Decision Analysis. The analysis is all about analyzing the current workflow with analyzing the improvement things in total

Decision Analysis. The analysis is all about analyzing the current workflow with analyzing the improvement things in total

Decision Analysis

Name

Institution

Date

Evaluation Summary

The analysis is all about analyzing the current workflow with analyzing the improvement things in total. There are number of things which have been considered in this scenario and Shuzworld has to consider the same in total for enhancing the situation and productivity of the company with efficacy.

Enhance the current level of workflow

The essence of continuous growth as well as advancement is mainly some of the considerable aspects from the perspective of the company, which is uniformly favorable for the Shuzworld. The layout of the production line is comprised on eight different locations, the work of employees, dedicated to accomplish things, like, extremely resistant work boot (RWWC) requirements. The company has got the availability of resources through which they can enhance their growth as well as business process, by keep considering and maintaining the competency of their production units. It is highly recommended that the total amount which is used to operating the working stations should be carried to its lowest level, as it should be five, instead of 8. Secondly, it is quiet significant to ensure that the actual assembly line goods is manufacturing, and decreased slightly between the productions

The total production time for the boot is mentioned below,

The projects A, D and H having a large project allocation of time, relative to any other type, which will reduce the amount of items associated with G. It is recommended for Shuzworld to reduce the level of their working stations from level 8 to the 5, and it is verified from the tables and diagrams given below:

The recommendations which are proposed to reduce the numbers of working stations from the level 8 down to 5 which is basically a provision of module tool called balancing which is taken into consideration for minimizing the total number of working stations are mentioned below:

Workstation A

Workstation B and C

Workstation D

Workstation combined of E, F, and G

5. Workstation H

After evaluating the above working, it is obvious that the production cycle time is 46 minutes per cycle, when eight stations; it will go to the level of the workstation 50 to the level 5. Reduced down to the level of the workstation, evidently increases the competency and reflect positive effects over the workflow of Shuzworld, particularly from 92% as a whole and the total average delay in this particular case would be stood at 8%

It is necessary to choose a perfect decision-making tool and for this, the Balanced Module tool is the most favorable tool for this purpose. Behind choosing this particular module reason is that it will augment the productivity of the company to it greater extent, and because of this particular model, the nature of the allocation and division of work between the workforces would certainly be easy enough. By utilizing this specific module, the important task is to correct the sequence, and by working down from 8 positions to 5, a great influence over the production, because it will fall to 92% level. In addition to balancing module, “Line balancing component is used to display a graph showing the change on the floor in all of the operations.

Line balancing is such a module that integrated the statistics from single or several plans. Multiple parts can be balanced on the same line. Based on the times, the Line Balancing module retrieves all operations and their associated elements and displays a Chart showing the amount of time each part spends at each workstation. The Line Balancing Module lets you evaluate multiple analyses to predict the impact before implementing changes on the floor. Applied Logistics supports your lean manufacturing initiatives

Analysis of the initial and follow-up costs

In order to improve the efficiency of the workers against reduced cost of production, it will be important to undertake a critical analysis of the data provided. This can be achieved through a revisit of the overall production cost schedule. The integration of sandals line from the point of view of production as well as operations will be extremely important and with the new sandal line, it would be considerably amplified, called a “Maui Sandal”. And the area of ​​focus which is requires in this specific case is the scheduling the timing of production. As reported the Shuzworld’s case, it will need something with a new line of shoes for about 1,000 hours of labor on the basis of a certain historical value generated. The standard cost of labor in the U.S is $ 1.08, and the learning curve is inclined downward by 80%. Moreover, the following month, and batches of sandals are given below:

left-2540From the above working, it is quite clear that the lots scandal increased 100 percent per month and this would be followed by the coming 3 months as a whole. The total amount of all these four months batch is “50.” The learning curve is the amount of time required for different types and through the implementation of the total of 3,737 for the $ 1.08 level, labor costs are mixed. The total budget comes to about $ 4,036 level. The Costs, working hours and per month starting in the associated table and graph formats are mentioned below:

Learning curve

It is evident that the cost of production is increasing with the increase in labour hours but at a relatively lower rate. This simply means that learning curve indicates that with time workers become more efficient and reduces the overall cost.

It is clear that the association of labor cost would be the highest in the 4th month of operation, in which the total sandals production was 20. After critically examine the statistical data, the first group of sandals acquire large amount of working hours reveal 1,000 while the additional along with the production to reduce this amount to only 283.83 hours this is consequently a cost-effective for production costs. The more production of a product the more decreased amount of hours needed to produce the product. By extending the production timeline over the trial of four months there will be increased profits and revenue while decreased cost of manufacturing especially seasonally. Excel spreadsheet view by specific learning curve tab formaldehyde Windows module is necessary to calculate all the data for that specific product. With module “POM” in the name will be used for the same analysis, the calculation of the total of all the data of this particular product. And inversely proportional to the amount of hours of production cost, with a high production took several hours to reduce the amount of each point. In the review of statistical data, the maximum amount is $ 1,000 the first sandals labor time required, further reducing production continues along this amount to only 283.83 hours this is a cost-effective labor costs accordingly. The more production of a product the more decreased amount of hours needed to produce the product. By extending the production timeline over the trial of four months there will be increased profits and revenue while decreased cost of manufacturing especially seasonally. By reviewing the excel spreadsheet specific to the tab of learning curves the module in POM for Windows was needed in order to calculate all the data for this particular product. This particular choice of tool accurately reflects the information as it calculates the data on the coefficient of the 80% model.

Bibliography

Johnston, R. (2013). Operations Management. New York: Pearson Education, Limited.

Schneider, M. (2010). Operations Management: Theory and Practice. Miami: Springer.

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death sentence abolish

death sentence abolish

Author

Tutor

Course

Date

Introduction

Capital punishment has for a long time been one of the most controversial subjects in the entire world. It mainly involves handing an individual a death penalty for a heinous crime such as murder, child rape and robbery with violence among others (Banner and Banner, 13). In the state of Florida, the execution is carried out using a lethal injection that was allowed by the legislature in January 2000 (Tucker, 3). Alternatively, an individual may be executed using the electric chair in the execution chamber situated at Florida State Prison (Tucker, 6). However, questions have emerged pertaining to the efficacy of the death punishment. There has been controversy as to whether a death sentence serves any positive purpose or whether it should be abolished. In my opinion, capital punishment or the death penalty should be abolished.

