Decision making is fundamental

Decision making is fundamental



Institution affiliation



Decision making is fundamental in order to have successful public administration. However, there could be an uphill task to choose the most suitable model for policy choices. Decision making is important and one must be ready to face consequences of decision made

Root decision making has following advantage and disadvantages. Advantage is that there is increased accuracy and efficiency of decision making because of comphrensive analysis of decision and considers also appropriateness of decision. Disadvantages include ignorance of inability to take action as result of comphrensive analysis. It does not also favor community participation hence has centralized bias. Root decision making is not also adapted to sufficiency of information and costliness analysis.

Branch decision making has the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include it encourages democratic politics and also avoids colossal mistake which happen due to inappropriate decision making. Interest of both parties involved is catered for due to comprehensive analysis. It is elastic and can accommodate changes before implementation. Disadvantages include lack of innovativeness in finding suitable decision to problems. It may also underestimate policies which have not been proposed by successive chain policies.

There are major differences between root and branch decision making. Firstly, in root decision making, there is clarification of objectives prior to marginal evaluation and empirical analysis. The end refers to goals and objectives to be pursued and not a particular is rational and aims at maximizing value of decision makers while branch decision making there is close intertwining of marginal evaluation and empirical analysis rather than being distinct as it is in root decision making (Henry, 45).Secondly, in root decision making, there is thorough analyzing comprehensively policies with relevant factor taken into account. While branch decision making depicts limited analysis(Stillman, 78).Branch decision making tends to ignore alternative possible and significant potential outcomes.Thirdly,Root decision making uses mean end analysis that entails isolation which is opposite to branch decision making where there is no isolation.

Hurricane Katarina disaster case was one of the most tragic encounter in USA history. Failure of government in managing disasters and poor response from Katarina led to this tragic occurrence. This was as result of poor decision making.

There were basic coordination problem. This caused disagreements on what is to be done at specific time and who is to do it. This led to delay in disaster management, recovery bodies and attending to those affected. For example FEMA tried to push for government to take control but the officials and locals were overwhelmed and disagreed accusing FEMA of slowness to act accordingly.(House report,2006:75).Although management literature suggest that large disaster are difficult to manage, the government should have been able to take full control of situation.

Unresponsiveness to early warnings. The disaster that happened cannot be classified as a surprise as scientists had already warned about that yet no action was taken. The consequences of major Hurricane had been long anticipated especially in New Orleans and there were fears of collapse of coastal city because it was built below sea level. But concerns about such danger were not met with required way of curbing them. It took 5 years for FEMA to file report of Hurricane hitting New Orleans which is extremely long time. Scientists warned people adequately consequentially convincing Governors of Mississippi and Louisiana to issue states of emergency three days before disaster. However some decided to stay because of previous false alarm and others due to lack of transport. Lack of urgency from federal government eventually led to disaster happening.

Failure of Government to understand system nature of risk led to delay. There unprecedented demand for services e.g medical attention, search for survivors, evacuation and setting temporary shelter proved impossible to cover fully. Reduction of response and communication due to scope of disaster made transportation of food difficult due to flooded roads. Many rescue and police vehicles were flooded and rendered unusable. Wireless phones were also affected and emergency calls were difficult

Problem of dealing with dispersed responsibilities. There was lack of clearly authority to guide through disaster in major organs of state. Federal responders waited for so long for certain Aid from the government. Lack of clear directing authority led to freelance hence coordination problem.

Organizational capacity. The size of disaster was so huge for ant network to control. However failure in deployment of personnel, not taking sufficient measures to deploy communication gadgets, not prestaging enough commodities and failure to unite and form joint office led to management of disaster so hard.FEMA for example had been run by political appointee with limited experience in natural disaster management.Furthmore under President bush administration FEMA had lost key functions political influence and resources. All this factors contributed to failure of Katrina


Natural Disasters can cause a lot of harm and we cannot be able to control them fully, however we can take anticipatory measures in order to curb with this menace. Many Lessons emerge from Katrina we must covert the failures into successes of the future. Taking responsibility, assigning roles, faster responsiveness of emergence lines are example ways to stir forward.REFERENCES

Stillman, R. J. (2005). Public administration: Concepts and cases. Boston [u.a.: Houghton Mifflin.

Henry, Nicholas. Public Administration and Public Affairs. New York: Pearson Education Canada, 2009.

Milakovich, Michael and George Gordon. Public Administration in America. New York: Cengage Learning, 2012.

Stillman, Richard. Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.

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Decision Making Models

Decision Making Models

Decision Making Models

All people need to make decisions from time to time. Given the limited time in formulating policies and addressing problems, people have to enjoy a particular degree of discretion and good judgment in planning, revising and implementing their own course of action. That is, they must engage in decision-making (Giannakos, 2004; Verma, 2009). Over the years, scholars have come up with different decision-making models to account for the course of action taken.

The various decision making models which have been put forwards include, the rational models, the intuitive models, the rational-iterative models and the 5, 6, 7 as well as the 9 step decision models among others.

Rational decision-making model

This model allows decision-makers to make the best decisions and judgments and subsequently realize maximum efficiency and competency out of inadequate time and resources as well as knowledge in generating decisions. This model presumes that there exists only one most ideal and best outcome, thus at times it is referred to as the optimizing decision-making model. The model presumes that it is practicable to take into account every option available to a problem and also be knowledgeable of the future consequences of each.

