No Puerto Rico Move For Billionaire John Paulson

No Puerto Rico Move For Billionaire John Paulson

No Puerto Rico Move For Billionaire John Paulson

Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u Executive summary PAGEREF _Toc381074927 h 1Brief summary of the article PAGEREF _Toc381074928 h 1Views on the issues PAGEREF _Toc381074929 h 2Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc381074930 h 2

Executive summaryThis article is about John Paulson a billionaire fund manager of SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico. He is the founder and president of Paulso & Co and a native of New York. There are claims in the media of his supposed intentions of moving to Puerto Rico and establishing a residence there but he denied this claims. However, he has considered investing in real estate but has absolutely no plans of making the island his permanent residence. There are also claims of mass exodus from Puerto Rico due to a stagnant economy and crime among other problems (Burton, Ruhle, & Mider, 2013).

Brief summary of the articleThere are various opposing views that are brought out in this article by several parties. The first party is the media. The media has reported severally on John Paulson’s intention to move permanently from New York to Puerto Rico Island. They base their claims on the fact that John Paulson is taking advantage of the changing tax laws and hence the move will help him cut his tax bill. The media support their report by claiming that John Paulson’s company has assets that are worth about $18 billion under its management and therefore the company would benefit if the president moved to the island (Roche La Julia ,2013).This is due to the fact that the new tax law would be of great advantage to John Paulson since as a new resident he would be exempted from tax on the gains in his capital since this is the principal source of income for extremely wealthy investors like John Paulson. The other part which is John Paulson himself denies this claims made in reports by the media. He denies having any intentions of establishing a permanent residence in Puerto Rico. He does not deny having considered real estate investments in the island but has no plans whatsoever of establishing a permanent residence in Puerto Rico.

There is totally different proposal set forth which claims that if John Paulson is really considering making Puerto Rico his home the move would be quite an unusual one. This is because many people have been moving out of Puerto Rico in the recent years due to the fact that the island’s economy has been a stagnant one. In the same island there are problems such as crime among other problems. The population has gone down and it is now 3.7 million. This raises the question as to whether moving to Puerto Rico is a wise decision.

Views on the issuesThe media has a right to report on the views they have on the matter however the person who has the answer is John Paulson himself. Therefore he should be given a chance to defend himself and tell the public his stand on the issue. My view on the issue is that John Paulson should not consider making Puerto Rico his permanent home. This is because many people are leaving the island due to the stagnant economy and other problems then why should he consider going to live let alone invest in such an area.

ConclusionI think John Paulson did not move to Puerto Rico. The change in tax law was not a good enough reason to make him move to the island. He might have considered other factors such as the stagnant economy and other problems facing the island and withdrew any intentions that he had of moving if he had any. He just continued managing SAN JUAN from New York as he was doing before.

Work cited

Burton, Katherine. Ruhle, Stephanie & Mider, Zachary. Bloomberg Businessweek.Billionaire Paulson May Move to Puerto Rico for Tax Break. (2013).Retrieved April 8, 2013 from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-03-14/billionaire-paulson-may-move-to-puerto-rico-for-tax-breakRoche La Julia. Hedge Fund Billionaire John Paulson Not Defecting To Puerto Rico To Dodge Taxes. (2013).Retrieved April 8, 2013 from http://www.businessinsider.com/john-paulson-not-moving-to-puerto-rico-2013-3

Posted in Uncategorized

NIKE. Managing Ethical Missteps. Sweatshops to Leadership in Employment Practices

NIKE. Managing Ethical Missteps. Sweatshops to Leadership in Employment Practices

NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps

Name

Professor

Institution

Course

Date

NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps

Introduction

While Nike is a giant manufacturing company specializing in the production of indoor and outdoor footwear’s and sweatshirt, it is also among the best managed companies in the world. However, this is from the economic point of view. There are many cases that might lead to the fall of the manufacturing giant, and these cases are mainly ethical despite the fact that the company has not been in the limelight for ethical and professional malpractices (Brian, 2009).

Discern How a More Effective Ethics Programs and a More Viable Code of Conduct Could Have Mitigated the Ethical Issues Faced by Nike.

Nike failed to implement internal programs aimed at detecting and preventing violation of laws hence is eligible for a significant increase in penalties. Therefore, had Nike developed a compliance program before the offenses, they would have averted most of the ethics related problems that the company faced. A viable code of ethics does not only act as a deterrent, but also as a guideline for ethical operations and activities within a company. If the company had a viable code of ethics, the employees would have been more aware of the impact of their practices on the environment as well as on the community. The management would have been more strict with its employment rules before absorbing employee and would have ensured that all the documents used by the company are genuine and up to date (Greenhouse, 2011).

Describe an Ethics Training and Communications Program that May Have Kept Nike from Encountering the Ethical Issues It Did in This Scenario Ethical Training Program.

An effective ethics training program offers a number of benefits that can be instrumental in detecting unethical behaviors that are likely to devastate an organization. For example, issues like child labor and corporate social unresponsiveness experienced in Nike are unethical activities that could have brought the giant company down.

An ethics and training program must communicate standards and the integrity visions of the company. In this way, the identified integrity risks are reduced, and open communication lines are created as well as a transparent work environment. A program must create a work environment that is free from any form of retaliation and intimidation. On the other hand, an ethics and communication program should set clear, expected standards of behaviors and the communicating channels to be used for conveying the integrity messages across the company. It should also set rules on how the stakeholders can become engaged in the process (Edward, 2010).

Determine and Discuss how Nike Could Have Benefited Early on from Ethics Auditing.

Ethical auditing is the process by which company’s measures internal and external consistency of their value base. This is a value linked process by which stakeholders are incorporated into the organization (Brian, 2009). For example, Nike incorporated the stakeholder into their value base and considered how their practices were aligned to their stakeholder. Nike stakeholders do not only refer to the shareholder but also the communities in which the company operates the employee, customers as well as suppliers. Ethical audit is intended to ensure accountability and transparency to all the stakeholders of the company. This process is also important in ensuring that the company meets its ethical objectives. Though this process is mainly an internal control measure, it focuses more on the external factors such as the community response, the social welfare as well as the stakeholder interest. Ethical audits are mainly meant to captures nukes ethical profile. Ethical profiles combine financial profile, service profile and employer profile to investors, customers and employees respectively (Edward, 2010). All the factors that might have an impact on the Nikes reputation are put into perspective by an ethical audit. If Nike had taken a picture of its value system in time, it would have:

1) Clarified the definite values to which it operates:

Nike has a number of flows in its supply chain; these flaws are easily identified if all the public views are considered. If the company had established an ethical audit before, the company would have streamlined its supply chain and clarified the actual value within which it operates and not just remain vague. These ethical audits communicates to the employees the ethical training objectives, ethical code of conducts, Hotline usage, Ethical issues, Conflicts of interest, Kickbacks, Accounting irregularities, Protection from retaliation, Internal theft as well as employee responsiveness (Brian, 2009).

Learnt how to establish and provide a better baseline for measuring the future improvement.

Factors such as corporate social responsibilities that Nike is facing, and is still likely to face in future, are some of the things that the company should give proper considerations to. The company is in fault for employing underage workers, having unpaid wages for employees and using falsified documents for worker permits. The company could have steered clear of all these by benchmarking and ensuring that all the regulations are met properly before implementing any program and ensuring that there are internal policies and ethics officers charged with ensuring that the policies related to employment and working conditions are always footed (Greenhouse, 2011).

Leant how to meet the societal expectation that it did not meet at that time:

Nike would have employed and trained more CSR specialists in all plants. This is to uphold compliance and societal focus into the company mainstream objectives, thereby increasing the company’s reach to the community and reducing the child labor. By establishing plants in poor areas, the company is set to exploit the cheap labor. Though this is seen as a positive move, the company could have established a proper salary scale for the workers. A realistic salary scale is much more effective in the reduction of employee unrest and the other related problems within the company.

Given the entire stakeholder the opportunities to clarify what they expected from the company.

Ethical audit involves the establishment of compromise between the company and the stakeholder, this process offers opportunities form collection of the stakeholder views, which can be instrumental in shaping the strategy goals of the company and setting direction with the stakeholders in mind (Edward, 2010).

Identified those problem areas that existed within the company.

Most of these problems include the wages, worker condition as well worker tight. Though this is limited in scope, the company could have joined the global alliance before their problem stated and achieved these goals before.

Learnt about the issue which motivated the employees as well as, the community?

The community is the backbone of the company in any setting, therefore, their concern is much more important than the company success. It is therefore, imperative for the company to ensure that the community has a positive attitude towards it to help the company prosper. A slight change in the attitude of the employees is injurious to the company’s reputation and success (Edward, 2010).

Identified the overall areas of vulnerability especially those areas related to transparency.

Attract more customers:

As the company’s customer base widens, the number of interested participants increases, the general perceptions of the customer as an ethical company increases the customers positive perception about the company. The number of male, female and fashion oriented customers would increase (Brian, 2009).

Create A High-Level Outline For What The Ethics Auditing Process Should Look Like At Nike.

References

Brian, A. (2009). The Natural Treads for Business: Ecology, Wealth & Evolutionary Corporation. British Columbia: Society Publishers.

Edward, G. (2010). Corporate Strategy & Exploration of Ethics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Greenhouse, S. (2011). “Nike’s Chief Rescinds a Gift over Screening of Sweatshops”. The New York Times.

Posted in Uncategorized

Night Vision Goggles Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels

Night Vision Goggles Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels

Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels

Name

Institution

Abstract

In modern combat, the desire to operate at night is paramount because of the heightened enemy prowess against aggressors. As a result, technology has researched on the possibility of developing systems, which would minimize the challenge resulted by night darkness. A common example of this technology is Night Vision Goggles (NVG). However, due to physical and physiological associated with NVG technology, pilots often find piloting a dissatisfying career. This leads to the constant labor mobility as pilots will attempt to live current employment for cognitive backed psychological problems. This research proposal will attempt to prove that NVG primarily causes fatigue and later quality of cognitive judgments required in piloting. The paper is structured into two pain parts and one secondary part. The commencing part one – problem analysis- will analyze the problems associated with NVG technology in piloting. This part will as well analyze the importance this study. The research will also suggest satellite proposition of where future research will focus – scope of the study. The second part – literature review- will examine the relevant literature backing up problems enlisted in the problem statement part. The paper will also provide a recommendation on what should be done to replace NVG technology.

Statement Problem

Night Vision Goggles (NVG) is a successful technology in the military aviation industry. However, its success has several shortcomings which occasion usability problems. Pilots using this technology are accustomed to mental and physical suffering. Occasional inabilities triggered by poor working environment naturally demoralizes the pilot. As a result, loss of manpower technically results to high financial cost for the aircraft investment (Harrison et al, 2010). However, the central concern of this research is the quality of cognitive judgments processed by pilots. In piloting, coherent judgments are imperative; thus, ineffective judgments resulted from poor syntax construction is primarily a demerit in the in controlling an aircraft. Fatigue in the airline industry is caused by a plethora of factors. Firstly, night vision goggles are bulky, and they are mounted on an equally bulky helmet (McLean, 1999). As a result, the pilot is forced to continously support the weight for hours. Excessive supported weight is a potential cause factor of the neck and back pain. Further to this, Parush et al (2011) establishes that Pilots are required to work in demanding situations.

Environmental factors; which are aided by use of night vision goggles forms a significant muse in factors leading to increased fatigue levels. These are aspects related to terrain, weather, lighting and climate. So to it, the Pilot is expected to respond to challenging physiological and physical demands with outmost accuracy. Davis, Johnson & Stepaneck (2008, p. 358), establishes that the technical complexity of NVG goggles combined with a demanding working environment naturally overpowers what a moderate human can accommodate. Not to mention that piloting is also challenged by gravity problems. Federal Aviation Administration (2011, p. 5) establishes that a pilot nervous system is subject to push-pull factors of gravity. Physiologically, when a pilot tilts his or her head, the weight of these crystals causes this membrane to shirt due to gravity and sensory hairs which detect the shit. Therefore, the combined challenges in piloting primarily leads to heightened fatigue levels.