First, it is worth noting that judges can err in their judgment as far as the determination of the guilt of an individual. This underlines the fact that, there are instances when an innocent individual will be condemned to capital punishment or the death penalty simply because he or she cannot prove his innocence (Pojman and Reiman, 22). It goes without saying that the inability to prove one’s innocence does not necessarily underline his guilt. This raises the question as to whether justice would have been done in such instances (Pojman and Reiman, 24).

It is worth noting that once a miscarriage of justice has been done, as is the case of capital punishment, it cannot be undone. Death is always irrevocable in which case there would be no way of undoing the injustice of executing an innocent person. Philosophers have always stated that it is more preferable to free a thousand guilty people than to kill an innocent person. In essence, I think it would be preferable that these people are given life sentences with or without the option of parole to prevent the killing of innocent people.

In addition, death penalty seems to single out the poor. This is because they may not have sufficient financial muscle to hire proper lawyers, in which case they have to rely on the attorneys appointed by the court (Bedau, 24). In most cases, courts do not have sufficient capital to appoint appropriate representation, in which case the poor may end up being punished for wrongs that they did not commit. In fact, court-appointed attorneys are paid less than the minimum wage, in which case they are not motivated to invest sufficient effort in uncovering the truth about the cases (Pojman and Reiman, 34). The rich, however, can afford to hire qualified lawyers to argue their cases, as well as dig for justice. For example, O.J Simpson could afford a team of highly-qualified lawyers and even finance DNA testing thereby exposing the errors in the DNA evidence of the prosecution. This, however, is unlikely to have happened without the assistance of the attorneys.

In addition, the main reason for any sentence should be to compensate the wronged parties in a fair manner and possibly deter such actions in the future. In the case of death penalties, it goes without saying that the wronged parties would not in any way be compensated by the execution of the presumed wrongdoer.

Of course, proponents of the death penalty opine that it gives the victims a feeling that justice has been done. However, this is not the case. For example, in instances where an individual is presumed to have raped a child, killing him would not compensate the wronged party (Pojman and Reiman, 28). Moreover, how just would it be if an innocent person is executed just to satisfy the will of the wronged parties? In such instances, it would be preferable to follow the suggestions of sociologists, who opine that such individuals should be handed a life sentence where they would work to support the wronged parties. In fact, such measures would offer criminals a chance to reform their ways, which should be the fundamental pillar for law (Bedau, 55).

In addition, proponents argue that the death penalty is the only way that can effectively deter people from committing violent crimes. However, this theory has been proven wrong and inaccurate by statistics. Statistics show that after the lifting of the ban on death penalty in 1976 by the United States Supreme Court, states that have the highest rate of executions also had higher rates of violent crime than states that had lower rates of executions (Pojman and Reiman, 56). For example, from 1982 to 1991 Texas witnessed a rise in the rates of crime by 24% and the rate of violent crime by 46% after reenacting the death penalty statute. It is worth noting that at this time, Texas had executed around 355 people. California, on the other hand saw an increase of crime rate by only 5% yet it had executed only 11 people. This underlines the fact that death penalty does not serve as an effective deterrent of violent crime (Pojman and Reiman, 67).

These points underline the need for the abolishment of the death penalty. It is improper to execute an individual especially considering that human beings can make an error of judgment, thereby executing an innocent person. This is complemented by the fact that death is irreversible, in which case the execution of an innocent person would be a permanent and irrevocable miscarriage of justice. In addition, it does not serve as an effective deterrent of crime, nor does it serve as sufficient compensation to the wronged parties.

Works cited

Banner, Stuart and Banner, Stuart. The Death Penalty: An American History. New York: Harvard University Press, 2003. Print

Pojman, Louis P. and Reiman, Jeffrey H. The Death Penalty: For and Against. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. Print

Bedau, Hugo Adam. The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print

Tucker, Kenneth S. Florida Department of Corrections: Death Row Fact Sheet. Web retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://www.dc.state.fl.us/oth/deathrow/” http://www.dc.state.fl.us/oth/deathrow/

(Bedau, )

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Decision making in organizations

Decision making in organizations

Decision making in organizations

Introduction

Decision-making includes an assortment of processes that are all amid thought and action. These processes are an antecedent to behavior; expressing ideas into tangible consequences. Decision-making as a concept is not well defined. This is as result of the aspects and the avenues through with different people view decision-making from. The scope of decisions that people make range from matters that would potentially affect them into their lifetime to mattes as trivial as what to wear for the day. These indicating why decision making as process is not well defined.

According to Bazerman, (1999), decision making in organizations. He points out that when individuals are faced with tough choices, their focus shifts to making the right choice and not making the choice in the right way (Bazerman, 1999). Further indicating that people tend to focus on securing:

More expertise

More inclusion

More resources

Better data regarding the issue

More time to come up with a conclusive decision

With a better decision-making process, individuals would have the best platform for stronger implementation for decisions made.

Decision Issues

Distortions

This comes about due to the irrational nature of man. The decision made are often affected by social pressure, we often care of other people’s opinions, we have preconceived ideas regarding what is acceptable or not therefore making us prone to all kind of illogical thought. Decisions are often informed by emotional and cognitive backgrounds increasing the odds for a distortion free decision –making process.

Distortions in Decision Making

The distortions that come about in decision-making are brought about by distortions in perceptions and by distortions in choice.

Distortion in Perception

Confirmation Bias: distortion occurs because of using of information with the preconceived notion of its outcome. This is often influenced by other organization supporting desired outcome

Wishful thinking: Distortions arise due to seeing organizations prospects in an overlay optimistic light

Primary Effect: This is as a result of the use of recent materials only to aid in the decision-making process

Repetition Bias: This is brought about by the use of information that is favored by many of interested parties

Anchoring: basing a decision on an inappropriate reference point

Source Credibility: arises from favoring the use of information from sources that we like

Attribution asymmetry: occurs as a result of attributing our successes to talents and attributing our failures to circumstances.