Presented with the critical need to select the best alternative solution to a significant challenge, decision makers are confronted with the need to make the best possible decision. If that decision can maximize an individual’s rewards and meet his goals and objectives, there is an incentive to seek out information that will enlighten the decision and thereafter execute it. (Swoboda & Georgalu, 2008, p. 77)

It comprises of a structured four step sequence, these steps being; the identification of the problem, the generation of alternative solutions, the selection of a solution and finally the implementation and evaluation of the solution

One of the disadvantages that are associated with this model is that they require a great deal of time and a vast deal of information (Verma, 2009, p. 225). Other impediments are; the impossibility of distinguishing facts from values and of analytically separating ends from means, the improbability of obtaining consensus among decision makers on predetermined goals, pressure of time to make a decision when it is needed and the ability of decision makers to handle only a partial amount of information at any particular time. Other disadvantages associated with the rational approach include, the difficulty of giving one’s undivided attention to a single problem or decision, the cost of information acquisition, failure to secure all possible data because of time constraints, excessive costs or oversight and the inability to predict all the consequences of a given option among others (Milakovich & Gordon, 2008, pp. 209-211)

7step decision making model

This model was conceived and meant for those individuals who sought after a decision-making model which would assist them in making a decision about which career path to take or in deciding what action to take in regards to a job offer. Therefore, several steps are designed to achieve this.

The 7steps involved are; identification of the decision to be made, knowing your strengths, weaknesses, skills, values and interests, identifying your options, gathering information, facts and data about each alternative, evaluating the options that are likely to solve the problem, selecting the best option and the seventh step being to develop a plan of action and implementing it.

This model has the disadvantage of being extremely cumbersome, and information overload may actually inhibit the decision-making, that is, it is tedious especially when trying to figure out which information is relevant and which is not. Moreover, this model is not practical as it does not demonstrate how human beings naturally make decisions.

Other lesser known models include,

The Simon’s Normative Model. This model is founded on the assertion that the decision-making process is not rational. Herein, decision making is characterized by, limited information processing, excessive use of rules of thumb and, or shortcuts and satisficing

The 9 step decision-making model was proposed by David Welsh in his book ‘Decisions, Decisions’. This model allows the individual to consistently aim to maximize his pleasure and will be beneficial in the long run than in making decisions in any other way.

The intuitive decision-making models, herein decisions are considered to be lucky guesses, unlikely coincidences or a sort of hocus-pocus.


Milakovich, M. E., & Gordon, G. J. (2008). Public Administration in America (10, illustrated

ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.

Swoboda, D., & Georgalu, S. (2008). Managing Nonprofit Financial and Fiscal Operations.

Management Concepts.

VERMA, D. (2009). Decision Making Style: Social and Creative Dimensions. Global

India Publications.

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Decision Support Systems

Decision Support Systems

1. Identify the problem the DSS will help decision makers solve

Implementation of the Decision Support Systems in running of organizational management needs will target specific problems in order to increase efficiency and eliminate poor performance. The most important elements of the DSS that every management setting aims to achieve are mainly driven by the need to remain vigilant on quality service delivery as well as cost benefit analysis results. While profitability may not be a reason good enough to facilitate appropriate performance reviews, certain industries must represent quality service delivery in their effective decision making processes. One of such industries is the healthcare industry whose sensitive interaction with human life dictates focus on quality ahead of profitability (Malhotra, 1989). It is imperative therefore that the effective DSS in such industries include some of the most important healthcare issues on the system blueprint to assist in tackling both quality and profitability in a single agenda. Patients’ needs are important in the system as human resource needs encompassed under the DSS. Some of the problems that will be targeted in the designed DSS will include various departmental issues that need management input in different respects such as;

Management of patients’ health records in terms of entry and retrieval

Provide an efficient patient progress tracking procedures

Consolidation of various facilities under the institution’s capacity for enhancement and elimination of idle capacity

Following up specific patient care through real time caregiver’s activities tracking systems

Collection of patients’ satisfaction scores for application in performance enhancement through efficient customer experience backed service delivery reviews

Assist in control and management of staffing needs through staff monitoring data

Drugs and equipment procurement management systems

Facility administration and related allocation and delegation of responsibilities to track performance

Human resource monitoring, performance appraisal and motivation management

2. Build: Describe the major steps in developing the DSS and define the various types of testing the DSS will need before implementing the prototype


Initial stages of the building process of a customized DSS will involve the internalization of the organization needs and outline in the basic structure. This will include determining the needs of the organizational decision making process and integrate them in the structural component of the DSS. The organizational and management structural designs will be dissected for integration in the DSS structural design to make it compatible with the computer based system. Various management areas that require focus and input through the decision making highlight will be pointed out and roles attached for enhancement through DSS (Dahm and Wadensten, 2008). Functional units of the entire organization will also be pointed out for easier monitoring via the computer system.

Using this functional and structural integration, it will be easy for the DSS to pick up various decisions making needs and prompt the management to act on a number of options that the system has. This will be the case for patient care processes, employees monitoring and welfare needs as well as the facility control and management decision making inputs. Connecting all the decision making needs to a central detection system will facilitate the building phase to be completed.


