core drugs to help him ease his thoughts and to feel better. George is also willing to corporate with the therapy; this is mainly because he recognizes the fact that his life is not exactly how he wanted it to be at his age. As much as the therapy is not meant to cure the physical ailments and addictions of George, it is meant to create an empowering foundation and a more optimistic way of dealing with his problems. His fear to face the future is hindering him from achieving the best he can in relationships.

Initial Problem Selection

George is a man troubled by many issues but I chose to deal with two of his problems, depression and addiction to alcohol and narcotics. From the interview, it was clear that George’s divorce had taken a toll on him. This was because it made him lose all personal contact that he had maintained earlier on. He has also lost touch with his religion. As a Muslim he was a dedicated follower but all that was lost ten years ago when he started eliminating himself from the society and all types of relationships.

According to Knight, 2006, depression is usually revealed when the individual pulls himself away from the society. This is because they feel that they are better off being alone as nobody wants to be with them. At this point George feels like there is no way his problems can be solved by anybody. This explains the reason as to why he is afraid to patch things up with his ex-wife. At this point he is afraid of starting any form of relationship with anybody and that is why he has had no intimate or friendly relationship with anybody in a long time.

Roth, Pilling and Hill, 2009, state that depression is associated with low self esteem and self criticism. Counselling for depression is a model that targets emotions that mostly are underlying and are the root cause of the depression. It is also meant to bring out the emotions that make sense to the person but must initially come from them for them to be willing to try them out in their lives. Roth, Piling and Hill devised a framework on how to help people with depression called the humanistic framework. It is based on allowing all the negative emotions and issues to come out and then the positive ones will slowly come out. The results of the experiment done at the Pearson Centre proved that people do indeed have the ability of coming up with the best solution for themselves but first they must be given that chance to do it themselves and must be dedicated to it as well.

The framework will work for George because from the interview it was clear he is suffering from clinical melancholy, which is depression couple up together with some cognitive problems.

Discussion of the Model

I will show how the qualifications that make George to fit into this framework.

The framework focuses on a step to step follow up of the individual who experiences different events in his life that ultimately lead to depression while others are as a result of the depression (Scherer, 2009).

First the individual makes a few wrong decisions in their lives. George had always wanted to have the life that everybody wants, a nice job and a lovely family. But somewhere down the line he made some few mistakes that caused him to lose some of these things and he now sees his mistakes.

The next step is that the person is caught up in looking at his mistakes instead of finding clear solutions to them. Instead of focusing more on what he still had even after making his small and major mistakes, he focused on the mistakes. This is evident from the fact that after he divorced his wife he completely cut all contact and relationship with everybody else. After his divorce, he saw no need of going to mosque and with that he lost a relationship with his God. He also let his relationship with his mother be reduced to an occasional phone call. His relationship with his brother is no longer the same and the one with his daughters is even worse. This cannot even describe the relationship with his friends because i is no longer in existence, he believes that they avoid him since he has his problems.

The third step is that the persons self esteem is seriously affected and they criticize themselves very harshly. George’s self esteem was seriously affected; this is the reason why on looking at him during the interview he looked unkempt. His uniform was dirty and he was not shaven. Hours after his shift ended he is still in his uniform while most people cannot wait to leave work and take off their uniform. This is because he sees no need to do that, to him it is not worth the trouble. He also believes that nobody wants to be associated with him, according to him he is not the one who pulled away from his friends, they are the ones who avoid him because they believe that he is mentally unstable. He is even not sure about reconciling with his ex-wife and it is not because he does not love her and does not long to have some company but it is because he feels he has failed her too much in the past and he doesn’t deserve her taking him back. He feels like he is failure and does not deserve to have someone with him.

The last step is when the person takes up a destructive addiction or activity that helps him escape from the world and feel better for just a while. The other step was George turning to alcohol and drugs and becoming addicted to them. He consumes alcohol because he believes it is the only way he can relieve himself of the stressful issues that he has. To him, there is realistically no way of solving as it is too late. Time has passed too much and there is not much that can be done. Once he uses these drugs and consumes alcohol he goes to another world where he gets the chance to get away from all the worries.

At the heart of the model is the interaction of emotions that lead to some cognitive and behavioural attributes;

Lacks of paying attention to the small things in life, for instance most people do not brush their teeth nor shave their beard. This is the behavioural character that is very visible on George. People also forget the day of the week, George can hardly remember the date and avoids doing any calculation on the test and does not write much on the questionnaire. This is because he probably finds it difficult to do simple addition and subtraction. This means that he is not interested in the events and occurrences of the country for instance politics, economics and even security matters. To him they are of less concern and there is no need to get to know them.

Poor communication skills are exhibited; this is because the people feel like others cannot understand them when they speak calmly. They may feel the need to act it out when trying to explain a specific point. This is reason as to why George feels the need to throw his arms out while speaking. This is because in his mind, he thinks that what he is saying will not be understood unless he actually demonstrates it using hands.

Denial is also a major emotional and cognitive defence mechanism. This is exhibited by tendency not to admit to some situations (Scherer, 2009). During the interview, George also skips over things that he does not feel like talking about. This means that his problem is actually bigger than he is willing to agree. The fact that he believes that he only drinks because he is lonely at times and not because he is an addict is also another point of denial.