Distortion in Choice

Incremental Decision-Making and Escalating Commitment: when individuals are faced by the choice of becoming a manager or a parent. They are probably going to make distortions in their decision-making as a result of choice

Groupthink: this occurs when decisions are arrived at as a result of consensus instead of the quality of the decision made

Authority : distortion occurs when the figure of authority are sensitive to allowing contributions that inform decision-making to come from their juniors

Sunk costs: Distortions arise when organizations choose to allocate less or no budgetary funds to aid decision-making processes.

Meta-Decision Making

These are the decisions that people make regarding decision-making. These decisions often go unnoticed as they are entrenched on a word, a glance and sometimes on an unintentional casing. For Meta-Decision Making processes to be exposed, we would have to analyze our more fleeting thoughts and slow down our thought process.

Challenges

Decision making is often made difficult by the situation that individuals find themselves in. these is as a result of situations being characterized by challenges that further complicate the decision-making process.

Making Good Decisions

It is everyone’s intention to make good decisions. It is therefore justified to look at how to make decisions and how to improve the decisions that we make. The answer to better decisions lies in the content. We therefore have to adjust our decision-making style and understand the avenues and forums within which we base the decision.

Reasons for the decline in quality of Managerial Decision-making

Limited time frames due to the nature of contracting business cycles

Distorted data that is sometimes used in decision-making

The rate of change invalidates the data behind a decision before implementation

The Decision-making Process

Organizations are run by decisions that people in authority make. The soundness of the decisions adhered to is mirrored by the success of the organizations. This lays out the effectiveness and the quality of the decision making-process. The quality of the decision-making process often determines how flourishing a manager will be. Decision-Making is an ongoing process of evaluating circumstances and making choices. The process is dependant of reliable information made available at adequate and opportune moments. The decision-making process entails:

Defining the problem

The definition of the challenge is the first step in the decision-making process. The correct definition of the challenge is key; as it has the potential to affect the secondary steps. The most appropriate way to go about definition of the problem is identifying the problem separately from its indicators.

Identifying the Limiting Factors

Managers should ensure that they have adequate resources to preempt the likelihood of not having the facilities necessary for the adequate decision-making practices at his or her disposal. Identifying limiting factors is bore by the need of managers wanting to make the best decisions with regard to the running of the organizations (Bazerman & Moore, 2008).

Developing Potential Alternatives

Time constraints often-precipitate managers to using quick fixes for their problems and not fully exhausting the possible solutions at their disposal. Managers are encouraged to consider several solutions before settling on one. A practice such as brainstorming is recommended, as the group dynamic Propagates thinking (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008).

Analyzing the Alternatives

This process culminates with the benefits of each idea, giving a clear picture of the advantages and disadvantages that would follow the adaption of a certain decision. This can be done through:

Determine the pros and cons of each alternative.

Perform a cost-benefit analysis for each alternative.

Weight each factor important in the decision, ranking each alternative relative to its ability to meet each factor, and then multiply by a probability factor to provide a final value for each alternative.

Selecting the Best Alternative

This is achieved after carefully analyzing all the alternatives and deciding on the best choice. The choice is often informed by the alternatives that offer the most advantages and pose fewer potential regrets. Managers can also look at the feasibility of the alternatives, as well as the cost effectiveness of each of the alternatives (Cialdini, 2008).

Implementation of the Decision

It is the role of managers to make decisions and ensure that positive outcomes follow up their decisions. It is therefore up to the managers to delegate responsibilities efficiently to ensure the successful implementation of their decisions.

Establish a Control and Evaluation System

This system is important to continuously check on the efficiency of the implemented decisions. It provides managers with information whether to adjust decisions made to attain the objectives intended when selecting the solution.

References:

Bazerman, M. H. & Moore, D., (2008). Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. 7th Ed. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bazerman, M. H., (1999). Smart Money Decisions. N Y: John Wiley.

Cialdini, R., (2008). Influence: Science and Practice. 5th Ed. Prentice Hall.

Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C.R., (2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, &Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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Decision Making (Financial Resources)

Decision Making (Financial Resources)

Decision Making (Financial Resources)

Name

Institution

Abstract

Decision making is a fundamental component in entrepreneuship and affects a variety of elements in business including legal and regulatory issues, political agendas, cultural perceptions, demographic diversity and financial resources. This paper aims at describing how decisions are made and thereby suggest that decision making affects financial resources in business.

In order to achieve the goal, this paper is divided into three segments. The first segment defines key terms used end to end in the paper. In the second part, a description of how decisions are made is provided as well as perfect examples of decision making showing how they affect the financial resources in a business. The last segment restates the thesis as well as the main points as highlighted in the other two sections.

Keywords: entrepreneur, decision making, financial resources

Decision Making (Financial Resources)

According to the oxford dictionary, an entrepreneur is a person who makes money by starting a small business and more particularly, taking financial risks (Michael, 2008).

Decision making refers to a cognitive process of deciding to do something of paramount importance. In businesses, decisions are made concerning a number of issues including financial decisions as well as other decisions directly affecting the activities of the business (Michael, 2008).

In management, financial resources can be defined as, the inputs in the form of money and in most cases in liquid form that helps in the daily running of the business. In short, financial resources cater for the operation expenses in the business (Pandey, 2011).

How Decisions are made

The detrimental importance of financial decisions to a business is imperative to set up an efficient organization. In most cases, the financial decisions are made by the top financial managers in consultation with the professional, junior staff members in the business.

Decision making is possibly one of the most important catalysts in business. Businesses ranging from large to small enterprises have to make various decisions about their main activities with an aim meeting their ultimate goals and objectives.

At times, decision making can be such a difficult task in business since the resources are always finite while the needs are unlimited. On the other hand, businesses may make decisions but fail to implement such decisions due to the various constraints of the resources.