Testing the workability of the DSS will include various phases of implementation to avoid a system failure or clash disabling the operations of the entire organization. The three basic areas of input will be implemented and tested differently while the current management systems are still in place. Once the desired results are received, the new system will be full implemented and the ineffective system laid aside. Performance efficiency in coverage of the important input areas will be compared between the current system and the new DSS application.

Buy: Define the type of DSS you will buy and describe the major steps and criteria you will use in selecting the DSS vendor and software


The Horizon Expert system will be implemented as it befits the healthcare system as observed by McKesson (2007). Horizon Expert DSS application is a management program that enables the management of the healthcare facility needs with a side range of specificity and optimization opportunities. Some of the most important data sources that enable the implementation of Horizon Expert cover patient care needs, employee management as well as various facility monitoring and control needs making it an important tool in healthcare.

Selection Criteria

When determining the DSS vendor and type for buying, it was important to consider the cost element and the quality of the product with an aim of determining the best package in the market. Besides the quality and cost, the implementation aspects, ease of operation as well as compatibility with the organizational setting became very instrumental in the purchasing process. Based on the internal needs that need to be included in the decision making framework, it was inevitable to include the most important targets list that the effective DSS must cover. It came out clear that the Horizon Expert is better than most other healthcare DSS packages that the market had.

3. Describe the user and management involvement in the implementation approach, goal development and implementation and evaluation planning and how you will obtain management and user “buy-in?”

Implementation Approach

In order for the DSS package to meet the intended needs, both the users’ and the managements’ attention in the implementation program is irreplaceable. Cooperation and assistance from all sections of the organization are needed in the implementation of a new system that brings in changes to old ways of carrying out business. In respect to a healthcare needs that the management ought to streamline in a comprehensive management plan, the need to facilitate the appropriate understanding must be well served (Dahm and Wadensten, 2008). Some training may be needed to ensure that there is cooperation among the various stakeholders in the DSS implementation program.

Goal Development and Implementation

It is imperative that initial implementation targets are outlined in advance to enhance the realization of the desired changes. Various management levels and staff must set out their targets to be met through the DSS, to act as implementation yardsticks. Goal development regarding the implementation will need to be focused on the new management capacity created by the DSS application likely to factor in enhancements.


The evaluation of the DSS performance will be evaluated on the performance enhancement criteria that will focus on the changes brought in upon implementation. Since the DSS has clearly defined areas of management where input is needed in terms of enhancement, it is easy to monitor changes.

Obtaining Buy-In

Where some aspects of outsourcing are needed for the implementation of the DSS, it will be identified on the technical implementation needs against the current internal capacity. In case there are aspects of implementation that demand a buy-in arrangement, the necessary implementation outsourcing will be procured from the program supplier.


Dahm, M. & Wadensten, B. (2008) “Nurses’ Experiences of and Opinions about Using Standardized Care Plans in Electronic Health Records – A Questionnaire Study,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(16):2137-2145. <Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02377.x>

Malhotra, N. K. (1989) “Decision Support Systems for Healthcare Marketing Managers,” Journal of Healthcare Marketing, 9(2):20-28

McKesson, (2007) Making Care Planning Relevant. Retrieved from: HYPERLINK “”

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Debate Participation Importance of Applied Psychology in the Society today

Debate Participation Importance of Applied Psychology in the Society today

Debate Participation: Importance of Applied Psychology in the Society today



Importance of Applied Psychology in the Society today

Psychology can be defined as an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior. There are numerous research studies done on psychology. The studies aim at understanding and explaining how people think, act and how they feel, both mentally and physically. Applied psychology is the use of the several psychological principles to try deal with issues, especially the negative ones that affect the daily lives of people.

Applied psychology is very important in the growth of the society today because it is of great essence that people know their mental fitness and have it monitored if their enormous performance at work is to be seen (Davey, 2011). This means that doctors have a big role in making sure they understand the behavior of people and check on their medical backgrounds before they embark on critical assignments. The values and theories of psychology help a great deal in overcoming many problems, in the cases of people with huge capabilities, but are useless or unproductive because of their difficulties back at home. This would include drilling and regular counseling which helps the victims have a different and better perspective of their lives.

Many problems at the work place and in families are not medical and so they only need some psychotherapy, which can be done by personal doctors, those that have treated someone or members of the family for a long time and have information about its history. It has come to be one of the only treatments that would not require medication, but psychoanalysis, just opening up to someone and letting them give their views and propositions of how to handle stress and come out of it. Psychiatric therapy is not only important for the working class, but also necessary for the young generations. There is a rise in cases of children who grew up in dysfunctional families and have grown to show traits of distressful youth lives. They also need a lot of counseling to enable them to become what they dream to be.

Therefore, applied psychology is of key importance as not all problems that affect people in the society today are medical. There is a need for more doctors and specialists trained to handle cases related to stress. This is because the number of people who require special and urgent attention is also rising. There should also be a number of fields which would deal with different types of such cases (Burtt, 2011).


Davey, G. 2011. Applied Psychology. John Wiley & Sons.

Burtt, H. E. 2011. Applied psychology. Prentice-Hall.

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debt crisis tuesday

debt crisis tuesday

Debt Crisis






The impact of the Third World Debt Crisis and Globalization on Developing and Developed Nations

There are extreme cases of the debt crisis in the modern world, and it needs to be understood well. Often the debt crisis refers to public and private external debt that is experienced by developing countries. The latter has been taking place since the 1970’s and exists up to date. The global economy is being affected tremendously by the debt crisis. Furthermore, the government of the United States is suffering immensely as it seeks to correct the problem of budget deficits. Also, its loans and savings institutions, as well as its balance trade deficits are being affected by the debt crisis.