Implications for Treatment

The treatment will be done in three phases the early, middle and final stage. This will be done in roughly 15- 20 sessions with George. At the end of the treatment there will be certain expected results and changes.

According to Williams, et al, 2013, the move to another stage will only be possible after the successful completion of the previous stage. The early stage is made up of discussion with George on the strategy to be used, to collect the necessary data required and all relevant information. It is in this stage that George gets to reveal his expectations at the end of the sessions and after several months after the sessions as well.

After that we shall move on to the second stage, at this point there will be several experiments performed to see if the strategy and the framework completely fits his situation, several adjustments can be made to ensure that the strategy is efficient (Blehar, 1997). It is also at this stage that we deal with George’s emotions, as stated earlier he will let all the negative emotions come out and with little assistance he will come up with a suitable and realistic solution that can solve his depression, fears and help mend his relationships. In the final stage, there will be the termination of the sessions and also the implementation of a strategy that will avoid relapse into depression and alcoholism.

During the first stage, all information and data pertaining George will be revealed. This is because the information in this stage will be used in the next stage. George is expected to grasp the seriousness and conceptualize the CBT and all the expectations from him. All the pre existing issues from his decision to leave the basketball sponsorship will be addressed and will act as a foundation in his case.

In the second stage George will bring out all the negative emotions, what he actually and truly feels so that it can lead him to alcohol and to shut himself away from the rest of the world (Blehar, 1997). All the broken relationships will be discussed and the various ways in which they can be amended. It is obvious that George knows some of his mistakes but what he does not seem to know is how to solve them especially at this time when he has grown old. As a father, a son, a brother and a friend he has a role to play in these relationship. He has to come up with the solutions but a relationship at a time to avoid overwhelming him. Having closure is something important in any relationship, it may not mend it but it will help one not to carry emotional baggage.

In this stage George will explain how his life was like before all the changes and which aspects were there and he would like to have back. He will experiment by trying out some of the interests that he had prior to adopting the alcohol drinking habit. It is also at this point that all the negative side effects of his current life will be made to him; however he has to be the one to point out what exactly he feels he is ready to start changing. This will give him the chance to voluntarily give out information.

In the final stage, as the sessions are terminated there will be strategy that will be aimed at ensuring that George will have a social life that includes at least taking spike for a walk in the park full of people and trying out the outside world with his new friend and see if he can make new friends. George is expected to create a new habit that takes the place of drinking alcohol, for instance playing a sport or even reading a book. Then termination will occur with follow up to take place periodically.

Further Discussion

Although this paper is basically supposed to be dedicated to George and his psychological issue of depression, it is also going to dedicate on a few other issues that George is going through and how to best resolve them. These are issues that can be solved by CBT and others cannot be solved by it. It is limited to the psychological aspect of George.

At the age of 68 years George is still physically able to provide for himself but with time he will retire and will be dependent on other people. this is the high time that he solves the issues to do with his mother and daughters before it gets to the point that he completely has no other alternative.

George has cognitive impairment that requires to be treated. This is evident from his lack of coordination of the issues during the interview. This can be as a result of alcohol consumption over the years. This is because alcohol with time decreases proper mental and physical coordination. This may be the reason as to why his hygiene is questionable. Medical intervention is required as there be other physical negative effects that he has developed over the years and during the interview I was not able to detect. For a proper evaluation, a full body check up should be embarked on.

Due to years of withdrawing from the social world, he may be willing to go out there to make friends but may not know how to. He may require a few sessions to be conducted outside in the open where there is interaction with people. This being a person who is looking to stop alcohol intake and is looking for a new hobby, a visit to a golf court would be highly recommended. This however easily follows during the follow up sessions.


George has gone through many traumatic and tough times and he is only human to feel stressed. However he feels judged and this has made him to shrink further and further away from the society. At this point his ex wife is trying to reach out to him but he is way too deep and sees just a failure who will fail her again.

George dedication to the process and strategy will help him to be able to restore his life to the way it was if not better, but he still requires all the other to be willing to help in this process as well. This is because someone may dig themselves into a hole that gets too deep. But when at low place the only other place to go is up and this is his situation. He is willing to come up but he just needs the people around him to help dig his way out.

With a little help from his family and friends George will be able to solve all his psychological problems and become a well off productive citizen.


Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions With Older Adults: Integrating Clinical and Gerontological Research, Derek D. Satre, Bob G. Knight, and Steven David, 2006, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 37, No. 5, p 489-498

Psychotherapy for Depression in Older Adults, Edited by Sara H. Qualls and Bob G. Knight, 2006, Wiley Series in Clinical Geropsychology

Counselling for Depression; Critical look at Cognition, Roth, Pilling and Hill, (2009), Pearson Print Press

The Psychological Treatment of Depression, J. Mark, G. Williams, 2013, University of Oklahoma Print Press, p324-455

The cognitive Psychology of Depression at Old Age, Ian H. Gotlib, Howard S.Kurtzman, Mary C. Blehar, 1997, p 94- 150

Self stigma and Psychological Depression; Help Seeking for Depression, Joshua Scherer, 2009, p 7-56.