Significance of this study

Training pilots is an expensive initiative that requires time, financial and capital resource mobilization. The clinical problems established in the above description are potent factors that explain the high labor mobility in the airline industry (Parush et al, 2011). The purpose of this research is to establish factors leading to fatigue levels, and how they impact on the airline industry cognitive requirements, standards and thresholds. The research will analyze relevant research in medical and labor field. Central objectives include; the development of quantifiable physiological research relating to fatigue and cognitive factors. Secondly, the information generated from this research will be applied diagnosis of fatigue instigators and how these factors can be managed by future industrial standards

Scope of the study (Future detailed research)

The upcoming research will collect data from pilots, psychologists, and human resource managers. Research question will be oriented to ensure that respondents offer vital information based on real live experiences. In particular, research questions will inherently seek to investigate the relationship between fatigue and cognitive levels. This research is timely challenged by the absence of aviation engineers. The researcher has not yet identified sources from this field. Primarily, aviation engineers are the nucleus behind the development of cockpit technologies. Lack of no data from this group will impact heavily on this research constraining it from achieving reliable results.

Research questions

Q1. To what degree are pilots’ comfortable piloting as a career?

Q2. To what extent do rising fatigue levels impact on cognitive levels of a pilot?

Q3. To what extent do narrowing cognitive discourage the pilot from engaging in piloting as a career?

Literature Review

Introduction

A night vision goggle is an electronically powered optical device that allows images to be produced at a given level of light in total darkness. Although night vision goggles have been used in military and other law enforcement agencies, the aviation industry is increasing adapting their usage. This is based on the knowledge that; in the blink of the night, lighting becomes necessary. In the aviation field, the most use night vision goggles are panoramic night vision goggles. These are superior devices using close to 20mm image intensifier tubes.

History of night vision goggles in Aviation

In July 1972, the U.S Army Combat Development Experimentation Command (USACDEC) validated a series helicopter clear Night Defense Experiments. The experiments focused on how trainees could respond at the blink of the night. During the Cold war era, the necessity to conduct night attacks was paramount based on the knowledge enemies were constantly orienting parallel and vicious technologies. In a military briefing in late 1975, it was accessed that implication of Middle East War on U.S could be overrun if the military adopted night operations. Night vision is developed from three primary technologies. Firstly, the Active illumination works in principle of coupling intensification technology. This technology uses two methods, shortwave infrared (SWIR) band and near infrared (NIR). The second technology and the most used in aviation is image intensification. The underlying principle behind this technology is its ability magnify the amount of protons received from various sources. Thirdly, the thermal imaging technology operates by detecting the temperate differences forecasted on the background of the objects. In February 1976, the military fully acknowledged the integration of night vision helmets in aiding night missions. This was backed by the publication of Training Circular (TC) 1-28 Rotary Wing Flight.

Impact of night vision goggles in piloting

Following the 1976 publication, several companies began pursuing technologies that will boost night vision devices. Currently, night vision devices are constructed of anodized aircraft aluminum. The helmet is designed to respond to demanding ergonomic requirements (Harrison et al, 2010). Key considerations are proper respiration process and response to bodily discharges. The helmets are suited with up to 25mm optical display. Primarily, the NVG tube receives behind the objective lens propels light from a wide range in the spectrum of the deep red area. The tube is suited with phosphor screen; which is viewed through an eyepiece lens (McLean, 1999). This screen enables a magnification of +2 to -6 diopter adjustment, with an eye relief of 14mm at 25mm distance. Most of these devices are powered by the docking deck situated in the airplane cockpit. This features makes it possible for night vision goggles to gain popularity in the aviation industry

Configuration

The ocular configuration; which determines the nature of the NVG is adjusted differently to meet the demands of a given environment. Primarily, there are three main components in NVG technology. This are monocular NVG configuration. This configuration has components has a single objective lens, as well as a single amplifying tube in a single eyepiece. This device can only be used by one eye. The biocular NVG configuration has a single objective lens in a single tube, but two ear pieces. The two eyes are intensified in one single tube. The binocular device right hand image has two objective lenses, and two intensifying tubes. The configuration tube has an upper hand since it has two separate intensified images from two separate viewpoints. The depth perception in enhanced with contrast, expansion and detection (Chen et al, 2011)

How Night Vision goggle works

NVG device in war aircrafts and helicopters enables pilots to fly in enemy zones secretly and at night. The NVG projects ambient light; which is distributed within the device tunnel. The head worn device have various electrical and mechanical processes. The device infrared ability collects any available amount of light including the lower light spectrum and amplify it to enable the user to see vivid images. To accomplish this, the device applies thermal imaging technology which captures the upper part of infrared light spectrum. Thermal imaging light is emitted to all objects view. The light is duplicated to phased array system detector. Light at this stage is detailed in a pattern known as thermogram. The thermogram pattern duplicate image into electric impulses. The impulses are sent to a signal processing board, a dedicated chip that translates information into data display. The signal processing unit sends images in various color, after which the infrared filters excessive colors (Parush, 2011). Although the NVG is a great night viewing device, it is prudent to note that the process involved in image processing deter the quality of the image. In most case, pilots will often struggle to view all details provided in the NVG display.

Issues:

Navigation risk

Piloting, especially in field combat is a demanding task that requires considerate physical movements. The pilot mounted with the NVG visualizer requires the constant view the environment surrounding him. Failure of proper visualization may result to accidents. In fact, according to Rash et al. (2009) the number of accidents involved in military flights are primarily caused by poor visualization. Also, there has been issues related to lack of proper orientation to the technologies. Of recent, there have been many vendors of night vision goggles. Most vendors have customized feature with intent to outcompete their competitors. As a result, the devices do not meet similar industrial standards. For instance, a pilot could previously be using a narrow FOV. Traditionally, this device was designed to have a lower peripheral vision. This may result to increased spatial disorientation. However, in a different mission, the pilot may be using a larger FOV grounded on demands of that mission. Based on this, pilots find it hard to meet demands of a device with a higher peripheral vision. This not only puts not only causes anxiety/ fatigue to the pilot, but also exposes the pilot on the risk of accidents.

Posture problems

The configuration aspect has a different impact in how it impact on human physiological functions. This is based on the fact of additional weight and luminance additional weight. This is based on how the NVGs impact on neck strains, injuries and headaches. Firstly, the physical aspect of mounting is inefficient and creates an uncomfortable piloting manner. The physical issues related to the user are anthropometry and inadequacy of navigation space. This is based on the fact that piloting requires sudden and agile moves. As a result, weight and configuration problems resulted by mounted equipment are primarily responsible for the creation of instability; thus, resulting to gross neck and muscle strain leading to fatigue problems. Pervasive head, neck and spine injuries are responsible for crash (Falla, 2004). In any case, the device weight and the changing center of gravity does not correlate positively with human physiological functions. The pilot will be forced to spend more energy in trying to balance the device demanding weight problems than concentrating on field activities.

Neurotransmission ProblemsConstant exposure to these working conditions (head, neck and spine injuries) prompts the development of central nervous breakdown and development of chronic of headaches (Davies, 2008). Headaches are common complaints of pilots navigating in demanding situations. This is linked to visual difficulties, flight neck discomforts and constrained lighting amongst long working hours in complex computer cock-pits trigger headache on several accounts (Falla, 2004). Also, the combined effect of headaches, nervous and sight breakdowns is the primary cause of bone fractures. The dysfunction associated bone fractures is constant fatigue and general disorientation.

Body vibration and gravity

A moving helicopter vibrates heavily impacting negatively on the human seated vertically on a cockpit. Vibration can be a measure on the scale of principle harmonic frequency of 5Hz. Heavy vibration induced constraints energy transfer resulting the standard frequency to 4.5 Hz (Chen et al, 2007). Vibration causes the pilot to suffer Z axis displacement. Z axis displacements are emitted from the floor of the aircraft this is caused by vibration transmission emitted from the buttocks of a vertically seated individual. In any event, most body parts are engaged either hand, legs, buttocks, head, and back. However, the neck, which is supporting the head, is not engaged to anything. As a result, the neck experiences severe vibration. Naturally, the neck is configured to support any vibrations frequencies, a good example being running (Patricia, 2010). Nonetheless, the neck is constrained severe if it has additional weight to support. Vibration, vertical seating problems and long working hours are the primary cause factors of spine problems. In fact, neck induced vibrations is primary responsible for the development of the neck and back muscle fatigue (Chen et al, 2007). Constrained neck and back impairs the brain central processing functions forcing the pilot to develop severe vision problems (Gallagher, 2008)

Cognitive Risk

Chronic mental problems caused by fatigue are a result of impaired judgment. Pilots exposed to these conditions are in a greater risk of suffering from greater myoelectric manifestations. Muscle fatigue and relative neck pain controls resulted negatively on the slope. This is based on the knowledge that EMG frequency has outcompeted by demanding neuron-functions. Also, constant neck pain prompts disturbances in cognitive judgments. Impairments of muscles, heightened abrupt activities, respiratory problems and constrained visions impact heavily on the quality of syntax required to process a given activity. Research has established that pilots working in demanding condition not only suffer a mental breakdown while at work, but socially (Falla, 2004). Technically, constant neck pain demands increased muscular and electrical activity. In any event, the body requires to produce equivalent to combat rising demands, of visions, gravity and posture problems. However, the body spends more concentration in responding to weight problems constraining the neck. Constant exposure to neck problems forces the pilot to develop lower output of neuron-functions. The pilot not only suffers mild and temporary fatigue, but the breakdown of neuron-process. The pilot seem to forget basic things because of deeply drenched fatigue problems. In addition, the pilot may develop chronic physical problems as a result of declined cognitive levels (Falla, 2004).

Career dissatisfaction

While it is common knowledge that piloting is a great career, this notion is contested by the development challenging mental conditions. Piloting involves the ability of the pilot to think and act in demanding situations. Again, the notion of inefficiencies, primarily caused by neck problems often results to the development of anxiety and anger. Research has endeavored to relate air crashes to the development of mal-functionality of the pilot. A pilot in a combat mission takes a lot of time in preparation than initially considered by industry developers. Pilot preparation can take up to 30 percent of total productive time (Parush, 2011). In the combat situation, the pilot is expected to work in demanding situations; for instance, responding to multiple enemy threats (Patricia, 2010). Demanding combat environment often results to questions on inefficiency. The pilot is under evaluation that severally lives depends on the decision he or she makes. Also, the pilot could be suffering from psychological factors aside physiological and physical constraints. The in a remote combat mission, in most cases thousands of kilometers from home could be thinking about his family or any interpersonal relationships. This crops in inefficiencies of good judgments, and in any case, constrained judgments further accelerates fatigue levels. As a result, the pilot might consider piloting an unprofitable venture, and in most cases the pilot might live a demanding military aviation career to take light jobs in other airline fields.

Recommendation

This research document has accessed several implications Night Vision goggles in leading to the development of fatigue problems. The report has expressed high dissatisfactions in applying the NVG systems in a demanding combat environment. However, there are several remedies to manage NVG constraints. Research has established that NVG primary function is providing visionary light in dark environments. The goal is to make sure that night mission are tackled with minimized risk of notability. So to it, this research document proposes the application of night vision devices on the aircraft itself. Night vision devices mounted on the aircraft can be aided by computers affixed on the aircraft deck. The pilot will be monitoring night vision by viewing the computer strategically situated on the aircraft cockpit. This will salvage the pilot from having to carry a heavier device. Secondly, the pilot will have the privilege to use normal night light or night vision powered light at ease. As a result, the pilot will not have mounted device on his head. This not only reduced visionary problems but as well minimized neck problems, fatigue and career dissatisfaction. This research proposal also recommends further research in the field of piloting-neuroscience/ psychology and labor mobility factors in the upcoming research document.

