What do specialization hierarchies do?

What do specialization hierarchies do?


1-What do specialization
hierarchies do?

2-Describe specialization and

3-What is an entity cluster?

4-Explain the “no change over
time” characteristic of a good primary key.

5-In what two cases are composite primary keys particularly

1- Describe 1NF, 2NF and
3NF? Give examples

Describe a dependency
diagram and explain its purpose.

2-What steps are involved in
the conversion to third normal form?

3-Explain the BCNF. How is it
related to other normal forms?

4-Explain how database designers design and normalize databases.

1-Explain the different types
of join operations. What are they and how do they work?

2-What are the four different
result types that can be returned from a subquery? For each type, explain what
it is and when it is used.

3-What are SQL functions and
when are they used? Provide a couple of examples of situations in which they
are necessary.

4-Describe the characteristics of an Oracle sequence

5-Triggers are critical to proper database operation and
management. What are some of the ways that triggers are used?

1-List and briefly describe the three types of system maintenance

2-Database backups can be performed at different levels. List and
describe these.

3-What are the factors affecting the purchasing decision for DBMS

4-What are the classical approaches to database design?

5-Explain the differences
between a centralized and decentralized approach to database design.

1-List and describe some
typical DBMS processes.

2-What does the query
optimizer do in a relational database? What is the final result of the query
optimizer? Explain a cost-based and rule-based query optimizer.

3-Why do we need to optimize
a DBMS with SQL performance tuning, even though they automatically optimize SQL

4-How can queries be written
to perform the fastest when equality and inequality comparisons are needed?

5-How should storage volumes
be allocated for indexes, system, and high-usage tables?

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