According to Harrison 2008, there are several steps, which are essential for an effective decision making process. The most important step is to set the business objectives which must be specific, measurable, reliable, and should be achieved in certain duration of time. Secondly, the financial manager searches for alternatives which may be used to meet the business’ ultimate objective. Thirdly, the financial manager compares the alternatives and chooses the most cost effective that would avail the goals of the firm. Fourthly, the financial manager applies the alternative chosen in the organization. After the decision has been implemented in the firm, it is crucial  the manager follows up activities and spot checks the weak areas that require improvements.

Most businesses have been successful by following Harrison’s steps in making various financial decisions in their organizations. One of such businesses is an American Company, Walt Disney, which clearly followed the Harrisons model in the purchase of its own television networks, which the top managers thought would continue to increase profitability of the company. The company set out clear objectives as being a market leader in entertainment thereby distributing its products in America. Over the years, it has been able to achieve its objectives and thereby expanding at an alarming rate in the entertainment industry.

Conclusions

Decision making is one of the most important activities in any business since; it assists the business to plan for its resources in an optimal way thereby achieving its objectives in a given period of time. The decision making process involves a sequence of steps as highlighted earlier on in the paper and has actually been fundamental in several businesses including the one pointed out in the paper (Harrison, 2000).

References

Harrison. (2000). Essence of Decision Making. Retrieved May 10, 2012. from ctuonline.edu: http://ctuonline.edu.

Michael, A. (2008). Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pandey, I. (2011). Financial Management. Mumbai: Vikas Publishing House.

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Decision on Expanding Medical Surgical General Unit

Decision on Expanding Medical Surgical General Unit

Question One: Decision on Expanding Medical Surgical General Unit

Situation Definition

In general medical care service provision, patients who need specialized and sensitive treatment and operation are held in a separate wing for extra care before being discharged completely. This implies that the patients for instance from the Intensive care Unit (ICU), need to extra care at the healthcare facility in a specialized wing referred to as Medical Surgical General Unit. It is important that the short duration of time is facilitated for monitoring and specialized care. The current situation is that there are more patients in need of neuro-intensive medical care than before. On the other hand, there are more medical conditions arising from failure of the intensive care treatment sooner after patients’ discharge. Failure has directly been linked to, little or lack of extra care after intensive medical services. It is a concern that urgent measures be taken to avoid intensive treatment failure.

Available Options

There are a few intervention options that can be used to correct the challenge. Due to the significance of healthcare services to the society and the nature of complications observed in neurological operations, it is important that extra caution is taken while handling the challenge. Due to the magnitude of healthcare in the society, various alternatives must be explored despite the implementation difficulties. Firstly, patients can be discharged as the current program does with an improvement in patent follow-ups instead of expanding the Medical Surgical General Unit. Alternatively, patients can be discharged with special transportation to and from their homes for specialized care. Discharge can also be followed by referral to a nearby facility that can handle Medical Surgical General Unit services better than at our current capacity. Lastly, expansion of our Medical Surgical General Unit can also be explored for possibilities.

Choice and Action

The best choice for the inadequacy in light of the circumstances is expansion of the specialized facility. This implies the current capacity in the facility needs to be enhanced to handle the increased cases. Action in form of constructing extra facility segment and space maximization will necessitate construction and procurement of extra facility equipment. This will be better than other alternatives due to the efficiency improvement in terms of cost and benefit analysis. Healthcare will also be well handled at the facility before discharge, which increases chances of recovery. However, this is on the assumption that long term costs and benefits are factored in, instead of short term analysis.

Evaluation

The expansion project must deliver the projected targets in line with healthcare objectives. This will be ensured by a comparison of current inadequate capacity with new operations under expansion. Continued failure will necessitate exploration of other options.

Question Two: Roadblocks and Overcome

There are different challenges that will act as challenges and roadblocks towards the implementation. In light of the current inadequacy at the facility, it illustrates how vulnerable the project will be to further challenges which must be confronted once and for all. The improvement plan which has adopted the expansion project will begin by highlighting the specific challenges and coming up with tenable solutions. Among the challenges, the following are perhaps the most potent and that are likely to act like roadblocks to the implementation will include the following.

Finances

Constructing a modern medical facility to take care of the medical needs of patients from intensive medication will need funding that can withstand all financial constraints in an economy faced by the current constraints. It follows that funding from the internal sources must be sought first to ascertain how far the facility is capable of facilitating the entire project. External sources will also need to be sought for purposes of ensuring internal constraints do not completely disable the project. Specialized construction attention will be ensured for neurological medical attention that the project seeks to enhance, bearing in mind that it is one of the most expensive elements of medical care.

Equipment

Besides the construction elements of the project, other costs such as equipping the facility will also be considered, posing as a challenge due to the specialized nature of neurological healthcare needs. Modern equipment might not only be difficult to find but will also be difficult to procure due to financial consideration involved. Outsourcing for best quality will be sought within fund limits.

Staffing

Staffing challenges for modern neurology facilities will find a challenge in necessary manpower and the costs of sustaining the staff needs. Current capacity will be enhanced by making additions and training within reasonable limits.

Maintenance

The initial phase of maintenance of the equipment might be easy to be factored in the installation program, but future operation issues will be uncertain until extra planning is ensured.

Technology

There will be a special necessity of specialized equipment and technology for the specialized care to capture the missing link between treatment and full recovery. Extra technology costs will be factored in the budget to cater for the gap in terms searching for the best

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Decision making is fundamental

Decision making is fundamental

Midterm

Name

Institution affiliation

Date

Introduction

Decision making is fundamental in order to have successful public administration. However, there could be an uphill task to choose the most suitable model for policy choices. Decision making is important and one must be ready to face consequences of decision made

Root decision making has following advantage and disadvantages. Advantage is that there is increased accuracy and efficiency of decision making because of comphrensive analysis of decision and considers also appropriateness of decision. Disadvantages include ignorance of inability to take action as result of comphrensive analysis. It does not also favor community participation hence has centralized bias. Root decision making is not also adapted to sufficiency of information and costliness analysis.