Conclusion

This research document has established the various challenges accustomed to using Night Vision goggles in a demanding enemy combat environment. The document has established NVG as the primary cause factor of fatigue which leads to career dissatisfaction. In particular, the document has established the interrelation between physical, physiological (both combined results fatigue) and psychological factors leads to career dissatisfaction. The document has encapsulated by offering a recommendation. The recommendation has reinstated the necessity of mounting night vision devices on the aircraft as compared to being mounted on the human head.

References

Chen Y, Wickramasinghe V and Zimcik D. (2007). Adaptive mount approaches for helicopter

seat vibration control. In: Proceedings of ICAST 17 (4) 211-241

Davis, J., Johnson, R., & Stepaneck, J. (2008). Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine. New

York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Falla DL, Jull GA and Hodges PW. (2004). Patients with neck pain demonstrate reduced

electromyography activity of the deep cervical flexor muscles during performance of the

craniocervical flexion test. Spine. 29: 2108‐2114.

Federal Aviation Administration. (2011). Glider Flying Handbook. JL Aviation LLC.

Gallagher HL, Caldwell EE, Albery C and Pellettiere J. (2008).Neck muscle fatigue resulting

from prolonged wear of weighted helmets. Aviat Space Environ Med 78 (2): 233.

Harrison, M. F., Neary, J. P., Albert, W. J., McKenzie, N. P., Veillette, D. W., & Croll, J. C.

(2010). Cytochrome oxidase changes in trapezius muscles with night vision goggle

usage. International Journal of Industria Ergonomics, 40, 140–145.

McLean, W. E. (1999). Optical designs. In C. E. Rash Helmet-mounted displays: Design issues

for rotarywing aircraft (pp. 51–73). Bellingham, WA: SPIE–The International Society

for Optical Engineering.

Parush, A., Gauthier, M., Arseneau, L., & Tang, D. (2011). The Human Factors of Night Vision

Goggles Perceptual, Cognitive, and Physical Factors 7(1) 238-278.

Patricia, D. (2010). Critique of “Distance Estimation with Night Vision Goggles: A Little

Feedback Goes a Long Way” Human Factors 41 (3) 2.

Williams, J. (2005). A History of Army Aviation: From Its Beginnings to the War on Terror. New

York: iUniverse.

Posted in Uncategorized

No Child Left Behind In Florida Looking At The Socioeconomic Aspects Of The Act And How It Relates To Minorities Dropout Rate

No Child Left Behind In Florida Looking At The Socioeconomic Aspects Of The Act And How It Relates To Minorities Dropout Rate

No Child Left Behind In Florida Looking At The Socioeconomic Aspects Of The Act And How It Relates To Minorities Dropout Rate And Crime

Abstract

Today too many of our lower income children are being left behind in spite of a law that that was crafted to help them succeed. The No Child Left behind Act was put in place to help prepare these children for an easy transition into college. Nevertheless, Elementary school age students are unable to read at the basic level evidenced by the standardized test administer in Florida called the Florida (FCAT). Further, high school seniors drop out of school because they are unable to pass the FCAT. Although, the government has spend millions of dollars on education but the system has still failed in meeting the goals of education excellence in Florida. The educational success disparity between the wealthy and the underprivileged, minority and Anglo is not only wide, but is alarming. Because of the unsatisfactory results of the No Child Left behind Act coupled with the standardized FCAT, educators have stated unequivocally that the federal government should have no further involvement in education. This study explored the education performance of Florida students from 2007 to 2012. The statistics showed that Whites and Asian are performing better with higher graduation rates and low dropout rates than African American and Hispanics. This is mainly because of differences in socioeconomic backgrounds.

Table of Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter One PAGEREF _Toc372983856 h 61.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983857 h 61.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc372983858 h 81.3 Purpose of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983859 h 91.4 Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983860 h 91.5 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983861 h 101.6 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983862 h 10Chapter Two: Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc372983863 h 112.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983864 h 112.2 No Child Left Behind Act PAGEREF _Toc372983865 h 112.2.1 Weaknesses of no child left behind act. PAGEREF _Toc372983866 h 132.3 School Dropout PAGEREF _Toc372983867 h 142.3.1. Categorization of school dropout factors PAGEREF _Toc372983868 h 142.3.2 Socioeconomic factors affecting dropout PAGEREF _Toc372983869 h 142.3.3 School related factors. PAGEREF _Toc372983870 h 172.3.4 Groups of school dropouts. PAGEREF _Toc372983871 h 182.3.5 Effects of dropping out. PAGEREF _Toc372983872 h 192.5 The No Child Left Behind Act Waiver Application PAGEREF _Toc372983873 h 213.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983874 h 233.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc372983875 h 233.3 Population PAGEREF _Toc372983876 h 243.4 Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc372983877 h 243.5 Research Ethics PAGEREF _Toc372983878 h 253.6 Assumptions PAGEREF _Toc372983879 h 253.7 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc372983880 h 25Chapter Four: Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc372983881 h 274.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983882 h 274.2 Descriptive Statistics PAGEREF _Toc372983883 h 274.3 Testing Association PAGEREF _Toc372983884 h 34Chapter Five: Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc372983885 h 355.1 Discussion PAGEREF _Toc372983886 h 355.2 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc372983887 h 375.3 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc372983888 h 39References PAGEREF _Toc372983889 h 40

List of Tables

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Federal Graduation Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12 ………….27

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Federal Graduation Rates by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through

2011-2012 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Federal Graduation Rates by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12, continued…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

Table 4: 9th-12th Grade Single-Year Dropouts by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31

Table 5: 9th-12th Grade Single-Year Dropouts by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12, continued ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….32

Table 6: Percentage of Students Eligible for Free/Reduced-Price Lunch Race2007-08 through 2011-12, continued ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….33

Table 7 : Florida crime rates 2007-2012…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………. 34

Chapter One

1.1 IntroductionThrough the Elementary and Secondary education Act (ESEA)of 1965, and the federal grants to districts and state schools the US government have supported the education system both financially and legislatively (U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2004). In 2001, the U.S. government enacted the No Child Left Behind Education Act NCLB) to reauthorize ESEA (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). The NCLB act was anchored on the principles of increased flexibility by district and state schools in use of federal funds, and to increase and strengthen accountability, and enhance the emphasize on teaching methods that have been successful (U.S Department of Education, 2001). In the spirit of expanding education and ensuring increased access, the Act was to expand the choices of disadvantaged children. The NCLB act aims to increase accountability and improve achievement of students in all public schools it emphasizes the accomplishment of student with disabilities, students from minor racial ethnicities, English language learners, and economically disadvantaged. The Act also established funds for improving reading instruction and acquisition of English language proficiency. Further, the Act required that all states make certain only highly qualified teachers handle students.

The NCLB Act required each state to frame its own education accountability systems. The systems were to include rewards such as recognition and bonuses, sanctions, evaluation, methods, and a framework to hold each school accountable of student achievement. Accordingly, the state of Florida developed a plan to enhance student accomplishments and implement higher standards within the education sector through the Florida Comprehensive assessment Test (FCAT). The FCAT to covers grades three to ten (Florida Department of Education, 2013). The FCAT focuses on criterion-referenced tests (CRT),which evaluate reading, mathematics, science, norm-referenced tests (NRT),writing from sunshine state standards and mathematics, which benchmark individual performance against national standards (Florida Department of Education, 2013).

The central government and states have enacted laws besides provide support to see the expansion and improvement in the education sector. The focus drawn to minority ethnicities, student who need special attention and those who lack English proficiency has seen development of improvement in accomplishment of such students. However, this has not been 100% successful as anticipated. School dropout is being registered even with NCLB in force. The tight tests that students are required to pass cause grade retention that has been linked to dropout. The requirement of highly qualified teachers has caused disparity between high and low income backgrounds.

Research has shown that school dropout is an outcome of various factors. Family type and income, parental involvement in education and level of education and occupation of parent affect arte of dropout (Sanchez, Reyes & Singh, 2006). Social economic factors influence student dropout in schools. South, Baumer and Lutz (2003) conducted a longitudinal study to establish the effects of social economic factors in student dropout. The study found that students from more well off localities have a lower dropout rate than those from low earning neighborhoods.

In 2006 Bridgeland, DiIulio and Morison conducted a study to establish factors causing dropout and the consequences of dropping out. In the study, a third of the students dropped out because they had to seek employment to support their low family income while a fifth became parents and similar percentage dropped out to look after a family member. An examination of these dropouts revealed they were doing well in school (Bridgeland, DiIulio Morison, 2006). In the study, there were students who dropped out of high school because of their poor preparation (Bridgeland, DiIulio Morison, 2006). As such, they had low achievement in high school, which led to the dropping out. However extra tutoring and after school aid could have helped them. The effect of repeating was reported to have dropout by a third of the students in the survey. These students said they could not have graduate even after putting necessary effort.

1.2 Problem StatementWhile the NCLB act and the FCAT aimed to expand, education access to all and improve student achievement; nevertheless, this was not always the case especially regarding performance and reduction of dropouts. There are stringent requirements in place by NCLB and by extension FCAT that students have been have to asp before progressing to nest garder. However, this is not always the case ahs students fail the tests and are retained in same grade. in same grade. By causing school disengagement, grade retention has been linked to school dropout. The failure to pass the FCAT test causes increases in dropouts and many scholars suggested this correlation has implication in the increased crime rate (Lochner, 1999).In Miami South Ridge Senior high school, where the population of students is 4141 has a dropout rate of 5.4%; this means that 220 students are dropping out of school.

Student dropout has been a concern among parents, employers, educators and for the government. Dropout rates are not uniform across ethnicities and economic background. Dillow (2003) notes that, it is challenging for male students from ethnic minorities and more specifically those from low-income families completing school for minorities. This is further underscored by (Balfanz & Legtres, 2004) who observe that Whites have a lower probability of dropping out than colored students do.

In Miami South Ridge senior high school, there have been 330 crime incidents. The crime incidents involve fighting and harassment weapon possession, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, violent acts against persons, property, and other nonviolent incidents and disorderly conduct. Burrus and Roberts (2012) studies crime prevalence and rate of high school dropout and found that crime incidents increase as high school dropout increases. A report by Christeson, Lee, Schaefer, Kass and Messner-Zidell, (2008) note that public safety risk will increase risk as a result of increased dropout and the phenomenon affects cities with minority populations. The authors of the report further note that high school dropouts are three and half times more likely to be arrested. A 10% point increase in graduation rates reduces assault, murder by approximately 20% (Christeson et al., 2008). However, there is little research done on the relationship of dropout rates of minority groups and their respective causes in Florida. This paper will focus on socioeconomic aspects and how they relate to dropout of minorities and the contribution to crime.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to explore the no child left behind in Florida and examine the socioeconomic aspects of the act. Additionally the study explored how socioeconomic aspects of the act relate to minorities dropout rate and crime.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The following objectives guided this study.

To explore the no child left behind in Florida

What socioeconomic factors of affect dropout

How do socioeconomic aspects of the act relate to minorities dropout rate and crime.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Student dropout has been a concern among parents, employers, educators and for the government. The central government has enacted laws besides providing support to see expansion of education. However, there are students dropping out of school despite their effort. As such, the finding of this study will be useful to parents, educators and the central government in understanding how socioeconomic aspects of NCLB affect minorities’ dropout rate. By focusing on the state of Florida, the state education agencies will find this study useful in understanding how FCAT affects minorities’ dropout rate and any association to crime.

