Giraffes have long necks that allow them to reach

Subject: Health Care / General Health Care
Question
1. Giraffes have long necks that allow them to reach more food sources in their habitat. The long neck trait is an example of

A. selection.

B. adaptation.

C. radiation.

D. homology.

2. Which of the following is the most common kind of chemical bond in biological molecules?

A. Covalent

B. Ionic

C. Delocalized

D. Unsaturated

3. A cylinder and an airtight piston are used in the following experiment. The piston is pushed up and down in the cylinder and the resulting pressure of the air inside the cylinder is measured with a pressure gauge. The results of the experiment are recorded in the following table: Volume of Air (L) Pressure Reading (Atm) 8 1 4 2 2 4 1 8 A hypothesis concerning the apparatus is stated as follows: “When the volume of the cylinder is decreased, the pressure is increased.” Which of the following statements is true?

A. The hypothesis is supported by the experimental data.

B. The hypothesis is refuted by the experimental data.

C. The hypothesis is not addressed by the experiment.

D. There is not enough information to make a judgment about the hypothesis.

4. Which of the following procedures is an appropriate negative control for testing the hypothesis that air contains bread mold spores?

A. Seal slices of bread in a container to minimize air contact.

B. Place slices of bread in a refrigerated environment.

C. Add ingredients to the bread recipe that will slow mold growth.

D. Expose a different mold-supporting medium to air.

5. A researcher wants to develop a new pharmaceutical compound to treat pain. Which of the following strategies will likely be the most effective process?

A. Test extracts from newly discovered plants for pain-killing substances.

B. Read anthropological studies to discover plants identified to relieve pain.

C. Study molecular structures of existing pain medications and make structural analogs.

D. Research the pain receptors of people who have unusually high pain thresholds.

6. The main function of lymphatic circulation is to

A. transport hormones around the body.

B. provide immune functions for protection.

C. provide a backup for systemic circulation.

D. transport nutrients and oxygen to cells.

7. For which of the following temperature scales is 0° equal to the freezing point of water?

A. Kelvin

B. Fahrenheit

C. Celsius

D. Newton

8. Which of the following is an appropriate description of the arrangement of the cell membrane?

A. Fluid phospholipid bilayer containing embedded proteins

B. Rigid carbohydrate bilayer containing embedded phospholipids

C. Rigid layer of phospholipids with proteins on the outer surface

D. Layers of protein and carbohydrates forming a fluid structure

9. Which of the following is the mechanism by which water is reabsorbed in the renal nephrons?

A. Osmosis

B. Filtration

C. Active transport

D. lon exchange

10. A study demonstrates that treatment of peptic ulcers with antibiotics results in improvement in a large number of patients. This implies that

A. antibiotics neutralize stomach acid.

B. these ulcers are caused by a bacterial infection.

C. pressure ulcers can be treated in the same manner.

D. antibiotics should be prescribed to prevent ulcers.

11 . Which of the following is the function of bile?

A. Binding vitamins

B. Storing minerals

C. Emulsifying fats

D. Breaking down carbohydrates

12. A student wants to design an experiment to demonstrate the effects of acid rain on plant life. Which of the following substances should be combined with water to best simulate acid rain?

A. Vinegar

B. Table salt

C. Baking soda

D. Ammonia

13. Which of the following statements best describes the energy of a waterfall?

A. The water has kinetic energy because of its position at the top of the waterfall.

B. The water has potential energy because of its movement as it falls to the bottom of the waterfall.

C. Potential energy changes to kinetic energy as the water falls.

D. Kinetic energy changes to potential energy as the water falls .

14. In developing countries, which of the following factors correlates with high birth rates?

A. Increased availability of contraception

B. Increased education and standard of living

C. High infant mortality rate

D. High availability of postnatal care

15. An experienced mountaineer decides to climb Mount Everest using the same route in the same season and with similar materials and equipment used by a fatal1924 expedition. The scientific purpose of such a climb would be to

A. show that modern technology makes climbing safer.

B. identify routes that may be explored in future climbs.

C. assess why the earlier expedition may have failed.

D. examine changes in regional climate patterns.

16. Which of the following processes produces haploid gametes?

A. Meiosis

B. Fertilization

C. Mitosis

D. Invagination

17. The purpose of surfactant in the lungs is to

A. facilitate lung expansion.

B. bind oxygen from the air.

C. improve lung blood flow.

D. remove pollutants in the air.

18. Which of the following terms describes changes in allele frequencies in the gene pool over a single generation?

A. Macroevolution

B. Microevolution

C. Segregation

D. Speciation

19. NaOH + HS0-+ Hp + NaS0 24 24 Which of the following is the number of moles of NaOH required to neutralize 1 mole of H2S04 in the equation above? (Note: The reaction is not balanced.)