On the other hand, Globalization is changing the relations that exist between the developing and developed nations. The world is on a daily basis having an integrated economy that is global. It means that decisions regarding social relations and production consumption have transnational dimensions. It cannot be denied that the influence of globalization is felt everywhere, and it is quite strong. Globalization has ensured that forces such as consumption patterns, information, and technologies, real and financial capital are present.

This paper seeks to give a critical analysis concerning the relationship between developing and developed nations. Moreover, it seeks to find out how their relationship has been affected by Globalization and the Third World Debt Crisis.

Critical analysis of the Global Debt Crisis and its impact on Developing and Developed nations

It is claimed that the developing world will never repay its debts fully, and this is due to the fact that they cannot afford it. Loans were initially given to the developing world as a form of stimulus to get rid of their poverty. Some economists claimed that in order to ensure that the citizen’s plight is addressed; they have to give them loans. People living in the developed world often cannot relate to poverty. Those living in developing nations do not have access to proper housing, nutrition, health care and even education.

The first world seeks to find ways of making sure that the debt crisis is resolved before it escalates any further. In turn, it has come up with three methods, and they include; reduction, adjustments of repayments and repudiation. Debt repudiation has been quite common in South American countries such as Peru and Brazil. Unfortunately, this measure has only been temporary. Jeffery Sachs an economist claims that repudiation will never be a solution to the debt crisis. In fact, it is known to affect the relations that exist between the developing nations. Some of polices established by the International Monetary Fund are discriminative. For example, the IMF believes that by controlling the currency values of African countries it can maintain the debt crisis. In Tanzania, the IMF has sort to solve the problems that are related to balance of payments. The latter attempt by the IMF failed, and this made the world know that the debt crisis cannot be handled by the organization.

Countries such as Brazil and Mexico have massive debts, and this is due to the international financial system, which they focus upon. Another region known to be affected by the debt world crisis is the region of Sub-Saharan Africa. Development in the third world is being hindered as a result of the debt crisis. It has made the debtors have a life quality that is not superior. For example, in most African countries such as Somalia and Sudan there is constant fighting. The decline in life quality is due to the political violence that is taking place in those regions. The Somali government has many debts that it cannot be able to pay and in turn the country is in chaos. The Al-Shabaab that is against the Somali government has resorted to find ways of taking over the country. They have resorted to engage in terrorist activities and some analysts’ claim this is due to the debt crisis that has affected Somalia.

Most of Africa is taking the time to develop as the debt crisis has made them become heavily indebted. The international economic system is the key reason why poverty levels are extremely high. There are some African nations, which are extremely rich, while others are the complete opposite. Egypt is a rich African country that cannot be compared to others such as Senegal and Mali. The first world seems to favor Egypt and often finds ways of removing their debt burden. In turn, Egypt has an opportunity to progress while other regions are ignored by the first world. African nations have resorted to protecting their own territories and not become involved with each other. In turn, the debt crisis is blamed for affecting the relations between members of the third world.

It is argued that the relationship that exists between Developing and Developed nations has been affected by Globalization. Recently, there has been an increase in interconnection, which is economic in nature. In turn, it has led to changes that are political, and it seems to affect many countries and especially the poor ones. Developing countries are extremely dependent on the economies of developed countries. For example, the United States is viewed as a power that can fully support most developing countries. America is known for its high levels of technology levels as well as capital expertise. Multinationals are a perfect example of how globalization has affected the relationship between the two diverse nations. Brands such as Sony, Nike and Coca Cola are examples of products that affect globalization. Also, as a result of globalization, capitalism has emerged and it has three features that are unique. The most distinct features are the ones concerning delocalization and its relation to globalization.

People are becoming familiar with one another through mediums such as the internet, telephones, media, advertising as well as economic exchanges. This means that, at the same time, material consumption is enhanced by the developing and developed nations. For example, the American brand known as McDonalds is widely found. In fact, the chain has outlets in all almost all the continents. Local communities are also affected by the activities that are conducted by multinationals. The latter often search for developing countries whereby, they can obtain cheap resources and labor, in order to carry out their operations. In turn, the local communities benefit as there is a flow of wealth and this enhances the globalization process. Also, the scenario can bring about cases of unemployment that is large scale. The result is that there will be wide gaps of inequality between the local communities and the multinationals For example, employees working in a multinational in a country such as China, for the company known as Nike, often complain about poor pay. In a 1998 in China, it was found out that manufacturers such as Nike and Ralph Lauren underpaid Chinese workers. They were being paid as little as 13cents every hour, while their counterparts in other companies in the same region were being paid 87 cents every hour. Moreover, workers doing the same job in the United States were being paid at least 10 dollars every hour. In turn, the relation between the United States and China was strained as a result of such cases.


In conclusion, the first world does not seem to try and solve the problem of the debt crisis in the third world. It is almost a daily occurrence to hear of loans being given to third world countries. This is despite the fact that they are heavily indebted and cannot find a way to pay back. It is vital that suitable ways of helping the developing third world are found, other than give them loans that cannot be repaid easily. Globalization has totally widened the gap between developing and developed nations. At the same time, globalization has been enhanced by beliefs and ideas that have been spread through western imperialism. This is an error that is costly as well as serious that multinationals in developing nations should be aware of. Since they have the power of improving a developing countries economy, they should control the macroeconomic forces that exist. In turn, the local community in the developing country will be satisfied by the changes that are taking place.