1.6 Limitations of the Study

This study explores the no child left child left behind in state of Florida and performance statistics of Miami South Ridge high school. States have different education acts as required NCLB with different standards. Further sates differ in economic empowerment and population of ethnicity. Studies shows that set standards, economic empowerment and ethnicities affect education performance. As such, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to other states unless they bare resemblance to Florida. School organization and locations affect dropout rates. In this line, the findings of this study that utilize of Miami South Ridge high school performance can only be generalized to schools with similar statistics.

Chapter Two: Literature Review2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents relevant literature about the research variables. The chapter discusses in depth past studies in line the research objective. The literature is objectively outlined.

2.2 No Child Left Behind Act On January 8, 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (the ACT). The Act was meant to identify educational accomplishments and report accountability. The Act provided investment goals in the education system with an aim of expanding education to all. The Act emphasizes the importance of completing school and the roles of teachers, parents and government duties in the process. The main aim of the Act was to see that every American child despite its income or ethnicity successfully is educated. (U.S. Dept. of Ed., 2003).The act required all states to have accountability systems that keep track of education achievements and evaluation compared against national standards. Further, this requirement stated that all the states were to evaluate each and every student from the third to eighth grade in mathematics and reading on an annual basis. Additionally, states were to provide an adequate yearly progress report (AYP) that was required to measure improvement of disadvantaged children. In addition, states were required to ensure that by 2014, all students have a proficient score in the standardize tests. Schools that were not able to exhibit adequate yearly progress would be accorded assistance and they would be subjective to corrective measures. Such measures included complimentary and supplementary resources, student transfer and possibility of compulsory restructure.

In order to ensure continuous improvement in education standards, all states were obliged to provide a plan that outlined their accomplished standards, assessment procedures, reporting process and accountability measures. This requirement made sure that states vested with greater responsibility in shaping education standards, had more control and flexibility in using federal funds. In this mandate, schools were encouraged to use funds for professional development, teacher retention, and technology related training that fit their needs without having to seek federal approval. The Act gave parents an option to transfer their children for security reasons or if the children seemed to be under performing and a school transfer if that would help the child improve. In improving the quality of education, the act provided support for instruction programs by availing funds to train teachers on the same and equip them with necessary skills to deliver (U.S. Dept. of Ed., 2003b).

The Act accountability provisions entailed applying performance management in the education sector. The accountability provisions account for performance and the outcome of failure or success. Education accountability emphasizes holding education personnel such as administrators, teachers, and students responsible for educational achievements, albeit success or failure. School personnel are held accountable for student accomplishment by district or school accountability systems. Graduation rates or test scores defined this measurement (Kane & Staiger 2002; Hanushek and Raymond 2001). Some states set standards using outside factors such as proverty. (Meyer et al. 2002).

All states are required to ensure that all students l have a proficiency score by 2014. The Act gives states performance measurement so determine the proficiency score (Kim and Sunderman, 2004). As such, states have an opportunity to set low proficiency performance requirements then backload the requirement of proficiency in the following years (Ryan 2003). Greater emphasize is placed on minority students, such as those who come from low-income backgrounds, those with limited English proficiency and those who need special attention because of their learning disabilities. This has fostered methods and efforts to improve academic performances. This has been one of the achievements of the Act.

2.2.1 Weaknesses of no child left behind act.

Researchers argue that implementation of the act has affected the development of incentives for state schools (Irons & Harris, 2007). This is because the act requires schools to execute accountability systems that are anchored on student test scores. As such, it becomes intricate for states to employ value added accountability measures. In fact, the act stipulates that all teachers must be highly qualified in order to meet the high academic achievements that are required. Further, the act requires that in addition to demonstrating knowledge of the subject they teach, all teachers must have degrees in field (Irons& Harris, 2007).However, this requirement has its shortcomings. Given that one of the main provisions of the act is to expand education access to children from low-income backgrounds, many highly qualified teachers do not work and have degrees in the fields outlined by the act. A finding by the National Partnership for teaching shows that inexperienced teachers are more likely to teach in poverty areas (Irons & Harris, 2007).This finding is attributed to difference in pay, which attracts highly qualified teaches to economically endowed schools.

The act lays more emphasize on teacher training on core subjects but neglects teaching quality and the personal aspect of teaching (Amobi, 2006). In its bid to measures progress, the act subjects schools to adequate yearly progress. However, there are weaknesses in this measure as noted by the Federation of American Teachers. The Federation observed that adequate yearly progress measured different students. Accordingly, some students did adequately make progress. As such, AYP cannot be used as an indicator of progress and cannot distinguish if a school has the required proportion of students with proficient score (Fisanick, 2008).In this view, the system is unreliable and treats school unfairly where some will be structured they do not deserve.

2.3 School Dropout2.3.1. Categorization of school dropout factors

Failure to complete school is because of various factors that in combination increase the likelihood of a student dropping out. Factors include the individual, which may be caused by education and truancy, family factors, such as level of parental involvement and income (Gleason & Dynarski, 2002).There are also school related factors, which include the school organization and level of teacher involvement and expectations. Communities where students live and schools that are located in lower income areas play a large part by to contribute to the crime rate. Balfanz and Legtres (2004) group factors causing dropout into two parts: the first category is personal student demographics that consist of ethnicity, gender, and the social economic factors. The second category consists of institution-related factors such as school systems, qualified teachers, and learning conditions.

2.3.2 Socioeconomic factors affecting dropout

Academic performance and progression are developed from a number of factors, which among them are socioeconomic factors. Scholars agree that family play a role in education achievement (Sanchez, Reyes & Singh, 2006; Garg, Kauppi, Lewko, & Urjnik, 2002). Family size, parental involvement, socioeconomic status, occupation of parent, family type and education attainment of siblings and parent are among the family factors that affect education accomplishments. Parental principles and needs toward their children influence the moderation, consistency, and responsiveness of the children’s social development and achievements. This implies that a child’s cognitive growth is greatly shaped by the parents’ practices. Children from educated parents have a higher likelihood of getting enrolled in better schools and progressing further in their education path (Holmes, 2003). Holmes further notes that the effect of parent’s education level differs with gender. A father’s education level will affect boys while a mother’s education level will affect girls (Lokshin, 2001).

The probability of dropout differs across subgroups such as ethnicity and economic background. The national centre for education statistics 2011 report shows that students who enrolled in private or public high school in 2008, had a dropout rate of 3.4 percentage before 2009. The report further identified that there are no significance dropout rates within gender but there is a significant difference within ethnicities. Whites had the least dropout rate of 2.4% while Latinos had the highest rate at 5.8%. African Americans dropout rate was approximately 4.8%. The report established a strong link between dropping out and poverty especially, those children who come from low income backgrounds. In fact, the report showed that these children are five times more likely to drop out. Jordan and cooper (2003) examined the challenged and social conditions African American male student encountered in public schools. The researchers found that cultural significance and teacher student cultural harmonization played an important role in educating students and reducing the dropout rates. Thus, conviction about long and short-term effects are related to the perceived teacher, family and friend influences, which directly relates to the goal to finish school among African American students (Davis, Ajzen, Saunders, & Williams, 2002).

Similar characteristics exist in schools that record high number of dropouts. Balfanz and Legtres (2004) examine the distinctiveness of schools that registered high number of dropouts and found that the schools are located in low-income areas have high crime rate and unemployment levels. In addition, such schools have high number of colored students. This finding is similar to that of Alliance for Excellent Education (2011) report, which shows that 60% of colored students school in areas dropout, where more than half of the population lives in poverty. Accordingly, only 18% of white students in similar areas drop out. The report also found that grade retention is higher among colored students where 43% and 42% of Hispanic and African American student respectively have delayed graduations compared to 17% Asian and 22%- white.

Communities where the students and parents reside influence student retention by providing a positive or enabling environment for educational progress. Studies have shown that communities that provide little employment opportunities have high dropout rates (Russell, 2001). Study demonstrates that students from low-income neighborhoods feel that education will not improve their status much hence are more likely to dropout when they encounter obstacles.

In Florida dropout has not been eliminated despite the efforts by the state education agencies. The data by Florida shows that the dropout rates of minority groups (African American and Hispanics) is higher than that of Whites (Florida Department of Education, 2010). On the other hand, the graduation rates of Whites are higher than that of African American. This shows that ethnicity might be an influencing factor in probability of graduating and completing school. In a bid to support students from disadvantaged economic background, the government initiated a free or subsided lunch program. In Florida, most students on free lunch program are from minority groups (Florida Department of Education, 2010). This is an indication that more minority student are economically disadvantaged than majority groups. This can partly explain the difference in academic performance.

2.3.3 School related factors.Research has shown that progression from one grade to another affects the dropout rate. Jimmerson, Anderson and Whipple (2002) note that there has been increase of student repeating the same grade because of emphasize on standards and accountability. The researchers reviewed 17 schools where they found evidence that repeating a grade increases the chances of dropping out of school. The researches further noted that the effects of repeating a grade combined with socioeconomic factors, ethnicity and emotional disengagement, affects students’ self-esteem, peer relations, socio-emotional relations that increase the chances of dropping out. Grade retention fails to solve the problem but only makes students feel like failures, which deflates self-esteem causing disengagement from education, which ultimately increases the probability of school dropout.

The school organization in terms of facilities, standards and manners of handling students affect the dropout rates. In 2003, Lee and Burkam investigated the effect of school organization on the dropout rate. The researchers examined 3840 students from grades 10, 11 and 12 from suburban and urban areas in the U.S. The researchers found that school organization affects dropout. School organization includes such factors as instruction, mentoring, retention to alternatives. They recommend that having personalized instruction methods, having mentoring programs and developing retention alternatives will increase student engagement that in turn reduces the dropout rate. Lee and Burkam (2003) note that students are more likely to stay in school when have constructive relations with their teachers.

2.3.4 Groups of school dropouts.

There are different ways to describe dropouts as noted by Morrow in 1987. Morrow posited that there are “putouts” (pg.153)-dropouts who drop out of school because of their undesirable characteristics. These students never connect with neither the school nor its environment and do not want to be in school. Morrow classified them as disaffiliate as they dropout mainly because they are disengaged. Student ability to comprehend academic content affects completion process. As such there are “education mortalities” (pg 153), those students who dropout because as they are incapable. Kronick and Hargis (1998, pg. 256) expanded Morrow’s theory and proposed that high school dropouts are a process. The researcher noted that there are “quiet dropouts” (pg 257), who fail to finish school because of their low academic achievement and grade retention and this consists of the largest group of dropouts. Another group of dropouts related to the first category is “under achieving push out” (pg 257). This group of dropouts has low achievement and behavior troubles and a high-grade retention. They react to their low achievement and grade retention, which causes disengagement and eventually dropping out. Highly achieving “push outs” are students who fail to finish school mainly because of their behavioral problems that the school administration cannot tolerate despite having good achievements. Common characteristics among dropouts are low family income, parent participation process, grade retention, underachievement and employment while in school (Kronick & Hargis, 1998).

Research has shown that progression from one grade to another affects dropout. Jimmerson, Anderson and Whipple (2002) noted in their study that there have been increases in students repeating the same grade, which attributed to emphasize on standards and accountability. The researchers reviewed 17 schools where they found evidence that repeating a grade increases the chances of dropping out of school. The researches further noted that the effects of repeating a grade combine with socioeconomic factors, ethnicity and emotional disengagement. Retention affects students’ self-esteem, peer relations, socio-emotional relations that increase the chances of dropping out.

School organization in terms of facilities, standards and manner of handling students affect the dropout rates. In 2003, Lee and Burkam investigated the effect the effect of school organization on dropout. The researchers examined 3840 students of grade 10, 11 and 12 from suburban and urban areas in the U.S. The researchers found that school organization affects dropout. School organization factors such as instruction, mentoring, retention to alternatives affect student dropout. Lee and Burkam (2003) note that, students are more likely to stay in school when they have constructive relations with their teachers.