Branch decision making has the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include it encourages democratic politics and also avoids colossal mistake which happen due to inappropriate decision making. Interest of both parties involved is catered for due to comprehensive analysis. It is elastic and can accommodate changes before implementation. Disadvantages include lack of innovativeness in finding suitable decision to problems. It may also underestimate policies which have not been proposed by successive chain policies.

There are major differences between root and branch decision making. Firstly, in root decision making, there is clarification of objectives prior to marginal evaluation and empirical analysis. The end refers to goals and objectives to be pursued and not a particular outcome.it is rational and aims at maximizing value of decision makers while branch decision making there is close intertwining of marginal evaluation and empirical analysis rather than being distinct as it is in root decision making (Henry, 45).Secondly, in root decision making, there is thorough analyzing comprehensively policies with relevant factor taken into account. While branch decision making depicts limited analysis(Stillman, 78).Branch decision making tends to ignore alternative possible and significant potential outcomes.Thirdly,Root decision making uses mean end analysis that entails isolation which is opposite to branch decision making where there is no isolation.

Hurricane Katarina disaster case was one of the most tragic encounter in USA history. Failure of government in managing disasters and poor response from Katarina led to this tragic occurrence. This was as result of poor decision making.

There were basic coordination problem. This caused disagreements on what is to be done at specific time and who is to do it. This led to delay in disaster management, recovery bodies and attending to those affected. For example FEMA tried to push for government to take control but the officials and locals were overwhelmed and disagreed accusing FEMA of slowness to act accordingly.(House report,2006:75).Although management literature suggest that large disaster are difficult to manage, the government should have been able to take full control of situation.

Unresponsiveness to early warnings. The disaster that happened cannot be classified as a surprise as scientists had already warned about that yet no action was taken. The consequences of major Hurricane had been long anticipated especially in New Orleans and there were fears of collapse of coastal city because it was built below sea level. But concerns about such danger were not met with required way of curbing them. It took 5 years for FEMA to file report of Hurricane hitting New Orleans which is extremely long time. Scientists warned people adequately consequentially convincing Governors of Mississippi and Louisiana to issue states of emergency three days before disaster. However some decided to stay because of previous false alarm and others due to lack of transport. Lack of urgency from federal government eventually led to disaster happening.

Failure of Government to understand system nature of risk led to delay. There unprecedented demand for services e.g medical attention, search for survivors, evacuation and setting temporary shelter proved impossible to cover fully. Reduction of response and communication due to scope of disaster made transportation of food difficult due to flooded roads. Many rescue and police vehicles were flooded and rendered unusable. Wireless phones were also affected and emergency calls were difficult

Problem of dealing with dispersed responsibilities. There was lack of clearly authority to guide through disaster in major organs of state. Federal responders waited for so long for certain Aid from the government. Lack of clear directing authority led to freelance hence coordination problem.

Organizational capacity. The size of disaster was so huge for ant network to control. However failure in deployment of personnel, not taking sufficient measures to deploy communication gadgets, not prestaging enough commodities and failure to unite and form joint office led to management of disaster so hard.FEMA for example had been run by political appointee with limited experience in natural disaster management.Furthmore under President bush administration FEMA had lost key functions political influence and resources. All this factors contributed to failure of Katrina

Conclusion

Natural Disasters can cause a lot of harm and we cannot be able to control them fully, however we can take anticipatory measures in order to curb with this menace. Many Lessons emerge from Katrina we must covert the failures into successes of the future. Taking responsibility, assigning roles, faster responsiveness of emergence lines are example ways to stir forward.REFERENCES

Stillman, R. J. (2005). Public administration: Concepts and cases. Boston [u.a.: Houghton Mifflin.

Henry, Nicholas. Public Administration and Public Affairs. New York: Pearson Education Canada, 2009.

Milakovich, Michael and George Gordon. Public Administration in America. New York: Cengage Learning, 2012.

Stillman, Richard. Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.

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debt crisis tuesday

debt crisis tuesday

Debt Crisis

Name:

Professor

Institution

Course:

Date:

The impact of the Third World Debt Crisis and Globalization on Developing and Developed Nations

There are extreme cases of the debt crisis in the modern world, and it needs to be understood well. Often the debt crisis refers to public and private external debt that is experienced by developing countries. The latter has been taking place since the 1970’s and exists up to date. The global economy is being affected tremendously by the debt crisis. Furthermore, the government of the United States is suffering immensely as it seeks to correct the problem of budget deficits. Also, its loans and savings institutions, as well as its balance trade deficits are being affected by the debt crisis.

On the other hand, Globalization is changing the relations that exist between the developing and developed nations. The world is on a daily basis having an integrated economy that is global. It means that decisions regarding social relations and production consumption have transnational dimensions. It cannot be denied that the influence of globalization is felt everywhere, and it is quite strong. Globalization has ensured that forces such as consumption patterns, information, and technologies, real and financial capital are present.

This paper seeks to give a critical analysis concerning the relationship between developing and developed nations. Moreover, it seeks to find out how their relationship has been affected by Globalization and the Third World Debt Crisis.

Critical analysis of the Global Debt Crisis and its impact on Developing and Developed nations

It is claimed that the developing world will never repay its debts fully, and this is due to the fact that they cannot afford it. Loans were initially given to the developing world as a form of stimulus to get rid of their poverty. Some economists claimed that in order to ensure that the citizen’s plight is addressed; they have to give them loans. People living in the developed world often cannot relate to poverty. Those living in developing nations do not have access to proper housing, nutrition, health care and even education.

The first world seeks to find ways of making sure that the debt crisis is resolved before it escalates any further. In turn, it has come up with three methods, and they include; reduction, adjustments of repayments and repudiation. Debt repudiation has been quite common in South American countries such as Peru and Brazil. Unfortunately, this measure has only been temporary. Jeffery Sachs an economist claims that repudiation will never be a solution to the debt crisis. In fact, it is known to affect the relations that exist between the developing nations. Some of polices established by the International Monetary Fund are discriminative. For example, the IMF believes that by controlling the currency values of African countries it can maintain the debt crisis. In Tanzania, the IMF has sort to solve the problems that are related to balance of payments. The latter attempt by the IMF failed, and this made the world know that the debt crisis cannot be handled by the organization.