A. 0.5 moles

B. 1 mole

C. 1.5 moles

D. 2 moles

20. Which of the following chemicals is insoluble in water?

A. C6H6 {benzene)

B. HCI (hydrochloric acid)

C. NH3 (ammonia)

D. NaHC03 (sodium bicarbonate)

21 . Plant -+ Deer –+ Tiger The first step in the energy chain that created the bonds of proteins in the tiger’s muscle cells in the food chain shown above is the

A. deer the tiger ate.

B. plant the deer ate.

C. photons the sun made.

D. carbohydrates the plant made.

22. Which of the following best describes the result of using a catalyst in a chemical reaction?

A. The yield of product is increased.

B. A more desirable product is often formed.

C. A greater amount of heat energy is released by the reaction.

D. The reaction is completed in a shorter amount of time.

23. A population shows the following annual data: 3% emigration 2% immigration 2% births 1% deaths Which of the following is the change in population at the end of the year?

A. 3% decrease

B. 2% increase

C. 1% decrease

D. No change

24. Radiant heat energy from the Sun is most directly responsible for which of the following events of the hydrologic cycle?

A. Return of water to the Earth by precipitation

B. Transport of water across the Earth’s surface

C. Condensation of water vapor into clouds

D. Evaporation of ocean water into the atmosphere

26. Which of the following is a main function of vitamins?

A. Providing structure to cell membranes

B. Supplying the brain with an energy source

C. Facilitating the action of enzymes

D. Promoting the absorption of carbohydrates

28. Which of the following events occurs during photosynthesis?

A. Release of oxygen

B. Net increase in cellular ATP

C. Breakdown of carbohydrates

D. Production of carbon dioxide

29. Which of the following events occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle?

A. DNA synthesis

B. Protein production

C. Differentiation

D. Dormancy

30. Which of the following structures is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

A. Golgi apparatus

B. Cell membrane

C. Endoplasmic reticulum

D. Chloroplast

31. Two students collect information about the number of dandelions in a park. Based on their sampling, they estimate that there are 900 dandelions in the 300-square-meter city park. To determine the accuracy of their estimate, which of the following questions is necessary?

A. What was the range of sizes among the sampled dandelions?

B. How many samples were taken to determine the estimate?

C. What time of day was the sampling conducted?

D. Were the dandelions distributed only in grassy areas?

32. During the process of embryogenesis, formation of multiple cell types from stem cells occurs due to

A. differentiation.

B. metamorphosis.

C. divergence.

D. reorganization.

33. Cellular respiration of glucose is an example of which of the following?

A. Anabolism

B. Reverse osmosis

C. Osmosis

D. Catabolism

34. Which of the following cranial nerves is involved in the control of balance?

A. Optic

B. Olfactory

C. Auditory

D. Facial

35. Three liquids of differing densities are studied. Samples of liquid 1 and liquid 2 are placed in a container together. Liquid 1 rises to the top. Another sample of liquid 1 is placed in a different container together with liquid 3. This time, liquid 3 rises to the top. If all three liquids are layered in one container, which of the following would be the correct order of the liquids from the bottom up to the top?

A. 2, 3, 1

B.3, 2, 1

C. 1, 3, 2

D. 2, 1,3

36. Which of the following properties of water explains its characterization as the universal solvent?

A. Kinetic energy of liquid water molecules

B. High specific heat

C. Polarity of water molecules

D. High surface tension

37. Which of the following is the term given to the sequence of nucleotides that contains the information to make a specific protein molecule?