2.3.5 Effects of dropping out. Given the vital role education play in the quality of life one will lead, failure to complete school will only have negative consequences at both individual level and society. There is an increased chance of unemployment that in turn increases the probability of committing crimes. Dropouts experience increased mental health- related problems because of stress and lack of sufficient income and low self-esteem. School dropouts are more likely to indulge in drugs and alcohol (Bridgeland, DiIulio & Morison, 2006). They use of alcohol and drugs to “handle” feelings of underachievement that lead to depression, stress and low self-esteem. Given the increased rate of crime there is prison expenses increase, such expenses will reduce if number of dropouts is eliminated (Kaufman, et al., 2000). The government has created training programs to help dropouts ‘lead better lives. However, those funds will be used for other projects, if the dropout rate is reduced. Given the lack of employment among dropouts and low income adult dependence are high. This strains the scarce resources available for the adult and continues – the poverty cycle.

The Dropout experience economic problem has escalated, whereby, they have little chance of getting employed and when they do they earn less than high school graduates .On average, high school graduates earn $9200 more than dropouts annually and approximately more than $ 1million in their lifetime (Bridgeland, DiIulio & Morison, 2006). Dropouts are two times more likely to end up in poverty than high school graduates given the level unemployment probability is three times that of graduates. The negative effects of dropouts are felt in society because of the lost revenue and higher health costs. Bridgeland, DiIulio and Morison (2006) note that the overhead costs incurred on a dropout

Posted in Uncategorized

NIKE Managing Ethical Missteps

NIKE Managing Ethical Missteps

NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps

Introduction

While Nike is a giant manufacturing company specializing in the production of indoor and outdoor footwear’s and sweatshirt, it is also among the best managed companies in the world. However, this is from the economic point of view. There are many cases that might lead to the fall of the manufacturing giant, and these cases are mainly ethical despite the fact that the company has not been in the limelight for ethical and professional malpractices (Brian, 2009).

Discern How a More Effective Ethics Programs and a More Viable Code of Conduct Could Have Mitigated the Ethical Issues Faced by Nike.

Nike failed to implement internal programs aimed at detecting and preventing violation of laws hence is eligible for a significant increase in penalties. Therefore, had Nike developed a compliance program before the offenses, they would have averted most of the ethics related problems that the company faced. A viable code of ethics does not only act as a deterrent, but also as a guideline for ethical operations and activities within a company. If the company had a viable code of ethics, the employees would have been more aware of the impact of their practices on the environment as well as on the community. The management would have been more strict with its employment rules before absorbing employee and would have ensured that all the documents used by the company are genuine and up to date (Greenhouse, 2011).

Describe an Ethics Training and Communications Program that May Have Kept Nike from Encountering the Ethical Issues It Did in This Scenario Ethical Training Program.

An effective ethics training program offers a number of benefits that can be instrumental in detecting unethical behaviors that are likely to devastate an organization. For example, issues like child labor and corporate social unresponsiveness experienced in Nike are unethical activities that could have brought the giant company down.

An ethics and training program must communicate standards and the integrity visions of the company. In this way, the identified integrity risks are reduced, and open communication lines are created as well as a transparent work environment. A program must create a work environment that is free from any form of retaliation and intimidation. On the other hand, an ethics and communication program should set clear, expected standards of behaviors and the communicating channels to be used for conveying the integrity messages across the company. It should also set rules on how the stakeholders can become engaged in the process (Edward, 2010).

Determine and Discuss how Nike Could Have Benefited Early on from Ethics Auditing.

Ethical auditing is the process by which company’s measures internal and external consistency of their value base. This is a value linked process by which stakeholders are incorporated into the organization (Brian, 2009). For example, Nike incorporated the stakeholder into their value base and considered how their practices were aligned to their stakeholder. Nike stakeholders do not only refer to the shareholder but also the communities in which the company operates the employee, customers as well as suppliers. Ethical audit is intended to ensure accountability and transparency to all the stakeholders of the company. This process is also important in ensuring that the company meets its ethical objectives. Though this process is mainly an internal control measure, it focuses more on the external factors such as the community response, the social welfare as well as the stakeholder interest. Ethical audits are mainly meant to captures nukes ethical profile. Ethical profiles combine financial profile, service profile and employer profile to investors, customers and employees respectively (Edward, 2010). All the factors that might have an impact on the Nikes reputation are put into perspective by an ethical audit. If Nike had taken a picture of its value system in time, it would have:

1) Clarified the definite values to which it operates:

Nike has a number of flows in its supply chain; these flaws are easily identified if all the public views are considered. If the company had established an ethical audit before, the company would have streamlined its supply chain and clarified the actual value within which it operates and not just remain vague. These ethical audits communicates to the employees the ethical training objectives, ethical code of conducts, Hotline usage, Ethical issues, Conflicts of interest, Kickbacks, Accounting irregularities, Protection from retaliation, Internal theft as well as employee responsiveness (Brian, 2009).

Learnt how to establish and provide a better baseline for measuring the future improvement.

Factors such as corporate social responsibilities that Nike is facing, and is still likely to face in future, are some of the things that the company should give proper considerations to. The company is in fault for employing underage workers, having unpaid wages for employees and using falsified documents for worker permits. The company could have steered clear of all these by benchmarking and ensuring that all the regulations are met properly before implementing any program and ensuring that there are internal policies and ethics officers charged with ensuring that the policies related to employment and working conditions are always footed (Greenhouse, 2011).

Leant how to meet the societal expectation that it did not meet at that time:

Nike would have employed and trained more CSR specialists in all plants. This is to uphold compliance and societal focus into the company mainstream objectives, thereby increasing the company’s reach to the community and reducing the child labor. By establishing plants in poor areas, the company is set to exploit the cheap labor. Though this is seen as a positive move, the company could have established a proper salary scale for the workers. A realistic salary scale is much more effective in the reduction of employee unrest and the other related problems within the company.

Given the entire stakeholder the opportunities to clarify what they expected from the company.

Ethical audit involves the establishment of compromise between the company and the stakeholder, this process offers opportunities form collection of the stakeholder views, which can be instrumental in shaping the strategy goals of the company and setting direction with the stakeholders in mind (Edward, 2010).

Identified those problem areas that existed within the company.

Most of these problems include the wages, worker condition as well worker tight. Though this is limited in scope, the company could have joined the global alliance before their problem stated and achieved these goals before.

Learnt about the issue which motivated the employees as well as, the community?

The community is the backbone of the company in any setting, therefore, their concern is much more important than the company success. It is therefore, imperative for the company to ensure that the community has a positive attitude towards it to help the company prosper. A slight change in the attitude of the employees is injurious to the company’s reputation and success (Edward, 2010).

Identified the overall areas of vulnerability especially those areas related to transparency.

Attract more customers:

As the company’s customer base widens, the number of interested participants increases, the general perceptions of the customer as an ethical company increases the customers positive perception about the company. The number of male, female and fashion oriented customers would increase (Brian, 2009).

Create A High-Level Outline For What The Ethics Auditing Process Should Look Like At Nike.

References

Brian, A. (2009). The Natural Treads for Business: Ecology, Wealth & Evolutionary Corporation. British Columbia: Society Publishers.

Edward, G. (2010). Corporate Strategy & Exploration of Ethics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Greenhouse, S. (2011). “Nike’s Chief Rescinds a Gift over Screening of Sweatshops”. The New York Times.

Posted in Uncategorized

Nineteen Eighty-Four The Quintessential Negative Utopia

Nineteen Eighty-Four The Quintessential Negative Utopia

Nineteen Eighty-Four: The Quintessential Negative Utopia

(Or How to become really depressed about the future of the human condition in 267 pages or less.)

1984 is George Orwell’s arguably his most famous novel, and it remains one of the most powerful warnings ever made against the dangers of a totalitarian society. George Orwell was primarily a political novelist as a result of his life experiences. In Spain, Germany, and Russia, Orwell had seen for himself the peril of absolute political authority in an age of advanced technology; he illustrated that peril harshly in 1984.

Orwell’s book could be considered the most acknowledged in the genre of the negative utopian novel. The mood of the novel aims to portray a pessimistic future. This prospect is to show the worst human society imaginable and to convince readers to avoid any path that might lead toward societal degradation. Orwell’s world of post-atomic dictatorship, in which every individual is ceaselessly monitored through the telescreen seemed just possible enough to terrify. When Orwell postulated such a society it was only 35 years into the future that made the horror depicted by the novel seem more relevant and real.

While the year 1984 has long since come and gone it is more than obvious that the world Orwell describes has not materialized. But the message of 1984 remains relevant enough to frighten, and accurate enough to feel possible. War is used as a device for political manipulation on television—a concept presented strikingly in the recent film Wag the Dog. The governmental forces have historical records rewritten to match the political ideology of the ruling Party. This is a technique has been used by the Soviet Union and is still all too common in some parts of the world. The warning remains significant: the world has not completely escaped from the dangers Orwell describes.

The novel is based on the experiences of Winston Smith, an insignificant member of the ruling Party in London, in the nation of Oceania. Everywhere Winston goes, even his own home, he is watched through telescreens, and everywhere he looks he sees the face of the Party’s omniscient leader, a figure known only as Big Brother. The Party controls everything from history to language. The Party is currently forcing the implementation of an invented language called Newspeak, which attempts to prevent political rebellion by eliminating all words related to it. Even thinking rebellious thoughts is illegal. Thought crime is the worst crime of all.

One of the most convincing aspects of 1984 is Orwell’s understanding of the roles that thought and language play in rebellion and control. In Newspeak, Orwell postulates a language that will make rebellion impossible, because the words to conceive of it will cease to exist. With doublethink—the ability to hold two contradictory ideas in one’s head simultaneously and believe in them both—Orwell conceives of a mental mechanism that explains people’s willingness to accept control over their memories and their past. Doublethink is crucial to the Party’s control of Oceania, because it enables the Party to alter historical records and pass off the altered records as real to a populace that ought to know better; because of doublethink, the populace does not know better, but is able to accept the Party’s version of the past as real.

The protagonist is Winston Smith; a minor member of the ruling Party in near-future London, Winston Smith is a thin, frail, 39 year-old-man who wears blue Party coveralls. Winston is sick of the Party’s rigid control over his life and world, and begins trying to rebel against the Party. By writing defiant thoughts in a secret diary and starting an illegal affair with Julia, Winston is guilty of these societal crimes.

Julia is a beautiful dark-haired girl working in the Fiction Department at the Ministry of Truth. She enjoys sex, and claims to have had affairs with dozens of Party members. Winston is a fatalist, harboring no illusions about his chances of rebelling successfully: the moment he begins to write in his diary, he knows he has condemned himself to death at the hands of the thought police. Even as he joins the legendary anti-Party order called the Brotherhood, Winston considers himself a dead man.

Winston is 39, Julia 26. Winston’s childhood took place largely before the Party came to power around 1960; Julia is a child of the Party era, and many of the regime’s elements that seem most frightening and evil to Winston fail to upset or even faze Julia. Like Winston, she hates the Party and sees through many of its techniques—she understands, for instance, that it uses sexual repression to control the populace. She even has a better intuitive grasp on the Party’s methods than Winston does, planning their affair and often explaining the Party to him. The Party’s control of history does not interest her as it interests Winston, because she does not remember a time when the Party was not in control.

In stark defiance of Party doctrine, Julia enjoys sex and rebels against the Party in small ways. But growing up under the Party regime has made her unconcerned about the difference between truth and falsehood, and she has no patience for Winston’s desire for a categorical, abstract rejection of Party doctrine. Julia seems to mistrust doctrine and abstract philosophy. She even falls asleep when Winston reads to her from Emmanuel Goldstein’s book, a powerful sign of her simple, sensual approach to life.