Countries such as Brazil and Mexico have massive debts, and this is due to the international financial system, which they focus upon. Another region known to be affected by the debt world crisis is the region of Sub-Saharan Africa. Development in the third world is being hindered as a result of the debt crisis. It has made the debtors have a life quality that is not superior. For example, in most African countries such as Somalia and Sudan there is constant fighting. The decline in life quality is due to the political violence that is taking place in those regions. The Somali government has many debts that it cannot be able to pay and in turn the country is in chaos. The Al-Shabaab that is against the Somali government has resorted to find ways of taking over the country. They have resorted to engage in terrorist activities and some analysts’ claim this is due to the debt crisis that has affected Somalia.

Most of Africa is taking the time to develop as the debt crisis has made them become heavily indebted. The international economic system is the key reason why poverty levels are extremely high. There are some African nations, which are extremely rich, while others are the complete opposite. Egypt is a rich African country that cannot be compared to others such as Senegal and Mali. The first world seems to favor Egypt and often finds ways of removing their debt burden. In turn, Egypt has an opportunity to progress while other regions are ignored by the first world. African nations have resorted to protecting their own territories and not become involved with each other. In turn, the debt crisis is blamed for affecting the relations between members of the third world.

It is argued that the relationship that exists between Developing and Developed nations has been affected by Globalization. Recently, there has been an increase in interconnection, which is economic in nature. In turn, it has led to changes that are political, and it seems to affect many countries and especially the poor ones. Developing countries are extremely dependent on the economies of developed countries. For example, the United States is viewed as a power that can fully support most developing countries. America is known for its high levels of technology levels as well as capital expertise. Multinationals are a perfect example of how globalization has affected the relationship between the two diverse nations. Brands such as Sony, Nike and Coca Cola are examples of products that affect globalization. Also, as a result of globalization, capitalism has emerged and it has three features that are unique. The most distinct features are the ones concerning delocalization and its relation to globalization.

People are becoming familiar with one another through mediums such as the internet, telephones, media, advertising as well as economic exchanges. This means that, at the same time, material consumption is enhanced by the developing and developed nations. For example, the American brand known as McDonalds is widely found. In fact, the chain has outlets in all almost all the continents. Local communities are also affected by the activities that are conducted by multinationals. The latter often search for developing countries whereby, they can obtain cheap resources and labor, in order to carry out their operations. In turn, the local communities benefit as there is a flow of wealth and this enhances the globalization process. Also, the scenario can bring about cases of unemployment that is large scale. The result is that there will be wide gaps of inequality between the local communities and the multinationals For example, employees working in a multinational in a country such as China, for the company known as Nike, often complain about poor pay. In a 1998 in China, it was found out that manufacturers such as Nike and Ralph Lauren underpaid Chinese workers. They were being paid as little as 13cents every hour, while their counterparts in other companies in the same region were being paid 87 cents every hour. Moreover, workers doing the same job in the United States were being paid at least 10 dollars every hour. In turn, the relation between the United States and China was strained as a result of such cases.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the first world does not seem to try and solve the problem of the debt crisis in the third world. It is almost a daily occurrence to hear of loans being given to third world countries. This is despite the fact that they are heavily indebted and cannot find a way to pay back. It is vital that suitable ways of helping the developing third world are found, other than give them loans that cannot be repaid easily. Globalization has totally widened the gap between developing and developed nations. At the same time, globalization has been enhanced by beliefs and ideas that have been spread through western imperialism. This is an error that is costly as well as serious that multinationals in developing nations should be aware of. Since they have the power of improving a developing countries economy, they should control the macroeconomic forces that exist. In turn, the local community in the developing country will be satisfied by the changes that are taking place.

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De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

Student’s Names

Institution

De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

Serious discussion and debating on the subject of legalizing substances and drugs within the United States has received little public support. Top scholars and other government officials have since backed the idea since the move would be an alternative to the fight against drug-related issues (McKeganey, 2013). The U.S government is losing billions of dollars in the fight against illicit drugs, money that it can use for other purposes. Furthermore, many citizens will escape the penalty of serving jail terms for drug-related crimes. If the government can decriminalize small amounts of illicit drugs in the United States then the judicial system would not be as burdened. Moreover, emphasis could be placed on helping the persons who are plagued and are suffering from compulsion and addiction with plans of treatment, thus reducing the number of persons incarcerated. My goal is to substantiate this hypothesis that the current judicial system in the United States is being used as a treatment plan for individuals who are suffering from addiction.The theory of social deviance, as argued by Harshi, is one of the applicable sociological concepts that we can use in this text. According to this theory, society enacts laws but individuals decide to go contrary to these due to loss of social attachment. There are clear and strict rules against the use of illicit drugs in the United States but still there are criminal offenders. If the government could de-legalize illegal drugs and govern its use, then there would be reduced crimes because people will not be subject to these regulations again (Reid, 2008). Researchers argue that the government waste resources that it can use on other projects in enacting laws. Legalization of drugs will result in a reduction in the number of prisoners. That is because drugs will be affordable and there will be no scrupulous business individuals since the government will be able to set prices of drugs (Wyler, 2010).The practical implications of this move will be evident in the reduced cases of crime. People will use drugs wisely based on the education received and simple regulations set. Prisons will also cease being rehabilitation centers as it has always been. Moreover, Decriminalization will provide safer avenues for accessing drugs since the government will take charge and, as a result, individuals will turn to the recommended drugs. Decriminalization will not lead to increased drug use; it will only provide easier ways of accessing drugs.EvidenceThere have been varied reactions to the debate of legalization of illicit drugs. Some countries have since taken this move and it is evident that it has come with positive feedback. A typical example is Portugal, which took this direction in 2001. This country came up with well-defined reforms on enactment of rules on drug use. The results are positive since there has been a reduction in drug consumption. Cases of drug-related crimes have since reduced and arrests due to crimes have gone down (McKeganey, 2013)Decriminalization has reduced the cost of fighting drug-related crimes in Portugal. Instead of the US government channeling funds to enforce rules on drugs, it can use these funds for building rehabilitation centers and encourage the willing individuals to find help in these institutions. Other countries that have embraced this move and realized its results include Netherlands and Mexico. There might be some bias since people might decide to make individual decisions on the use of drugs. Economic differences can also play a role in these disparities hence the US government should consider doing an extensive research on this move. Scholars and government agencies should be involved to come up with clear guidelines on this matter (Rushefsky, 2013).In conclusion, decriminalization of drugs does not result in increased cases of drug consumption and crime. As research clearly shows, countries that have legalized drug use have reported positive effects. There have been reduced cases of drug use and crimes since these countries have put up clear reforms on this. If US can consider legalization of illicit drugs, the researchers predict similar results. The government will take charge of the whole issue and come up with government recommended drugs. Regulation of prices will come in and this will eliminate drug traffickers, authorized shops companies will channel taxes to the government, hence more funds to use in other projects. It will, therefore, employ resources in building rehabilitation centers that will attract interested individuals instead of using prisons to rehabilitate drug addicts and law offenders. Researches have shown that the effects of decriminalizing drugs will work towards solving the problem of drug abuse and its eventual crimes.If the US government can consider this move, it will still engage in research that is more extensive. Law enforcing agencies and scholars can offer more insight in this since this can directly or indirectly fall under their area of expertise.

