Reflect on the literature review "attached". Write a paper identifying a plan going forward in the study to assure you exhaust the literature in relation to your topic?. Must address the four components: 1. Purpose of study, 2. Research questions, 3. Sample population, 4. Results. 

"Are non-profit organizations adopting for-profit marketing practices in order to compete in markets with for-profit organizations?"

Dissertation Concept Paper
Submitted to Columbia Southern University
College of Business 
In Partial Fulfillment of the 
Requirements for the Degree of 



          In our current market scenario, all organizations need funding for their operations in order to sufficiently sustain in their market, whether it is a “for-profit” organization or a non-profit organization. Non-profit organizations are subjected to the wellness of the society or some group of people struggling with basic amenities. Presently, non-profit organizations are playing a key role in fulfilling the gap between diverse sections of society. Non-profit organizations are helping those sections of society which either are neglected by the government or the people or are not getting what is required for their development. For example, educational opportunities are now being provided for all tribal people who have historically been neglected by the government through the lobbying of non-profit organizations.
	Non-profit organizations also need some financial security to sustain in their specific markets so that they can deliver the best services to their society or people in need. They are also implementing profitable marketing needed by the trained marketing professional for a brighter future. If organizations are gaining profit or revenue from somewhere, then it can invest that profit or revenue into the core responsibility of the organization and can deliver the best services. To run any organization or business that business needs funding. For that, non-profit organizations arrange their fund-raising activities.


          Thebasic difference between the “for-profit” and non-profit organizations is the end result is defined as profit or revenue. Both of these organizations need money to run their organization and pay their operating expenses. A non-profit organization depends on the charity from the people. In the case of a non-profit organization, the generated revenues or donations are used to provide goods or services to that specific group of people.
Revenue or donations of the non-profit organizations are always going to the wellness of the society or the environment. It never goes to the pocket of the investors. So if any non-profit organization wants to grow, then it needs more money to invest in the organization growth as well as for the social cause. Initially, non-profit organizations promote the fund raising activity to collect the funds to run the organization and social cause. Non-profit organizations are also owned by the public.
Non-profit organizations have ground level information about their people and the  society around them because their people work at ground level. So in the current scenario, information is a very precious asset. 

Theoretical Foundations and Review of the Literature
Theoretical Foundations: 

          Building the capacity of community-based organizations in the non-profit sector is not a simple task. There is no magical formula that guarantees success, and little agreement exists about where to begin or what to do. Instead, the process of creating and maintaining a robust and effective nonprofit sector exemplifies the tensions and trade-offs that individuals and organizations face when adapting to change. It is through this dynamic process that organizations, like people, learn to adapt and grow to their full potential.
This theory justifies the problem, why non-profit organizations are moving towards the “for-profit” organization model just to cope with the changing times, scenario and perspective. This theory is addressing the problem of sustainable development, social capital and management.

Review of the Literature

Sustainable development literature aptly illustrates the concepts of balance, time, and place - concepts that are important dimensions of capacity building (De Vita, 2010). Balance deals with the removing tradeoff of scarce resources for the development of the organization and identifying the need for development. Some strategies can be long term and some can be short term to insure the sustainability of the organization.
         Non-profit organizations facilitate trust and interaction “by defining mutual obligations and member rights, by creating sets of specialized roles internal to the organizations, by establishing internal authority and accountability systems, by promoting norms and behavioral patterns regarded as useful to the group and inhibiting those regarded as detrimental. Organizations incorporate important accumulations of human experience and knowledge, which is social capital” (Cernea 1994).
       A community leader searches for new ways to strengthen the community life by interacting with society for building the social bonding.

Problem Statement

Present time is all about the competition and long term standing in the market. All the “for-profit” organizations are getting huge profits so that they can plan their future as per the market scenario. The non-profit organizations are not having provision of profit, however. What funding they collect they just spend on social issues or the functions of the their organization. So non-profit organizations are now subjected to think about their future planning and that’s why they are planning towards the “for-profit” model, more and more, to make them sustainable.

Purpose of the Study

      The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine why nonprofit organizations are moving towards the “for-profit” operating models. In recent years with the number of “for-profits” and non-profit organizations gain traction in their respective market. As these numbers increase the result creates tougher competitions among them in order to sustain in their respective market for sufficient amounts of  time. Non-profit organizationsare operating in multiple countries and continents so these organizations need to adapt themselves according to the geographic phenomenon all at the same time to take care of all the social and environmental issues that have arisen because of this adaptive model.