The beginning of the novel Orwell introduces the major characters and themes. He acquaints the reader with the main character Winston Smith’s world. The primary plot development in this section is Winston’s writing in his diary, his first overt act of rebellion. Evidently, Winston’s hatred of Party oppression has been festering for some time, possibly even for most of his life; his story begins on the day that hatred finds an active expression. As Winston realizes, once he opens the cover of his diary and writes, his life is irrevocably altered. Never again will he be simply another citizen of Oceania; now he is a thought-criminal, and he considers himself doomed from the very start. As he thinks, “Thought crime was not a thing that could be concealed forever . . . Sooner or later they always got you.”(Page 9)

Winston’s fatalism—his belief that the Party is so powerful and Big Brother so omniscient that any act of rebellion, any expression of individuality, is doomed almost before it begins—becomes a central component of his character. Throughout the story, he allows himself only occasionally to feel any hope for the future. Winston feels extraordinarily oppressed by the Party’s control: he cannot think for himself or act for himself, and he must repress his sexual desires almost entirely.

Winston feelings can only emerge in his dreams. Within his repressed psychological state he has dreams of a golden country and making love to a dark haired girl. Winston’s dream is prophetic—he will indeed make love to the dark- haired girl in an idyllic country landscape. The same is true for his dream of O’Brien, in which he hears O’Brien’s voice promise to meet him “in the place where there is no darkness.”(Page 25) At the end of the novel, Winston will indeed meet O’Brien in a place without darkness, but that place will be nothing like what Winston expects. The phrase “the place where there is no darkness” recurs several times throughout the novel; it orients Winston toward his future, and works as one of a number of recurrent motifs that reappear throughout the book.

Winston’s world is a nasty, brutish place. His London is dilapidated and crumbling; the electricity seldom works, living conditions are uncomfortable, and everything is constantly monitored and controlled by the Party through tele screens. Winston’s encounter with the Parsons children is an example of the Party’s influence on the family—children are reminiscent of the Hitler Youth of Nazi Germany The fear Mrs. Parsons shows for her children foreshadows Winston’s encounter in jail with her husband (who was turned in for thought crime by his own child).

Winston’s repressed sexuality— one of his key reasons for despising the Party and wanting to rebel— becomes his overt concern when he remembers his last encounter with a prole prostitute. The dingy, nasty memory, made even more unpleasant by the sight of the ugly prostitute in the lamplight, makes Winston even more desperate to have an enjoyable erotic experience. He thinks that the Party’s “real, undeclared purpose was to remove all pleasure from the sexual act.” While Winston thinks about his encounter with the prole prostitute, he realizes that his own nervous system has become his enemy. Under constant oppression, forced to repress every feeling and instinct, a person might lose control, even if only for an instant, and show some visible sign of tension or struggle—even a facial twitch could lead to arrest. This emphasis on the physical aspect of the Party’s oppression is continued throughout the novel, and culminates with Winston’s realization toward the end of the book that nothing in human experience is worse than the feeling of physical pain.

Winston’s work in the sprawling Ministry of Truth shows the Party in operation. Everything presented is part of calculated propaganda, altered records, or revised history. The idea of doublethink (the ability simultaneously to believe and disbelieve in the same idea, or to believe in two contradictory ideas simultaneously) becomes very important. Doublethink enables the workers at the Ministry of Truth to believe in the false versions of the records that they have altered, and with their belief, for the Party’s purposes, the records become the reality of the truth. Even Winston cannot quite trust his own memories—he too believes the «official» falsified records. This is doublethink, the psychological key to the Party’s control of the past. It allows the citizens under Party control to accept slogans like “War is peace” and “Freedom is slavery.”(16)

Life in the prole district is animalistic, filthy, and impoverished. Only Mr. Charrington seems to share Winston’s love of the past—he sells him the paperweight and shows him the upstairs room. In the context of 1984, this room’s lack of a telescreen is quite remarkable; it becomes one of the few places in Winston’s world in which the Party is not watching. Like Winston’s dream phrase “the place where there is no darkness,” the picture of St. Clement’s church hanging in Mr. Charrington’s upstairs room becomes a symbolic motif, reappearing throughout the novel. (Page 47)

Like the paperweight, another symbolic motif, it represents Winston’s desire to make a connection with a past he cannot recover. The rhyme associated with the picture ends on an ominous note—”Here comes a chopper to chop off your head”(page 86) —that foreshadows the picture’s role in destroying Winston’s private rebellion: he does not know that a telescreen is hidden behind the picture. He will eventually be caught by this telescreen, left there by Mr. Charrington, a secret member of the Thought Police.

Winston’s paperweight symbolizes the past, and also comes to represent a kind of temporal stasis in which he can dream without fear, imagining himself floating inside the glass walls of the paperweight with his mother. The phrase “the place where there is no darkness” works as a symbol of hope throughout the novel, as Winston recalls the dream in which O’Brien tells him about the place and says they will meet there one day. The phrase therefore orients Winston toward the end of the novel, when the phrase becomes bitterly ironic: the place where there is no darkness is the Ministry of Love, where the lights remain on in the prisons all day and all night.

Winston’s affair with Julia becomes an established part of each of their lives, leading up to Winston’s meeting with O’Brien. Despite the risk given the thoroughness of Party monitoring, Winston rents the room above Mr. Charrington’s shop so that he and Julia can have a regular place to meet. As the preparations for Hate Week cast a shadow of heat and fatigue on Winston’s life, a number of important minor details surface throughout this section, each of which has some bearing on later developments in the novel.

First, the return of the glass paperweight: A “vision of the glass paperweight”(Page 91) inspired Winston to rent the room above the shop. The recurrence of this symbolic motif reemphasizes Winston’s obsession with the past, and connects that obsession with his desire to rent the room; by renting the room for Julia, he hopes he can make their relationship resemble one from an earlier, freer time. After Julia leaves the room, Winston gazes into the paperweight, imagining a temporal stasis inside it, where he and Julia could float, free of the Party and free of time.

Second, the prole woman singing outside the window. Winston has already thought—and written in his diary that hope for the future must come from the proles. The prole woman singing outside the window, with her obvious virility, becomes a symbol of the hoped-for future to Winston; he imagines her bearing the children who will overthrow the Party eventually.

Third, Winston’s fear of rats: When he sees a rat in the room he shudders in terror; his worst nightmare involves rats in a vague, mysterious way he cannot quite explain. This is another moment of foreshadowing: when O’Brien tortures Winston in the Ministry of Love at the end of the novel, he will use a cage of rats to break Winston’s spirit.

Fourth, the recurrence of the St. Clement’s church song. The mysterious references the song makes continue to pique Winston’s interest in the past, and its last line continues to obliquely foreshadow his unhappy ending. A more pragmatic interest makes the song relevant in this section: Julia offers to clean the St. Clement’s church picture had she done so, the lovers would have discovered the telescreen hidden behind it.

The most important part of this section is Winston’s meeting with O’Brien, which Winston considers the single most important event of his life. The meeting is brief but establishes O’Brien as an enigmatic and powerful figure. At this point we cannot tell whether he is trustworthy or treacherous, whether he is truly on Winston’s side or simply wants to trap him for the Party. In the end, Winston will discover the answer to that question in the place where there is no darkness.

The most remarkable aspect of the capture of Winston and Julia is that it comes as a surprise. Even though Winston has predicted his own capture throughout the novel, Orwell manages to time the arrival of the authorities perfectly to catch the reader off-guard. The long excerpt from Goldstein’s book is the mechanism he uses to accomplish this shock effect, and in this sense, at least, the excerpt is fully justified.

Winston’s obsession with O’Brien (which began with the dream about the place where there is no darkness) was the source of his undoing, and it undoes him now as well. Throughout the torture sessions, Winston becomes increasingly eager to believe anything O’Brien tells him- -even Party slogans and rhetoric. In the last book of the novel, Winston even begins to dream about O’Brien in the same way he now dreams about his mother and Julia.

This apparent death wish is the key to Winston’s character is his fatalism—he rebels against the Party not because he desires freedom, but because he wants the Party to kill him. Given Orwell’s political aspirations for his novel, this seems an idle and unprofitable speculation. 1984 may include psychological imbalance among its list of ill effects caused by totalitarian government, but it seems clear that 1984 is not primarily about psychological imbalance. Winston no longer has any reason to think for himself: he loves Big Brother, and Big Brother will take care of him. His love of Big Brother has not cured his fatalism; Winston still envisions the day the bullet will enter his brain.

The causes of Winston’s shattered will. After months of agonizing torture and unrelenting brainwashing, Winston is nevertheless able to hold on to his love for Julia until O’Brien threatens him with the cage of rats. At this point, Winston is finally faced with a torment he would rather see Julia experience than feel, and he calls out her name to save him. Once he has offered Julia as a sacrificial victim to take his place, Winston has finally been destroyed.

The novel’s pivotal scene in which O’Brien straps the cage of rats onto Winston’s face seems an anticlimax. It has been argued that the cage of rats is not horrible enough to make the reader feel Winston’s torment, and that it feels arbitrary, as though Orwell were simply reaching for some horrible device with which to conclude his story. Winston’s collapse does follow hard upon his passionate restatement of his love for Julia and hatred for Big Brother

Throughout the novel, Orwell argues that physical pain and the sense of physical danger override human reason. When Winston is facing a writhing swarm of rats prepared to devour his face cannot act rationally. He is a prisoner to his nervous system. And betraying Julia is his instinctive salvation. Rather than the rats themselves, it is the awareness the Party forces on Winston, that he is a prisoner of his body that ultimately breaks him. Once he believes his body limits him, he has no reason to think, act, or rebel. Doublethink is equally crucial to Winston’s gradual process of conversion to love for Big Brother, because it enables him to accept his torturers’ words as true, even though his own memories contradict those words.

The Supplemental Paper: The Principles of Newspeak

1984’s Appendix contains Orwell’s ideas about Newspeak. Although Orwell felt that these ideas were too technical to integrate into the novel, they develop the novel’s stance on language and thought in the public’s acceptance of governmental control. And although this paper is to long it is important that the principals of Newspeak be addressed.

Newspeak is the official language of Oceania; it is scheduled for official adoption around 2050, and is designed to make the ideological premises of Ingsoc (Newspeak for English Socialism: the Party’s official political alignment) the only expressible ideology. Newspeak is engineered to remove even the possibility of rebellious thoughts by eliminating the words in which thoughts might be expressed. Newspeak contains no negative terms—the only way to express the meaning of «bad» is through the word “ungood.” Something extremely bad would be called “doubleplus ungood.” Newspeaks grammar is arranged so that any word can serve as any part of speech. There are three different vocabulary spheres within Newspeak.

“A Vocabulary” contains everyday words and phrases for such things as eating, drinking, working and so on. In comparison with Modern English, these words are fewer in number but more rigid in meaning. Newspeak leaves no room for nuance, or for degrees of meaning.

“B Vocabulary” contains all words with political or ideological significance. These words are especially tailored to provoke thoughtless acceptance of the Party’s doctrines. As example: «goodthink» means roughly the same thing as “orthodoxy.” The “B Vocabulary” is formed entirely of compound words and often squeezes words into smaller forms to attain abstract ease. The English phrase “Thought Police,” for instance, is compressed into «thinkpol»; “the Ministry of Love” becomes “miniluv.”

“C Vocabulary” is made up of words that relate to science and to technical fields. It is intended to guarantee that technological information remains segmented among many domains. Thus no one person would have access to too much knowledge. In fact, there is no word for science; «Ingsoc» already covers any meaning it could possibly bear.

The particularities of Newspeak make it impossible to translate older English (oldspeak) texts into the language; the introduction of the Declaration of Independence, for instance, could only be translated into a single word: crime think. Furthermore, each of the technical manuals must be translated into Newspeak; it is this bulk of translation work that explains the Party’s decision to hold off the full adoption of Newspeak to 2050.