References

Mckeganey, N. (2013). A-Z of Substance Misuse and Drug Addiction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Reid, J.M. (2008). Drug Use Sequencing and Kandel’s Gateway Hypothesis. New York: Proquest Publishers.

Rushefsky, M. (2013). Public Policy in the United States. New York: M.E. Sharpe Publishers.Wyler, L.S. (2009). International Drug Control Policy. Pennsylvania: DIANE Publishing.

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Decision Analysis answers

Decision Analysis answers

Decision Theory

Student’s Name

Institution Affiliation

Self-Test

A

A

A

A

C

B

C

A

Question 17

What type of decision is Ken facing?*Decision under uncertainty

What decision criterion should he use?*Maximax

What alternative is best*He should choose Sub 100, since it has the best possible outcome.

Question 18

Ken is using maximax criterion and should select sub 100 as it has the maximum payoff of $300000.

As Bob is pessimistic, He should use Maximin criterion. Equipment Favourable Mkt($) Unfavourable Mkt($) Row minimum

Sub 100 $ 300,000.00 $ (200,000.00) $ (200,000.00)

Oiler J $ 250,000.00 $ (100,000.00) $ (100,000.00)

Texan $ 75,000.00 $ (18,000.00) $ (18,000.00)

Maximin $ (18,000.00)

Using Maximin criterion, Bob would select Texan as worst payoff for this alternative

is better than the worst payoffs of other alternatives

Question 20

SOLUTION: (a) What decision would maximize expected profits? To decide the best alternative, we need to calculate EMV for each alternative as shown below.

STATE OF NATURE EMV DECISION ALTERNATIVE GOOD ECONOMY POOR ECONOMY Stock Market 80,000 -20,000 30000 Bonds 30,000 20,000 25000 CDs 23,000 23,000 23000 Probability 0.5 0.5   Maximum EMV 30000 As the EMV is maximum for Stock market, Mickey should invest in the Stock market.

(b) What is the maximum amount that should be paid for perfect forecast of the economy?

Expected Value for Perfect information (EVPI) is the amount that should be paid for perfect forecast of the economy.

EVPI = EV with perfect information – Maximum EMV EV with Perfect information = Best payoff for first state of nature

*Probability of the 1st state of nature +Best payoff for second state of nature

*Probability of the 2nd state of nature

EV with PI 51500 EVPI $ 21,500 Thus, the maximum amount that should be paid is $21,500

Question 24

SOLUTIONS (a) Develop an opportunity loss table.   PROFIT ($)   STRONG FAIR POOR   MARKET MARKET MARKET Large facility 550,000 110,000 -310,000 Medium-sized facility 300,000 129,000 -100,000 Small facility 200,000 100,000 -32,000 No facility 0 0 0   Opportunity loss Table   STRONG MARKET FAIR MARKET POOR MARKET   Large facility 0 19,000 310,000 Medium-sized facility 250,000 0 100,000 Small facility 350,000 29,000 32,000 No facility 550,000 129,000 0 (b) What is the minimax regret decision?   Opportunity loss Table  

  STRONG MARKET FAIR MARKET POOR MARKET MAXIMUM REGRET

  Large facility 0 19,000 310,000 310,000

Medium-sized facility 250,000 0 100,000 250,000

Small facility 350,000 29,000 32,000 350,000

No facility 550,000 129,000 0 550,000

Minimax regret 250,000

Minimax regret decision is to build Medium-sized facility.

Question 29

Payoff

266700800100120967513239752419350295275264795012382526860504095753048000123825306705066675054292592392512096754095751219200409575

0.5 $100,000

favourable market Construct Clinic $30,000 Unfavorable market 0.5 ($40,000)

EMV $30,000 $0 Do nothing $0

EMV for node 1(Construct clinic) = 0.5*100000 +0.5*(-40,000) = $30,000 EMV for do nothing=$0 The EMV for tree is maximum of the two, thus $30,000 As, EMV is highest for the alternative of construct a clinic, the medical professionals should construct the clinic.

Reference

Turskis, Z., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2011). Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods in economics: an overview. Technological and economic development of economy, (2), 397-427.

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Debate on Collective Memory

Debate on Collective Memory

Debate on Collective Memory

One of the most distinguishing aspects in Maurice Halbwachs’ discourse in social frameworks of memory is the strong association of memory with cultural perceptions. Through various examples, Halbwachs illustrates the existence of collective memory and social memory frameworks. He goes further to assert that our personal thoughts reside in these social frameworks which actively play a role in the process of recollection. We are able to remember things more vividly and with a higher degree of clarity when parents, friends, or fellow members of our society recall them for us. The associative ability of our memories largely relies on our cultural surroundings.

