1. T or F: The role of the judge in the common-law tradition differs from the role of the judge in the civil-law tradition in that judges from the common law tradition have more discretion than under civil-law traditions.

7. The Supreme court has tended to use its power of judicial review

a) against acts of congress only about ten times b)frequently against both state legislation and against acts of congress. c) much more frequently against acts of congress than against acts of state legislatures. d) much more frequently early in American history than in recent generations. e) sparingly.

8. The characteristics that help determine which court has jurisdiction over a case include all of the following EXCEPT

A) the involvement of federal statutes, treaties, or the constitution b) the expressed wishes of the president c) the parties to the case d) where the case arose e) the nature of the offense involved

9. T or F: A writ of certiorari is an order by the supreme court to a lower court to rehear a case

10. Which of the following is NOT an influence on supreme court decision-making?

a) direct lobbying by interest group representatives. b) public opinion c) the justices' view of the constitution and how literally it should be taken d) the executive branch e) their relationships with each other

19. which case law was the precedent before Brown v BOARD OF Topeka, Kansas?

a) Plessy v Ferguson b) Marbury v Madison c) Gibbons v Ogden d) Dred Scott 1857 e) Engel v Vitale 1963

20. T or F : the current status of the right to counsel in criminal trials is in many places the right to counsel is complied with on a minimal basis.