Recommendation for Teaching

George Orwell’s novel is depressing and fatalistic in nature. There are parts that are difficult to read and are (for lack of a better description) boring. But this is one of those pieces that should be read. Some students will get it but as teaching tools it, although it might be meet with some derision.

The importance of Orwell’s message is an important lesson. The Negative Utopia concept he presents is essential to any understanding of the future. The questioning of governmental programs, what this generation leaves behind for future age groups are concepts that need to be addressed by the young, if not at least introduced to. The importance of technology and business are also a consideration. Does it control society or does society command it. Going hand in hand with the concepts of governmental power is the antithesis of Civil Disobedience. Which might make an excellent supplemental reading.

While the body of this essay did not (purposely) contain mention of Big Brother it is another reason for reading this novel. Big Brother is the figurehead of a government that has total control. The Big Brother regime uses propaganda and puts fear in its citizens to keep the general population in line. “Big Brother is watching you”(5) is just one example of many party slogans that puts fear in its citizens. Big Brother uses various ways to catch people guilty of bad thoughts and the term Big Brother is used though out other literature as well as other forms of media and communication.

Lesson Ideas

1. The entire class would have to comply with the societal rules that Winston has to. By either having the class have a discussion on how to make everyone completely equal. If one person has glasses they all would have glasses. Etc.

2. Write a paper in Newspeak, or have a class conversation in Newspeak.

3. How would they feel if their entire life was predestined? What if the only way to survive was to conform.4. What is freedom? What is this type of society born from? If a class of seniors is they involved with government or do they allow it to happen?

5. Might teach Civil disobedience along with this. At least a supplemental reading for a one-day discussion.

Posted in Uncategorized

Decision making in organizations

Decision making in organizations

Decision making in organizations

Introduction

Decision-making includes an assortment of processes that are all amid thought and action. These processes are an antecedent to behavior; expressing ideas into tangible consequences. Decision-making as a concept is not well defined. This is as result of the aspects and the avenues through with different people view decision-making from. The scope of decisions that people make range from matters that would potentially affect them into their lifetime to mattes as trivial as what to wear for the day. These indicating why decision making as process is not well defined.

According to Bazerman, (1999), decision making in organizations. He points out that when individuals are faced with tough choices, their focus shifts to making the right choice and not making the choice in the right way (Bazerman, 1999). Further indicating that people tend to focus on securing:

More expertise

More inclusion

More resources

Better data regarding the issue

More time to come up with a conclusive decision

With a better decision-making process, individuals would have the best platform for stronger implementation for decisions made.

Decision Issues

Distortions

This comes about due to the irrational nature of man. The decision made are often affected by social pressure, we often care of other people’s opinions, we have preconceived ideas regarding what is acceptable or not therefore making us prone to all kind of illogical thought. Decisions are often informed by emotional and cognitive backgrounds increasing the odds for a distortion free decision –making process.

Distortions in Decision Making

The distortions that come about in decision-making are brought about by distortions in perceptions and by distortions in choice.

Distortion in Perception

Confirmation Bias: distortion occurs because of using of information with the preconceived notion of its outcome. This is often influenced by other organization supporting desired outcome

Wishful thinking: Distortions arise due to seeing organizations prospects in an overlay optimistic light

Primary Effect: This is as a result of the use of recent materials only to aid in the decision-making process

Repetition Bias: This is brought about by the use of information that is favored by many of interested parties

Anchoring: basing a decision on an inappropriate reference point

Source Credibility: arises from favoring the use of information from sources that we like

Attribution asymmetry: occurs as a result of attributing our successes to talents and attributing our failures to circumstances.

Distortion in Choice

Incremental Decision-Making and Escalating Commitment: when individuals are faced by the choice of becoming a manager or a parent. They are probably going to make distortions in their decision-making as a result of choice

Groupthink: this occurs when decisions are arrived at as a result of consensus instead of the quality of the decision made

Authority : distortion occurs when the figure of authority are sensitive to allowing contributions that inform decision-making to come from their juniors

Sunk costs: Distortions arise when organizations choose to allocate less or no budgetary funds to aid decision-making processes.

Meta-Decision Making

These are the decisions that people make regarding decision-making. These decisions often go unnoticed as they are entrenched on a word, a glance and sometimes on an unintentional casing. For Meta-Decision Making processes to be exposed, we would have to analyze our more fleeting thoughts and slow down our thought process.

Challenges

Decision making is often made difficult by the situation that individuals find themselves in. these is as a result of situations being characterized by challenges that further complicate the decision-making process.

Making Good Decisions

It is everyone’s intention to make good decisions. It is therefore justified to look at how to make decisions and how to improve the decisions that we make. The answer to better decisions lies in the content. We therefore have to adjust our decision-making style and understand the avenues and forums within which we base the decision.

Reasons for the decline in quality of Managerial Decision-making

Limited time frames due to the nature of contracting business cycles

Distorted data that is sometimes used in decision-making

The rate of change invalidates the data behind a decision before implementation

The Decision-making Process

Organizations are run by decisions that people in authority make. The soundness of the decisions adhered to is mirrored by the success of the organizations. This lays out the effectiveness and the quality of the decision making-process. The quality of the decision-making process often determines how flourishing a manager will be. Decision-Making is an ongoing process of evaluating circumstances and making choices. The process is dependant of reliable information made available at adequate and opportune moments. The decision-making process entails:

Defining the problem

The definition of the challenge is the first step in the decision-making process. The correct definition of the challenge is key; as it has the potential to affect the secondary steps. The most appropriate way to go about definition of the problem is identifying the problem separately from its indicators.

Identifying the Limiting Factors

Managers should ensure that they have adequate resources to preempt the likelihood of not having the facilities necessary for the adequate decision-making practices at his or her disposal. Identifying limiting factors is bore by the need of managers wanting to make the best decisions with regard to the running of the organizations (Bazerman & Moore, 2008).

Developing Potential Alternatives

Time constraints often-precipitate managers to using quick fixes for their problems and not fully exhausting the possible solutions at their disposal. Managers are encouraged to consider several solutions before settling on one. A practice such as brainstorming is recommended, as the group dynamic Propagates thinking (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008).

Analyzing the Alternatives

This process culminates with the benefits of each idea, giving a clear picture of the advantages and disadvantages that would follow the adaption of a certain decision. This can be done through:

Determine the pros and cons of each alternative.

Perform a cost-benefit analysis for each alternative.

Weight each factor important in the decision, ranking each alternative relative to its ability to meet each factor, and then multiply by a probability factor to provide a final value for each alternative.

Selecting the Best Alternative

This is achieved after carefully analyzing all the alternatives and deciding on the best choice. The choice is often informed by the alternatives that offer the most advantages and pose fewer potential regrets. Managers can also look at the feasibility of the alternatives, as well as the cost effectiveness of each of the alternatives (Cialdini, 2008).

Implementation of the Decision

It is the role of managers to make decisions and ensure that positive outcomes follow up their decisions. It is therefore up to the managers to delegate responsibilities efficiently to ensure the successful implementation of their decisions.

Establish a Control and Evaluation System

This system is important to continuously check on the efficiency of the implemented decisions. It provides managers with information whether to adjust decisions made to attain the objectives intended when selecting the solution.

References:

Bazerman, M. H. & Moore, D., (2008). Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. 7th Ed. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bazerman, M. H., (1999). Smart Money Decisions. N Y: John Wiley.

Cialdini, R., (2008). Influence: Science and Practice. 5th Ed. Prentice Hall.

Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C.R., (2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, &Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Posted in Uncategorized

death sentence abolish

death sentence abolish

Author

Tutor

Course

Date

Introduction

Capital punishment has for a long time been one of the most controversial subjects in the entire world. It mainly involves handing an individual a death penalty for a heinous crime such as murder, child rape and robbery with violence among others (Banner and Banner, 13). In the state of Florida, the execution is carried out using a lethal injection that was allowed by the legislature in January 2000 (Tucker, 3). Alternatively, an individual may be executed using the electric chair in the execution chamber situated at Florida State Prison (Tucker, 6). However, questions have emerged pertaining to the efficacy of the death punishment. There has been controversy as to whether a death sentence serves any positive purpose or whether it should be abolished. In my opinion, capital punishment or the death penalty should be abolished.

First, it is worth noting that judges can err in their judgment as far as the determination of the guilt of an individual. This underlines the fact that, there are instances when an innocent individual will be condemned to capital punishment or the death penalty simply because he or she cannot prove his innocence (Pojman and Reiman, 22). It goes without saying that the inability to prove one’s innocence does not necessarily underline his guilt. This raises the question as to whether justice would have been done in such instances (Pojman and Reiman, 24).

It is worth noting that once a miscarriage of justice has been done, as is the case of capital punishment, it cannot be undone. Death is always irrevocable in which case there would be no way of undoing the injustice of executing an innocent person. Philosophers have always stated that it is more preferable to free a thousand guilty people than to kill an innocent person. In essence, I think it would be preferable that these people are given life sentences with or without the option of parole to prevent the killing of innocent people.

In addition, death penalty seems to single out the poor. This is because they may not have sufficient financial muscle to hire proper lawyers, in which case they have to rely on the attorneys appointed by the court (Bedau, 24). In most cases, courts do not have sufficient capital to appoint appropriate representation, in which case the poor may end up being punished for wrongs that they did not commit. In fact, court-appointed attorneys are paid less than the minimum wage, in which case they are not motivated to invest sufficient effort in uncovering the truth about the cases (Pojman and Reiman, 34). The rich, however, can afford to hire qualified lawyers to argue their cases, as well as dig for justice. For example, O.J Simpson could afford a team of highly-qualified lawyers and even finance DNA testing thereby exposing the errors in the DNA evidence of the prosecution. This, however, is unlikely to have happened without the assistance of the attorneys.

In addition, the main reason for any sentence should be to compensate the wronged parties in a fair manner and possibly deter such actions in the future. In the case of death penalties, it goes without saying that the wronged parties would not in any way be compensated by the execution of the presumed wrongdoer.

Of course, proponents of the death penalty opine that it gives the victims a feeling that justice has been done. However, this is not the case. For example, in instances where an individual is presumed to have raped a child, killing him would not compensate the wronged party (Pojman and Reiman, 28). Moreover, how just would it be if an innocent person is executed just to satisfy the will of the wronged parties? In such instances, it would be preferable to follow the suggestions of sociologists, who opine that such individuals should be handed a life sentence where they would work to support the wronged parties. In fact, such measures would offer criminals a chance to reform their ways, which should be the fundamental pillar for law (Bedau, 55).

In addition, proponents argue that the death penalty is the only way that can effectively deter people from committing violent crimes. However, this theory has been proven wrong and inaccurate by statistics. Statistics show that after the lifting of the ban on death penalty in 1976 by the United States Supreme Court, states that have the highest rate of executions also had higher rates of violent crime than states that had lower rates of executions (Pojman and Reiman, 56). For example, from 1982 to 1991 Texas witnessed a rise in the rates of crime by 24% and the rate of violent crime by 46% after reenacting the death penalty statute. It is worth noting that at this time, Texas had executed around 355 people. California, on the other hand saw an increase of crime rate by only 5% yet it had executed only 11 people. This underlines the fact that death penalty does not serve as an effective deterrent of violent crime (Pojman and Reiman, 67).

These points underline the need for the abolishment of the death penalty. It is improper to execute an individual especially considering that human beings can make an error of judgment, thereby executing an innocent person. This is complemented by the fact that death is irreversible, in which case the execution of an innocent person would be a permanent and irrevocable miscarriage of justice. In addition, it does not serve as an effective deterrent of crime, nor does it serve as sufficient compensation to the wronged parties.