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Decision Making

Decision Making

Decision Making

As a judge with a reputable name in the US to warrant consideration as a future candidate into the Supreme Court, decision-making procedures are clearly defined by the constitution as well as by court precedents on similar decisions. In line with the premise that constitution is the supreme law and any other law is rendered invalid to the extent of its inconsistence with the constitution, the work of a judge is cut out. For judicial rulings sought by the public where they are not clearly spelt out in the constitution, a judge is free to make rulings setting precedents that may not bind the courts. In view of the flexibility of a judge to rely on judicial precedents, it follows that the freedom to make reliance on past rulings is reserved to the judge. Based on the above facts, it is correct to state that all the rulings delivered as highlighted below pass the test of legal definitions.

In the case of farmers from a different state being barred from selling their wares in Oklahoma, it is against the constitution to exclude someone on a state-related reason. The inconsistence with the constitution renders the law enforced in Oklahoma null and void. In the second case, Oklahoma and Texas are inconsistent with the constitution since enforcement of the order that they are requesting does not serve the best interests of the public as protected by the constitution and the Statute assented to by the president. In the case of Julie Abrams, seeking to compel the Utah state to allow her to operate by circumventing around the laid out state laws is inconsistent with state laws. The election date case in Colorado is consistent with the constitution as it complies with the provisions of the constitution. In the case of Texas having a commemorative coin against the provision of the constitution regarding legal tender, it is inconsistent with the law therefore void to the extent of that inconsistence.

In view of the basic compliance with the constitutional provisions, all the rulings were correct. There were no major contestations on the application of contentious judicial interpretation such as in judicial precedents. Where the constitution is expressly clear on the position of a legal impasse, there are no discussions within the circumstances of the presenting legal challenge other than to implement the constitutional provisions. Apparently, I achieved the goal of a judicial officer under the oath to protect the constitution of the US. To this end, public opinion and ratings leading to proposals as a federal judge does not have an impact on the independence of my judgment. This would affect my duty to discharge my judgment as impartially as possible and without bias originating from conflict of interest.

I have learnt that the decision making process in certain independent positions may face obstacles such as conflict of interest. However, following the laid out procedures is always important in upholding professional values and protecting and national interests. In certain instances, independent judgment may call for extra strength of mind and character by rising above conflicting positions. Understanding the rules and guidelines for a specific job is important in the delivery of expected input, which calls for deliberation on all the available options and choosing for the most appropriate one. As an illustration, it would be embarrassing for a judge of a junior court to continuously make decisions that are contested in an appellate court and having all decisions reversed. This can be avoided by making accurate estimation that can be adopted by appellate court judges.

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Debate between Teleological Arguments and Theory of Evolution

Debate between Teleological Arguments and Theory of Evolution

Main Lines of Debate between Teleological Arguments and Theory of Evolution

Debate has been rife for several centuries regarding logical explanation for the existence of the universe, particularly with regard to existence of life. Teleological arguments and evolution theory have widely been studied to offer some of the most acceptable reasoning perspectives for the debate. Explanation has been sought to validate the position held by proponents of the debate, which fall on the opposing side. The main lines of debate can be discussed as follows.

Teleology Lines

First, temporal orderliness of the universe acts as one of the main support points of the teleological proponents of the debate (Swinburne, 154). According to the author, the universe happens to follow some form of order which cannot be assumed to occur just by chance. Guided by positions held by great theologians such as Thomas of Aquinas, the author is of the opinion that such happenings can only be explained by existence of “someone with awareness…we call God,” (Swinburne, 155). It is clear that the apparent orderliness that exists in the universe must be under the control of some being, a comparison of which mush be a deity. This position finds easy acceptance into the debate, perhaps better than any other.

Another argument is the probability of existence of the high orderliness in both universes, Godly and Godless which shows that there is a high probability that the laws of nature that the universe follows must be set out by some being (160). The author states that objects in nature follow some predictable behavior only in a Godly universe as Humean theory explains. We can draw an inference from this theory that the universe is under directions from a deity.

In addition, spatial order, a fact of the universe can be argued only in a perspective that recognizes regularity therein. Co-presence as well as succession can not be explained in exclusion of God (167). These regularity perspectives that denote a well ordered universe complement a Godly universe argument with all respect. Alternatively, beauty of the universe that complements its orderliness is more reasonable when an explanation is sought from Godly presence (190). Using the spectacular regularity depicted by the universe, it is logical to attach a deity to the best explanation sought on its beauty.

Consciousness and mentality analysis gives an array of arguments that strongly support the position that were it not for the existence of God in the Universe, certain innate features of the universe would not exist (198). It is certainly possible to lose meaning of morality in human beings without telos, which explains the position held by God in the universe (Fahlbusch, 328).

