Nature is to nurture as _ is to _

Culture; society

Genetics; environment

Environment; genetics

Biology; physics


2.     Steven and Joe are very bad roommates. Steven is incredibly disorganized and messy while Joe is compulsive in his work and insists that the room be completely tidy at all times. According to Freud, it is possible that both Steven and Joe are fixated at the _ stage.






3.     The Curtis family is made up of mom and dad, 8-year-old Susan, 5-year-old Grant, and the identical twins Christopher and Carson. In regard to genetic make-up, Christopher is most similar to his:



Identical twin



4.     You are reading an article in a popular magazine. The article is on gender roles. As you read, you notice a statement that doesn’t seem to be correct. Which is the incorrect statement?

Gender role is learned according to the social learning theory.

There are rules and knowledge about what are inappropriate gender behaviors.

Parents seldom reward children for their behaviors when they match traditional gender roles.

The cognitive development theory argues that children play an active role in their own gender role development.


5.     Martha tries to join school wrestling team. Her behavior is contrary to the typical female:

Cross-gender identity

Sexual identity

Gender role

Character role


6. If you give a child in concrete operations some trail mix and ask her to group the parts that make it up, what would happen?

She would be able to classify the parts according to two categories (size, color)

She would be able to classify the parts in size OR color, but not both

She would be confused by how trial mix is made up of parts

She would be able to perform conservation on the parts.


7.     “They’ll all laugh at me,” says Mindy, a 13-year-old, after discovering a large pimple on her nose. Mindy’s comment best illustrates a characteristic know as:



The imaginary audience

The personal fable


8.     Garrison is an infant with a fearful temperament. His parents know that his temperament can change if:

He can interact with children his own age

Garrison is allowed to express his fear

They seek professional help

They can provide consistent support


9.     The effects of fetal alcohol syndrome:

Continue into adolescence and adulthood

Are less severe than fetal alcohol effect

Tend to lessen in adulthood

Are reduced by vitamin therapy


10.Bryan is born with Down syndrome. If we could look at chromosomes, we would find that:

Some of the chromosomes would be missing

There was an extra 21st chromosome instead of the normal one

There was some measurable damage or abnormality in each chromosome pair

His chromosomes were normal; Down syndrome is caused by an oxygen deficiency at birth


11.Research has found that prenatal exposure to cocaine is related to:

Antisocial behavior

Sensory impairments

Lower IQ scores

Fetal growth deficiencies


12.The idea of gender schema is important for the _ theory

Cognitive development





13.“I don’t know what I want to be. Whatever it is, I know I’ll have to grow up some.” According to Erikson, this individual is experiencing:

Resiliency state

Identity vs. role confusion

Industry vs. inferiority


14.“Boys will be boys and girls will be girls. Parents reward their children whenever they behave like they’re supposed to. “ This statement reflects which theory of gender roles?

Freudian theory

Social role theory

Parent modeling model

Affective-primary theory


15.______ refers to seeing and thinking of the world from your own viewpoint and having difficulty appreciating another’s viewpoint.

Egotistical thinking

Egocentric thinking

Conceited thinking



16.Module Seventeen describes how courts have now begun to award custody of children to adoptive parents rather than to biological parents. This illustrates:

The danger that adoptive parents will not love children as much as birth parents

The mischief that arises when developmental psychologists are brought in

A tragic failure of the foster parent program

A real-life application of the nature-nurture question


17.A friend with 3-year-old child has  decided to try to accelerate the child’s cognitive development by teaching him how to conserve and handle hypothetical problems. The friend’s attempts are:

A waste of time since the child will not develop faster than the Piagetian stages dictate

Potentially harmful to the child’s self-esteem and psychological well-being

Going to work only if she is a skilled teacher of preschoolers

Plausible because preoperational children have been able to do such problems after simplification of instructions


18.The visual cliff allowed Gibson and Walk to study:

The proximodistal principle

Preference for complex patterns

Depth perception


19.Heavy drinking during pregnancy can result in:

Chromosomal damage to the fetus

High levels of arousal in the newborn

Fetal alcohol syndrome

A newborn with a large appetite

20.According to Module Seventeen, a three-year-old child who is rated in seeking stimulation will:

Develop a fearful temperament later in life

Score lower IQ scores than children rated low in stimulation seeking

Score higher IQ scores than children rated low in stimulation seeking

Develop a fearless temperament later in life


21.Twelve-year-old Katelyn has started thinking more and more about boys. In which stage is Katelyn most likely?






22.According to Erikson, the first major task of the child is to:

Develop basic trust

Form an intimate attachment with another person

Become independent of the principal caretaker

Overcome natural feelings of shame


23.Based upon research, much attention was given to the effects of cocaine on prenatal development. But, according to your textbook, the effects may have been more due to:


Multiple drug use

Age of mother

Genetic abnormalities


24.A less severe form of fetal alcohol syndrome is called:

Fetal alcohol effect

Fetal alcohol dysfunction

Alcohol-related prenatal effect

Alcohol toxin effect


25.Form a cognitive developmental perspective, why do teenagers often engage in risky behavior?



Ego integrity

The personal fable


26.Kerry is talking to his grandfather about Kerry’s father and says: “He can’t be your son because he is my father!” This inability to see a situation from person’s point of view called:

Egotistical thinking

Egocentric thinking

Conceited thinking



27.Compared to a control group, children whose mothers smoked during their prenatal development had:

Increased risk for SIDs

Lower IQ

Poorly developed brains

Smaller than normal head size


28.Prodigies demonstrate the interaction between:

Developmental psychology and music

Biology and genetics

Art and social science

Genetic and learned influences


29.According to Kagan, what percentage of children retained their inhibited temperament from the ages of 21 months to 7 years?






30.Given that more courts are awarding to adoptive parents rather than biological parents, there is a growing realization that:

        Adoptive parents often hire better lawyers than biological parents

        Income and education level of parents needs to be considered

        Nature is important

        Nurture is important