Research Questions

R1: Why are non-profit organizations moving towards “for-profit” modeling?
R2: Why is sustainability important and is it required for any organization?
R3: What will be the impact if all the nonprofit organizations, moved towards the “for-profit” models?

Significance of the Study

The significance of this study is to illustrate the scenario of why it is important for non-profit organizations to move to an era of “for-profit” models. What will be the impact of this movement and whether this movement will be beneficial for the backward societies which are unnoticed by the government? After this movement, how will organizations work as the bridge between the higher and lower end societies. How will these organizations will be able to be the voice of all the “needy” people.

Research Methodology

       “Qualitative research is research using methods such as participant observation or case studies which result in a narrative, descriptive account of a setting or practice. Sociologists using these methods typically reject positivism and adopt a form of interpretive sociology”(Parkinson &Drislane, 2011). Qualitative research is the situated study that locates the observer in the world. Qualitative studies involve any research that uses data that does not indicate the ordinal value. This research technique requires the technique to collect the data about the background and activity of the organization and making decision based on the collected data. Qualitative data can audio, video or text demonstrating about the organization's activity.

Research Design

For any research to be successful, firstly, we need to decide the stepping stone of how this research will be carried out. Below are listed points-
1-	Determine the study's primary purpose.
2-	Determine study’s primary audience
3-	Decide the comparative element of the study
4-	Choose the data collection method for the study
5-	After data collection, use comparative or illustrative study about to solve the purpose of the study.
        In the non-profit organizations study, first,  it is required to have the objective like “Why non-profit organizations are moving towards the profit organization.” From this point there is a need to choose the comparative of the “for-profit “organization. Included in this is the articulation of collecting the data about both types of organization. This is concluded when we assess our objective of  moving from non-profit to “for-profit”.

Sources of Data

The data source of any qualitative research is based on the historical data about the organizations and human. Data source for the qualitative research can be from the interview, questioner session or document.  “Qualitativeresearch is a method of inquiry employed in many different academic disciplines, traditions in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts “(Denzin, Norman, Lincoln, Yvonna, 2005). Qualitative researchers typically rely on the following methods for gathering information: Participant Observation, Nonparticipant Observation, Field Notes, Reflexive Journals, Structured Interview, Semi-structured Interview, Unstructured Interview, and Analysis of documents and materials (Marshall, Catherine, Rossman, Gretchen, 1998).Many literature and data sources will be used in this study such as the United States Census Bureau and the Non-profit Journal.

Data Collection Procedures

For this topic, researchers need to go through the insight of “for-profit” and non-profit organizations. How a “for-profit” organization can be formed. What is the legal issue with a non-profit organization? What reliabilities are provided to nonprofit organizations by the government? How the funds are collected and what are ways for the fund collections. Included is a step to collect data about the all above topics anyone need to study the policy related documents for the non-profit organizations. Researchers need to extract the report of all the work done by the organization and collect the data from the field, whether all beneficiaries are happy with their cause or not. Qualitative data comprises non-numerical records, it is only the historical data about the organization and its operations and what was the effect on those organization operations.

Data Analysis Procedures

Collecting the data from various resources about the non-profit organization like audio, video, newspaper, interview, etc. Researchers in qualitative analysis use all these and make some decision depending upon the collected data. With current data analysis, researchers have an obligation to collect some historical data as well to understand the transformation of the organization from one state to another stage. Researchers correspondingly need to analyze which policies are in favor of the organization and which are having the negative impact. So in qualitative analysis, current and historical data needs to be analyzed so that it can be concluded that in current time what action can be appropriate for the organization.

Ethical Considerations

Before collecting any data analysis related to the human study researcher need to take prior approval from the governing body IRB (Institutional Review Board). Personal privacy is the basic need for any human being. So any research should not point to any particular person. Data should be generalized points towards the human behavior and trend based. So that from any anyone’s consent should not be touched. IRB takes the periodic or advance review on the topics related to human behavior.


Parkinson, G.,  Drislane, R. (2011). Qualitative research.In Online dictionary of thesocial		sciences. Retrieved 02 September 2014, from:

Small Business, (2014), Retrieved 06 September 2014, from:

Denzin, Norman, Lincoln, and Yvonna, (2005). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research		(3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN 0-7619-2757-3

Marshall, Catherine, Rossman, Gretchen, (1998). Designing Qualitative Research, Thousand		Oaks, CA: Sage.ISBN 0-7619-1340-8