Evolution Lines

Linnaean Taxonomy appears to solve the problem of the structure of life forms into a family tree. It is easily possible to trace the origin of life forms due to the universe’s incredible consistency in organizing life into the family tree. It is possible to practically demonstrate the origin of life forms from a common ancestor using the family tree (Wong, 1)

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Deception In The Investigative Process

Deception In The Investigative Process

Deception In The Investigative Process


TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058423” Ethics and Lying to Get the Truth PAGEREF _Toc377058423 h 1

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058424” Do Ends Justify the Means? PAGEREF _Toc377058424 h 2

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058425” Conflict between Code of Ethics and Law Enforcement Practices PAGEREF _Toc377058425 h 3

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058426” Physical Behavior and Non-Verbal Communication in Detecting Deception PAGEREF _Toc377058426 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058427” Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc377058427 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc377058428” References PAGEREF _Toc377058428 h 6

Ethics and Lying to Get the TruthDeception refers to an act of deliberately misleading a person in order to achieve a premeditated intention. In criminal justice procedures, deception is an investigative tool that is used prevalently by investigating officers. Deception is mainly used in the detecting process where alleged criminals are deliberately misled to give up information that is pertinent to the crime before the case is presented in court. There are other forms of psychological persuasion for information which include seduction, manipulation, and all other means of non-violent coercion through the use of what is generally referred to as “white lies.” An ethical question that arises from this sanctioned use deception is whether it is morally right to lie in the search for truth.

The question can be approached from two perspectives. One is from an ontological point of view which leans on a realistic justification for the use of deception on the basis of the good that will come out of it for the whole community. The second approach is from the more idealistic deontological perspective which is based on ideas by philosophers like Immanuel Kant who held that, “moral conduct means acting within a constraining framework of principles that are independent of consequential considerations” (Herman, 2006, p. 344). From this line of thinking it emerges that if lying is considered to be morally unacceptable, then it should not be used for any purpose regardless of what good it might bring.

From an ontological perspective, truth is an end that holds priority over the means used to achieve it. The close relationship between ontology and critical realism supports the premise that ultimate truth exists on such levels like scientific investigation but not morality. In this regard any pursuit of truth is justified regardless of its moral implication. Therefore if the objective is to arrive at an ultimate truth, then the use of lies is justified. A good example is the government’s duty to national security by eliminating existing and potential threats through investigative intelligence gathering. An ontological view maintains that covert intelligence, which is based deception techniques, is not only justified but necessary in ensuring national security (Pfaff, 2006, p. 4). This implies that in pursuit of legitimate information, nothing is off-limits, including matters to do with moral justification.

An opposing view is held by deontologists who are considered to be moral absolutists. From a deontologist perspective, the act of lying is wrong no matter how positive its consequences might be. According to Immanuel Kant, goodwill is the only absolutely good thing therefore the moral value of an action is judged by the will of whoever is doing it. If the action is performed under a negative maxim then it is wrong. Starting out by stating that “I shall lie to get the truth” is morally wrong regardless of whether the truth being sought is arrived at. Lying is accorded similar treatment with absolute maxims like “thou shalt not kill.” Kantian philosophy is based on “categorical imperatives” that are absolute since they value human dignity and treat people as ends in themselves. It is an idealism rooted on the universal Golden Rule that requires everyone to treat others as he or she would expect to be treated.

Do Ends Justify the Means?The argument on ethical implications of lying to get the truth can be taken a step further by asking whether the end really justify the means. The deontologists hold that any moral action must consider itself not only as a principle but as an end too. A good society should seek justice for all, therefore employing unjust means works against the end it seeks to serve. It is unethical to lie in pursuit of a good end like seeking for information. It would be like trying to construct a good house using wrong or inferior materials.

Deontologist emphasize on giving a closer examination of the perceived good end in before attempting to justify the means. Of great concern should be how the bad means affect the end. The use of lies to get truth does not produce a genuine response but one that is subject to the lie. Therefore a morally wrong means ultimately affects the end negatively. A case in point is in power politics games or in war where success determines the justification of the means used to achieve it. This is an ontological approach that pays very little or no concern at all to morality. Means used in this perspective are measured by their expediency which is a position that contrasts deontological ethics where expediency and moral justification are two different aspects.

It is quite obvious that anyone who violates his or her moral code in pursuit of a goal, no matter how good that goal is, takes a downward path of moral degradation. This is because after the first time, adopting unethical techniques like lying to find a truth becomes a habit in which the stakes are raised to a situation where any rule can be bent or broken. The problem lies in where this chain of logic stops. Invading a foreign country can not be justified on national security grounds or on the pretext that the invasion is the best thing for that country’s citizens, however true or false the claims may be.

Conflict between Code of Ethics and Law Enforcement PracticesAs professionals, law enforcement officers are expected to provide a service that benefits the society. In this regard, ethics and ethical standards pertaining to “doing the right thing at the right time in the right way and for the right reason” are important aspects in the practice (Hansen, 1973, p. 46). It is for this reason that the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) came up with a code of ethics in 1957, and later updated in October 1991, to govern the conduct of law enforcement officers. These officers are expected to follow the values and norms of the society and exemplify respect for the law and ethical behavior. Therefore law enforcement officers must lead the society in upholding social values and norms by living by the code. Law enforcement code of ethics works together with the police code of ethics by providing guidelines on how to act with impartiality, discretion, integrity and professional image at all times. Thus law enforcement agencies do not operate in a moral vacuum. However, at a practical level application of ethics in this field is not a black and white issue.