A. Promoter

B. Gene

C. Operator

D. Locus

39. Which of the following is true regarding the structure of atoms?

A. The amount of charge on a proton is greater than the amount of charge on an electron.

B. Isotopes of an element differ in the number of protons in the nucleus.

C. The mass of each electron is the same as the mass of each proton.

D. The neutrons make up a significant part of the atomic mass.

40. Which of the following is correct regarding the pH scale?

A. A substance with a pH of 3 is twice as alkaline as a substance with a pH of 4.

B. A substance with a pH of 3 is twice as acidic as a substance with a pH of 4.

C. A substance with a pH of 3 is 10 times as alkaline as a substance with a pH of 4.

D. A substance with a pH of 3 is 10 times as acidic as a substance with a pH of 4.

41. Which of the following statements correctly describes the change in coat coloring of an Arctic fox from brown in summer to white in winter?

A. The fox’s phenotype changes, but the genotype does not.

B. The fox’s genotype changes, but the phenotype does not.

C. Both the phenotype and genotype of the fox change.

D. Neither the phenotype nor the genotype of the fox changes.

42. Which of the following is the rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle that propels food through the esophagus?

A. Peristalsis

B. Anaphylaxis

C. Sarcomere

D. Chemotaxis

43. In humans (2n ), mitosis results in ____ and meiosis results in _____ Which of the following options correctly completes the sentence above?

A. 2 cells with 23 chromosomes; 4 cells with 46 chromosomes

B. 4 cells with 46 chromosomes; 2 cells with 23 chromosomes

C. 2 cells with 46 chromosomes; 4 cells with 23 chromosomes

D. 4 cells with 23 chromosomes; 2 cells with 46 chromosomes

44. A blood clot is composed of which of the following components?

A. Platelets and fibrin

B. Erythropoietin and thrombin

C. Serum and albumin

D. Fibrinogen and globulin

45. The covalent bonds between the monomers of an enzyme macromolecule are

A. glycosidic bonds.

B. peptide bonds.

C. phosphodiester bonds.

D. ester bonds.

46. If A represents atomic mass and Z represents atomic number, which of the following describes an atom after a proton is emitted from its nucleus?

A. A+ 1, Z + 1

B. A-1, Z-1

C. A+ 1, Z-1

D. A-1, Z + 1

47. A student is assigned the task of measuring the mass of one tennis ball using a scale for which the zero adjustment on the balance is not working. The student is given three balls and the can in which they were packaged. Which of the following strategies will provide the best determination of the correct mass?

A. Weigh each ball separately and average the results.

B. Weigh the empty can; weigh the can with a ball in it; and compute the difference between the two.

C. Weigh the three balls together and divide by three.

D. Weigh each ball separately, adjusting the beam weights from below first and then from above. Then, average the results.

48. Which of the following parts of the brain is responsible for muscular coordination?

A. Corpus callosum

B. Medulla oblongata

C. Hypothalamus

D. Cerebellum

49. A researcher writes a grant proposal to repeat an experiment that was recently published by another researcher. Which of the following statements best supports the grant proposal?

A. Funding this grant proposal will allow this laboratory to continue to study this topic.

B. Funding this important research will benefit science in the long term.

C. Repeating the published work will provide independent confirmation of the results.

D. Repeating published work with changed variables will extend the previous results.

50. At the instant that an elastic falling object strikes the ground and becomes compressed, which of the following energy transformations occurs?

A. Gravitational to electric

B. Potential to kinetic

C. Electric to gravitational

D. Kinetic to potential

51. A fragment of mRNA with the sequence 5? ACGCAUGGCAAAAAAAA 3? will have a template DNA sequence that reads

A. 3? UGCGUACCGUUUUUUUU 5?.

B. 3? TTTTTTTTGCCATGCGT 5?.

C. 3? UUUUUUUUGCCATGCGT 5?.

D. 3? TGCGTACCGTTTTTTTT 5?.

52. Which of the following is the function of pores in the nuclear membrane?

A. Preventing the nucleus from overheating

B. Permitting passage of molecules

C. Blocking pathogen entry

D. Activating transcription factors

53. Lungs originate from tissue that also gives rise to the

A. digestive system.

B. circulatory system.

C. nervous system.

D. musculoskeletal system.

54. Which of the following cellular organelles is responsible for releasing the energy contained in food?

A. Centrioles

B. Golgi apparatus

C. Mitochondria

D. Ribosomes]

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