Clifford Geertz maintains that our expectations are conceptualized through our general stock of theoretical concepts as defined by our cultures. In this view Geertz is in agreement with Halbwachs’ concept of social frameworks of memory. In response to his critics, Michael Foucault invokes Halbwachs’ social frameworks by asserting that theories are results of “established regimes of thought” (Halbwach 38). He attributes criticism against him to features and events that have been socially accepted by virtue of our being in contact with them repeatedly. He calls the recalling and accepting of these virtues “a return of knowledge” (Foucault 81). His description of these virtues that form culture is in agreement with Halbwachs’ social frameworks of memory.

Halbwachs maintains that individuals should be considered as isolated beings as most psychological treatises try to portray. Such arguments demand that in order to understand human mental operations we first have to sever all connections of the individual with the society. He calls this an erroneous process since the individual derives a large part of his or her memory from the society. It is from the society that they are able to “recall, recognize and localize their memories” (Halbwachs 38). All our daily recollections in any day are the result of our direct or indirect association with other members of the society since we appeal to our memories to answer questions that have been asked or we believe they might have asked us. In providing answers we put ourselves in the same social context as the other people in order to be properly understood. Our memory is therefore subjected to the kind of society we are in.

Michel Foucault recognizes the social framework of memory while describing the phenomenon of insurrection subjugated knowledges. He describes subjugated knowledges in two ways. The first way is as “the historical contents that have been buried and disguised in a functionalist coherence or formal systemization” (Foucult 81). Secondly, subjugated knowledges refer to the historical content of the society that would help us discover who we truly are from where we came from but are disguised. Subjugated knowledges can thus be defined as blocks of historical contents that make it possible for us to keep on rediscovering the adverse effects of the struggle between our true selves and the norms imposed on us by the functionalist or systematic mental disguise. The mental disguise he is referring to is the social framework of our cultural memory.

Foucault states that criticism thrives well when people have lost the perception of differential knowledge which does not rely on unanimous acceptance but instead rely on local popular knowledge to disqualify the truth. This opinion lends credence to Halbwachs’ viewpoint of the society being the determinant of how concepts, items, and other phenomena are called to memory.

While describing the relationship between memory and language, Halbwachs renounces the idea that our pasts are stored in our memories like cabinet drawers. He argues that people living together in a society are held together by the use of words they find to be commonly intelligible. This is a major condition is for collective thought. Every word that they use brings a recollection of an item or idea. All words are accompanied by appropriate recollections such that a word that does not call to mind a specific event, item, idea or person is considered to be alien in that particular language. It is described as un-understandable. On the other hand, there are no recollections that come without corresponding words to describe them within the society. “We often speak of our recollections before calling them to mind” (Halbwachs 173). These words make up the language we speak therefore it is language in combination with a host of many other social conventions, that give us the ability to reconstruct past events.

The function of language as a social framework for memory is an issue that Clifford Geertz includes in his definition of culture as a complex whole. He uses Clyde Kluckhohn’s definition culture in eleven ways that are all in agreement with Halbwachs social frameworks of memory. Geertz gives Kluckhohn’s definition of culture as “the total way of life of a people” (Geertz 4). This definition implies that culture relies on the unifying concepts that people can conceptualize through memory to agree that they are indeed one community. The conceptualization is only achieved through similar recollections of common values, beliefs, social systems, events, and any other aspect of life that they share. This conceptualization therefore relies on social frameworks of memory and recollection.

Another definition is about culture being “the social legacy the individual acquires from his group” (Geertz 4). This description of culture calls to attention Halbwachs’ association of memory with cultural perceptions where an individual’s thoughts reside in social frameworks that actively play a role in the process of recollection. It is in the same way that one would ask how our recollections are stored. Halbwachs describes this phenomenon of locating recollections by stating that it is done “with the help of landmarks that we carry within ourselves, for it suffices to look around ourselves within the social frame work to retrieve them” (175).

Geertz also describes culture as “a way of thinking, feeling, and believing” (Geertz 4). This definition is similar to Halbwachs’ assertion about the associative ability of our memories largely relying on the way we think and believe as members of one society. When Geertz talks about the definition of culture as a storehouse of learned attributes pooled together, he is borrowing from Halbwachs’ argument on memory being subject to the kind of society we live in such that all learned attributes are defined by the social recollection. For example, a hot-dog is a type of food eaten in most western cultures and is therefore a cultural attribute. However, a person from a different culture will have to learn what it is before he or she can recollect what it is whenever it is mentioned. The meaning of the term resides within the storehouse of that community. Anyone from outside might misconstrue the real meaning and end up recollecting visions of a hot canine.

Halbwachs addresses the question of how we can with a degree of certainty confirm that our recollections as individuals and as members of a society are actually as a result of social schemes or frameworks. How are we able to achieve the colorful representations of our recollections? To answer this question, he first considers the relationship between an image and a concept. The image is considered as being independent of intellectual significance while the concept is considered to be devoid of the image. This makes it possible to reconstruct memory-images without having to pull out tangible images. The concepts on the other hand can be recollected on an intellectual level without the need for tangibility. While writing about nationalism, identity, ethnicity, and revolution among other subjects, Geertz assumes a similar outlook on life as Halbwachs does about images and concepts.

Geertz takes a stand against sociological aestheticism and concentrates on separation of biological and physical entities from political and economical realities in order to place such issues in a comprehensible and meaningful frame. He takes a symbolic dimension on social action like art, morality, and ideology to show that the function of “interpretive anthropology is not to answer our deepest questions but to make available to us the answers that others, guarding other sheep in other valleys, have given” (Geertz 30). This argument can be equated to Halbwachs’ position on the social frameworks of memory where an individual relies on the other members of the society to recollect issues and events from his or her natural surroundings.

Works Cited

Foucault, Michel. “Power/Knowledge.” Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977. Ed.Colin Gordon. New York: Pantheon, 1980. 78-108. Print.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Print.

Halbwachs, Maurice. The collective memory. New York: Harper & Row Colophon Books, 1980.Print.

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