The conflict between ethics and law enforcement practices occurs when rules limit police conduct during investigation making the officers resort unethical practices. The irony is in the fact that when use of coercion is restricted, there is an increase in the use of deception. Deception occurs in the form Miranda admonitions, misrepresentation of the offence and its seriousness, false promises, and fabricated evidence. From an ontological perspective, deception is an effective tool because it can reach to the conscience of the suspect while he or she has a sense of right and wrong. It makes the work of the interrogator easier in uncovering the motive behind the crime. The conflict is further emphasized by the courts which, in as much as they do not openly support deception, they do not prohibit it either.

From a deontological perspective, deception is retrogressive because when it is used on an uncooperative suspect who is unwilling to divulge information, the investigator might be inclined to delve deeper and deeper into a tangle of lies until he or she crosses the line between legality and illegality. This is one of the reasons why defense attorneys often have to establish whether the investigator lied in the course of the investigation. The deontological imperative that lying is wrong pits investigation and interrogation practices in conflict with ethics for law enforcement officers. Maintaining ethical standards therefore acts as a limitation to efficiency in investigations.

Physical Behavior and Non-Verbal Communication in Detecting DeceptionDeception can be detected in non-verbal communication and physical behavior. The art of detecting non-verbal deception is often used by police and security officers in interrogating suspects. In detecting deception through body language on evaluates changes in physical expression which will be limited and stiff with very little hand motions when a person is lying. Avoiding eye contact has often been the easiest way to tell when a person is lying. Other body motions that indicate lying include touching face, throat, and mouth with the hands and scratching motions on the nose, behind the ear, and across the head. When the timing and duration of gestures and emotions is longer than normal, the person is lying.

ConclusionDeception and the use of lies have no place in law enforcement. It is undeniable that ethical concerns are integral in law enforcement practices especially in a liberal democracy. For interrogative and other investigative practices to be justified, they must subscribe to ethical standards that not only represent the goals of their profession but also adhere to the moral values of the community. The words of former CIA director Stansfield Turner put it more accurately when he states, “There is one overall test of the ethics of human intelligence activities. That is whether those approving them feel they could defend their actions before the public if the actions became public” (Quinlan, 2007, p. 2).

ReferencesHansen, D. (1973). Police ethics. Chicago, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Herman, Michael. (2006). Intelligence Power in Peace and War. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press.

Pfaff, T. (2006). Bungee jumping off the moral highground: Ethics of espionage in the modernage. In Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence Professional. Jan Goldman (ed.).Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 3-56.

Quinlan, M. (2007). Just intelligence: prolegomena to an ethical theory. Intelligence andNational Security. 22(1), 2-11.

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Debunking the 9-11 conspiracy theory

Debunking the 9-11 conspiracy theory

Debunking the 9/11 conspiracy theory 





Debunking the 9/11 conspiracy theory 

Since the 9/11 attack and the subsequent investigations, several theorists have come up with divergent views and analysis aimed at putting together pieces of information on what could have triggered and guided the fatal attack. The theorists however differ on their analogies and logical conclusion as to who was responsible for the attack. Specifically, there have been emergence of a controversial argument that attempts to allude existence of collusion between the Americans and the foreign terrorist in planning and execution of the 9/11. largely refereed to as the conspiracy theory, the proponents argue that the Americans especially the government had hidden agenda that so it conspire with the attackers ostensibly to gain international support for fight against perceived enemies, to justify the foreign invasions such as the case of Iraq and Afghanistan and to gain access to the Arab oil. Some theorists fully credit the government with the attack (Grossman, 1). However, the explanation given by the theorists do not add up or have credible back up to support the claims.

The proponents of the conspiracy theory argue that the attack was not carried out by passenger plane but by military jets and missiles. This argument has no tangible evidence to support it based on two major facts. One, the planes that were officially reported to have been used by the hijackers to launch the attack has never been traced. put differently, the planes have never reached their destinations as scheduled. This support the official report that the hijacked passenger planes were used in the operation. Two, the recovered cockpits at the scene clearly endorse the official report as they belonged to the planes in question. The forensic investigations have also proven the fact that cockpit details march those of the commercial airlines.

The lack of total military intervention sanctioned by the government has been described as a weighty evidence of conspiracy and insider job (Mole, 1). Facts from the military show that there were 14 military planes to offer sky protection in the US on that date. At the same time, the NORAD did not receive signals indicating any mishap to warrant a military response. Additionally, when the military got information about the missing planes, it was so late that the damage had been done. For example, FAA contacted NEADS at 9.41 am about the situation, the same time when the plane hit the WTC. Demystification of the conspiracy theory also emanates from the fact that the NEADS failure to act as claimed by the conspiracy theorists is that the military intervention launched was aimed at ensuring that the US was safe from external and not internal attack. This military mistake gave the hijackers a leeway to force the planes into the targeted buildings. It is therefore subjective to argue that the attack was engineer by the government which later failed to alert the responsible military agents.

The nature and magnitude of the WTC destruction from 78th to 110th floors and the destruction of the elevators as well as the buildings basement has been described as far much a bigger damage that the commercial planes could have caused. The argument is that the explosion and nature of the damage hint at a conspiracy. As such, the destruction could have been caused deliberately by “substances or devices,” that might have been in the building before the aircraft impact (Mackey, 10). For example, there could have been explosives planted early at the building. The FEMA’s report rule out existence of conclusion bombs in the building. However, the widespread destruction might have been caused by explosions occasioned by the fuel. As a result, the fire triggered electric fire that badly damaged the building. At the same time, the fuel jet fire though could not cause steel melt; the impact of the explosion was hard enough to interfere with the building’s structural strength thus resulting into the collapse. At the same time, the buying had other combustible materials that could have intensified the heat capacity beyond the jet fuel heating point.