Works cited

Banner, Stuart and Banner, Stuart. The Death Penalty: An American History. New York: Harvard University Press, 2003. Print

Pojman, Louis P. and Reiman, Jeffrey H. The Death Penalty: For and Against. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998. Print

Bedau, Hugo Adam. The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Print

Tucker, Kenneth S. Florida Department of Corrections: Death Row Fact Sheet. Web retrieved from HYPERLINK “http://www.dc.state.fl.us/oth/deathrow/” http://www.dc.state.fl.us/oth/deathrow/

(Bedau, )

Posted in Uncategorized

Debate on Collective Memory

Debate on Collective Memory

Debate on Collective Memory

One of the most distinguishing aspects in Maurice Halbwachs’ discourse in social frameworks of memory is the strong association of memory with cultural perceptions. Through various examples, Halbwachs illustrates the existence of collective memory and social memory frameworks. He goes further to assert that our personal thoughts reside in these social frameworks which actively play a role in the process of recollection. We are able to remember things more vividly and with a higher degree of clarity when parents, friends, or fellow members of our society recall them for us. The associative ability of our memories largely relies on our cultural surroundings.

Clifford Geertz maintains that our expectations are conceptualized through our general stock of theoretical concepts as defined by our cultures. In this view Geertz is in agreement with Halbwachs’ concept of social frameworks of memory. In response to his critics, Michael Foucault invokes Halbwachs’ social frameworks by asserting that theories are results of “established regimes of thought” (Halbwach 38). He attributes criticism against him to features and events that have been socially accepted by virtue of our being in contact with them repeatedly. He calls the recalling and accepting of these virtues “a return of knowledge” (Foucault 81). His description of these virtues that form culture is in agreement with Halbwachs’ social frameworks of memory.

Halbwachs maintains that individuals should be considered as isolated beings as most psychological treatises try to portray. Such arguments demand that in order to understand human mental operations we first have to sever all connections of the individual with the society. He calls this an erroneous process since the individual derives a large part of his or her memory from the society. It is from the society that they are able to “recall, recognize and localize their memories” (Halbwachs 38). All our daily recollections in any day are the result of our direct or indirect association with other members of the society since we appeal to our memories to answer questions that have been asked or we believe they might have asked us. In providing answers we put ourselves in the same social context as the other people in order to be properly understood. Our memory is therefore subjected to the kind of society we are in.

Michel Foucault recognizes the social framework of memory while describing the phenomenon of insurrection subjugated knowledges. He describes subjugated knowledges in two ways. The first way is as “the historical contents that have been buried and disguised in a functionalist coherence or formal systemization” (Foucult 81). Secondly, subjugated knowledges refer to the historical content of the society that would help us discover who we truly are from where we came from but are disguised. Subjugated knowledges can thus be defined as blocks of historical contents that make it possible for us to keep on rediscovering the adverse effects of the struggle between our true selves and the norms imposed on us by the functionalist or systematic mental disguise. The mental disguise he is referring to is the social framework of our cultural memory.

Foucault states that criticism thrives well when people have lost the perception of differential knowledge which does not rely on unanimous acceptance but instead rely on local popular knowledge to disqualify the truth. This opinion lends credence to Halbwachs’ viewpoint of the society being the determinant of how concepts, items, and other phenomena are called to memory.

While describing the relationship between memory and language, Halbwachs renounces the idea that our pasts are stored in our memories like cabinet drawers. He argues that people living together in a society are held together by the use of words they find to be commonly intelligible. This is a major condition is for collective thought. Every word that they use brings a recollection of an item or idea. All words are accompanied by appropriate recollections such that a word that does not call to mind a specific event, item, idea or person is considered to be alien in that particular language. It is described as un-understandable. On the other hand, there are no recollections that come without corresponding words to describe them within the society. “We often speak of our recollections before calling them to mind” (Halbwachs 173). These words make up the language we speak therefore it is language in combination with a host of many other social conventions, that give us the ability to reconstruct past events.

The function of language as a social framework for memory is an issue that Clifford Geertz includes in his definition of culture as a complex whole. He uses Clyde Kluckhohn’s definition culture in eleven ways that are all in agreement with Halbwachs social frameworks of memory. Geertz gives Kluckhohn’s definition of culture as “the total way of life of a people” (Geertz 4). This definition implies that culture relies on the unifying concepts that people can conceptualize through memory to agree that they are indeed one community. The conceptualization is only achieved through similar recollections of common values, beliefs, social systems, events, and any other aspect of life that they share. This conceptualization therefore relies on social frameworks of memory and recollection.

Another definition is about culture being “the social legacy the individual acquires from his group” (Geertz 4). This description of culture calls to attention Halbwachs’ association of memory with cultural perceptions where an individual’s thoughts reside in social frameworks that actively play a role in the process of recollection. It is in the same way that one would ask how our recollections are stored. Halbwachs describes this phenomenon of locating recollections by stating that it is done “with the help of landmarks that we carry within ourselves, for it suffices to look around ourselves within the social frame work to retrieve them” (175).

Geertz also describes culture as “a way of thinking, feeling, and believing” (Geertz 4). This definition is similar to Halbwachs’ assertion about the associative ability of our memories largely relying on the way we think and believe as members of one society. When Geertz talks about the definition of culture as a storehouse of learned attributes pooled together, he is borrowing from Halbwachs’ argument on memory being subject to the kind of society we live in such that all learned attributes are defined by the social recollection. For example, a hot-dog is a type of food eaten in most western cultures and is therefore a cultural attribute. However, a person from a different culture will have to learn what it is before he or she can recollect what it is whenever it is mentioned. The meaning of the term resides within the storehouse of that community. Anyone from outside might misconstrue the real meaning and end up recollecting visions of a hot canine.

Halbwachs addresses the question of how we can with a degree of certainty confirm that our recollections as individuals and as members of a society are actually as a result of social schemes or frameworks. How are we able to achieve the colorful representations of our recollections? To answer this question, he first considers the relationship between an image and a concept. The image is considered as being independent of intellectual significance while the concept is considered to be devoid of the image. This makes it possible to reconstruct memory-images without having to pull out tangible images. The concepts on the other hand can be recollected on an intellectual level without the need for tangibility. While writing about nationalism, identity, ethnicity, and revolution among other subjects, Geertz assumes a similar outlook on life as Halbwachs does about images and concepts.

Geertz takes a stand against sociological aestheticism and concentrates on separation of biological and physical entities from political and economical realities in order to place such issues in a comprehensible and meaningful frame. He takes a symbolic dimension on social action like art, morality, and ideology to show that the function of “interpretive anthropology is not to answer our deepest questions but to make available to us the answers that others, guarding other sheep in other valleys, have given” (Geertz 30). This argument can be equated to Halbwachs’ position on the social frameworks of memory where an individual relies on the other members of the society to recollect issues and events from his or her natural surroundings.

Works Cited

Foucault, Michel. “Power/Knowledge.” Selected Interviews and Other Writings 1972-1977. Ed.Colin Gordon. New York: Pantheon, 1980. 78-108. Print.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books, 1973.Print.

Halbwachs, Maurice. The collective memory. New York: Harper & Row Colophon Books, 1980.Print.

Posted in Uncategorized

Decision Dilemmas

Decision Dilemmas

Decision Dilemmas

QUESTION ONE

Case one – Reject the Offer

The fact that the employee was on demand was owed to the current company she was working for. This is clearly indicated in the argument that her training was sponsored by the organization. A contract should be entered defining the minimum period of time she can work for the organization before making a final decision to leave. It would be necessary for the organization to establish the improvement in performance of the employee as a result of the training they offered. Similarly, there is need to provide information on the sole intention for the training. One would reconsider reversing the decision in a situation where the efforts of the employee are not appropriately remunerated by the first organization and where they are not appreciated. Under different circumstances, depending on the relevant factors as mentioned above, the decision might have been different, for instance, where the company only provided experience but not the training.

Case two – Continue to advertise

The decision is based on the fact that each organization is believed to know its product best. Similarly, they have the right to design their advertisements as they deem fit provided the information is not misleading to the consumers. It would be appropriate if the question clearly indicated whether the results found by the organization, which claimed they had the juiciest products, were credible or biased considering they were self carried out. One might change their mind regarding the decision made if a situation contradicting the findings of the firm arises. This is where they will be presumed/proven to be less juicy than others. The decision is likely to be revered where the circumstances vary from the one presented. For instance, where there is sufficient evidence that the results are misleading to the clients and are not accurate. This could also be if the laws of the country do not allow for the advertisers to practise freedom in formulating their own advertisements.

Case three – Not proper, Should not sell

The relationship between the two parties was already manipulated and ceased being professional when the potential buyer company decided to send gifts since it personalized their transaction. To enhance certainty of the decision, information regarding the previous relationship between Bob and the potential buyer should have been indicated. A situation such as an evident professional relationship of the buyer in other business transactions and empirical evidence of an existing relationship between Bob and the potential buyer may lead to a consideration to reverse the decision. The above mentioned circumstances may lead to an automatic change in decision to not sell to the party since it changes the circumstances surrounding the dilemma.

Case four – Suspend them for several games

The decision is based on the coach’s critical demand for discipline and non acceptance of favours and benefits from outsiders. However, having been trained by him, it would be worth giving them a second chance where if breached, they could be kicked out of the team. There should be specification as to whether this has been happening continuously or over a short period. The conduct of the team members when stated should also be able to clarify whether they deserve a second chance or not. The change of circumstances such as a discovery that the team members had been previously warned of the same conduct would automatically reverse the decision. They would be better off out of the team since that would be a clear indication of lack of discipline.

Case five – Close the plant

The decision is based on the consideration that if the adjustments are ignored, the whole organization may end up collapsing. It would be more convincing however if the performance of the plant being closed was clarified. Certain circumstances such as the increase in prices of the opposing firm or reduction in cost of production would lead to reconsidering of the decision. a different answer would be obtained in a case where the plant targeted for closure makes more profits than most of the others, or where there is a guarantee that non closure of the firm will not affect the stability of the organization in the market.

QUESTION TWO

The article, ‘Refugee Operations and Environmental Management’ is based on the important principles of decision making. The author in this case is focussed on the dilemmas that may arise in different situations that require timely decisions to be made. (UNHCR. 2001) argues that the principles are important since they enable a similarity indecisions made regarding similar situations. It is also possible that with the arising of relatively complicated situations, the responsible parties will be able to derive a possible solution regardless of the dilemma involved. For instance, the link between the problem at hand and the parties they involve should be clearly elaborated and defined before the ultimate decision regarding the matter is made. This will ensure that it will be fair, not biased in any way and the conduct of the individuals in sufficiently put into consideration. The author is also specific in stating that the relevant bodies for making decisions should have a rough idea of the possible circumstance that may arise such that in case they do, it will not get them unawares.

The author also brings about some interesting ideas surrounding the factors surrounding decisions to be made. These are very useful in a learning environment as well as for practise in the actual management field. This is so because the management is always responsible for making decisions that affect their subjects. These include the fact that every situation should have a monetary value attached to it. We realize that human beings place so much value on finances such that they rarely risk with it. Converting losses/profits that may come about with a bad/good decision encourages management to critically review a decision before implementing it.

References:

Suhr, J. (2003). Basic Principles of Sound Decision Making. The Institute for Decision Innovations, Inc. Retrieved http://www.value-eng.org/knowledge_bank/attachments/Suhr%20Jim%20Basic%20Principles%20of%20Sound%20Decisionmaking.pdf

Stormer, W. (1991). The Decision Dilemma – Cognitive Bias. Psychology. Retrieved from http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA235660

UNHCR. (2001). Key Principles for Decision Making. Refugee Operations and Environmental Management. Retrieved from http://postconflict.unep.ch/humanitarianaction/documents/02_10-01.pdf

Posted in Uncategorized