Information that originates outside the organization

Subject: Business    / Management
Information that originates outside the organization is known as external information. Which of the following is/are example(s) of external information in an organization?
(a) Daily receipts and expenditures
(b) Salesperson Quotas
(c) Descriptions of customer satisfaction with products and services
(d) Quantity of an item in hand or in inventory
(e) Cost and selling price of the company’s item.
Which of the following decision-making models emphasizes short-run solution of a problem rather than long-term goal accomplishment?
(a) Rational model (b) Satisficing model (c) Incremental model
(d) Garbage-can model (e) Decision tree.
Sofia works in one of seven research and development departments at General Automobile Corporation. This would suggest that General Automobiles has a
(a) Functional structure (b) Divisional structure (c) Flat structure
(d) High degree of centralization (e) Tall structure.
Which of the following information processing systems gives the output in the form of summary and exception reports that are useful to the managers?
(a) Decision support system (b) Management information system
(c) Office automation system (d) Transaction processing system
(e) Executive support system.
In which of Likert’s four systems of leadership, managers do not have complete confidence and trust in subordinates but nevertheless, solicit advice from subordinates while retaining the right to make final decision?
(a) Participative leadership style (b) Benevolent-authoritative leadership style
(c) Consultative leadership style (d) Exploitative-authoritative leadership style
(e) Trait theory of leadership style.
Performance appraisals are important in an organization because they
I. Provide systematic judgments to support promotions.
II. Provide a basis for coaching.
III. Provide a basis for counseling.
IV. Let subordinates know where they stand with the boss.
(a) Only (I) above (b) Only (II) above
(c) Both (I) and (IV) above (d) (I), (III) and (IV) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.
Ratio analysis helps a manager to compare the performance of the organization with its previous performance or the performance of its competitors. Which of the following is a ratio of creditors’ contribution to that of the owners?
(a) Current ratio (b) Debt-equity ratio
(c) Return on investment (ROI) (d) Net profit margin (e) Inventory turnover.
Which of the following inventory techniques uses cards to monitor inventory movement?
(a) ABC Analysis (b) JIT Approach (c) Kanban
(d) Kaizen (e) Economic Order Quantity.
A decision support system (DSS) is an interactive computer system used to plan and make decisions. Which of the following is/are true with regard to Decision Support System (DSS)?
I. Executive decisions are the focal points in DSS.
II. DSS specializes in easy-to-use software.
III. DSS employs interactive processing.
IV. The control and use of DSS rests with the central information management department.
(a) Only (I) above (b) Both (I) and (II) above
(c) Both (III) and (IV) above (d) (I), (II) and (III) above
(e) (II), (III) and (IV) above.
Which of the following is/are postulates of the path – goal theory?
I. The leader clearly defines the path to goal attainment for subordinates.
II. The leader motivates subordinates to participate in decision-making.
III. The leader sets clear and specific goals for subordinates.
IV. The leader suitably rewards employees as per their performance.
(a) Only (II) above (b) Only (IV) above
(c) Both (II) and (IV) above (d) (I), (II) and (IV) above
(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.