Conclusively, the conspiracy theorists base their claims on sloppy researches that have no scientific or provable evidences (Debunking911, 16). It is therefore evident that their arguments have been based on misinformed sources and illegal reasoning that do not add up.

Works Cited

Debunking911 Debunking 9/11 Conspiracy Theories. Journal of Debunking 9/11

Conspiracy Theories, Volume 1, Issue 1, (2006).

Grossman, L. Why the 9/11 Conspiracy Theories Won’t Go Away. (2006). Accessed June

28, 2010:,9171,1531304,00.html

Mackey, R. Evidence for Controlled Deception: A Long List of Observations – Part I

On Debunking 9/11 Debunking. (2007). Accessed June

28, 2010:

Mole, T. 9/11 Conspiracy Theories; The 9/11 Taith Movement in Perspective SKEPTI,

Vol. 12, No. 4(2006).

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De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

Student’s Names


De-criminalization of Illicit Drugs

Serious discussion and debating on the subject of legalizing substances and drugs within the United States has received little public support. Top scholars and other government officials have since backed the idea since the move would be an alternative to the fight against drug-related issues (McKeganey, 2013). The U.S government is losing billions of dollars in the fight against illicit drugs, money that it can use for other purposes. Furthermore, many citizens will escape the penalty of serving jail terms for drug-related crimes. If the government can decriminalize small amounts of illicit drugs in the United States then the judicial system would not be as burdened. Moreover, emphasis could be placed on helping the persons who are plagued and are suffering from compulsion and addiction with plans of treatment, thus reducing the number of persons incarcerated. My goal is to substantiate this hypothesis that the current judicial system in the United States is being used as a treatment plan for individuals who are suffering from addiction.The theory of social deviance, as argued by Harshi, is one of the applicable sociological concepts that we can use in this text. According to this theory, society enacts laws but individuals decide to go contrary to these due to loss of social attachment. There are clear and strict rules against the use of illicit drugs in the United States but still there are criminal offenders. If the government could de-legalize illegal drugs and govern its use, then there would be reduced crimes because people will not be subject to these regulations again (Reid, 2008). Researchers argue that the government waste resources that it can use on other projects in enacting laws. Legalization of drugs will result in a reduction in the number of prisoners. That is because drugs will be affordable and there will be no scrupulous business individuals since the government will be able to set prices of drugs (Wyler, 2010).The practical implications of this move will be evident in the reduced cases of crime. People will use drugs wisely based on the education received and simple regulations set. Prisons will also cease being rehabilitation centers as it has always been. Moreover, Decriminalization will provide safer avenues for accessing drugs since the government will take charge and, as a result, individuals will turn to the recommended drugs. Decriminalization will not lead to increased drug use; it will only provide easier ways of accessing drugs.EvidenceThere have been varied reactions to the debate of legalization of illicit drugs. Some countries have since taken this move and it is evident that it has come with positive feedback. A typical example is Portugal, which took this direction in 2001. This country came up with well-defined reforms on enactment of rules on drug use. The results are positive since there has been a reduction in drug consumption. Cases of drug-related crimes have since reduced and arrests due to crimes have gone down (McKeganey, 2013)Decriminalization has reduced the cost of fighting drug-related crimes in Portugal. Instead of the US government channeling funds to enforce rules on drugs, it can use these funds for building rehabilitation centers and encourage the willing individuals to find help in these institutions. Other countries that have embraced this move and realized its results include Netherlands and Mexico. There might be some bias since people might decide to make individual decisions on the use of drugs. Economic differences can also play a role in these disparities hence the US government should consider doing an extensive research on this move. Scholars and government agencies should be involved to come up with clear guidelines on this matter (Rushefsky, 2013).In conclusion, decriminalization of drugs does not result in increased cases of drug consumption and crime. As research clearly shows, countries that have legalized drug use have reported positive effects. There have been reduced cases of drug use and crimes since these countries have put up clear reforms on this. If US can consider legalization of illicit drugs, the researchers predict similar results. The government will take charge of the whole issue and come up with government recommended drugs. Regulation of prices will come in and this will eliminate drug traffickers, authorized shops companies will channel taxes to the government, hence more funds to use in other projects. It will, therefore, employ resources in building rehabilitation centers that will attract interested individuals instead of using prisons to rehabilitate drug addicts and law offenders. Researches have shown that the effects of decriminalizing drugs will work towards solving the problem of drug abuse and its eventual crimes.If the US government can consider this move, it will still engage in research that is more extensive. Law enforcing agencies and scholars can offer more insight in this since this can directly or indirectly fall under their area of expertise.


Mckeganey, N. (2013). A-Z of Substance Misuse and Drug Addiction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Reid, J.M. (2008). Drug Use Sequencing and Kandel’s Gateway Hypothesis. New York: Proquest Publishers.

Rushefsky, M. (2013). Public Policy in the United States. New York: M.E. Sharpe Publishers.Wyler, L.S. (2009). International Drug Control Policy. Pennsylvania: DIANE Publishing.

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