Subject: Biology    / Biochemistry
Question
INSTRUCTIONS: On your own and without assistance, complete this Lab 2 Answer Sheet
electronically and submit it via the Assignments Folder by the date listed in the Course
Schedule (under Syllabus). To conduct your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located under
Course Content. Read the introduction and the directions for each exercise/experiment
carefully before completing the exercises/experiments and answering the questions. Save your Lab 2 Answer Sheet in the following format: LastName_Lab2 (e.g.,
Smith_Lab2). You should submit your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format
(.rtf) file for best compatibility.

Pre-Lab Questions
1. Nitrogen fixation is a natural process by which inert or unreactive forms of nitrogen are
transformed into usable nitrogen. Why is this process important to life? 2. Given what you have learned about the hydrogen bonding shared between nucleic acids in
DNA, which pair is more stable under increasing heat: adenine and thymine, or cytosine and
guanine? Explain why. 3. Which of the following is not an organic molecule; Methane (CH4), Fructose (C6H12O6),
Rosane (C20H36), or Ammonia (NH3)? How do you know?

Experiment 1: Testing for Proteins
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Table 1: A Priori Predictions
Sample Initial Color Final Color Is Protein
Present? 1. Albumin
Solution
2. Gelatin Solution
3. Glucose 4. Water 5. Unknown Sample Initial Color Final Color Is Protein
Present?
1. Albumin Solution
2. Gelatin Solution
3. Glucose 4. Water 5. Unknown Table 2: Testing for Proteins Results Take a picture of your results. Include a note with your name and date on an index
card in the picture. Insert picture here:

Post-Lab Questions
1. Write a statement to explain the molecular composition of the unknown solution based on
the results obtained during testing with each reagent.
2. How did your a priori predictions from Table 1 compare to your actual results in Table 2? If
there were any inconsistencies, explain why this occurred. 3. Identify the positive and negative controls used in this experiment. Explain how each of
these controls are used, and why they are necessary to validate the experimental results.
4. Identify two regions which proteins are vital components in the human body. Why are they
important to these regions? 5. Diet and nutrition are closely linked to the study of biomolecules. Describe one method by
which you could monitor your food intake to ensure the cells in your body have the materials
necessary to function.

Experiment 2: Testing for Reducing Sugars
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Table 3: Testing for Reducing Sugars Results Sample Initial Color Final Color Reducing Sugar
Present 1 – Potato
2 – Onion
3 – Glucose Solution
4 – Water
5 – Unknown Take a picture of your results. Include a note with your name and date on an index
card in the picture. Insert picture here:
Post-Lab Questions
1. What can you conclude about the molecular make-up of potatoes and onions based on the
two tests you performed? Why might these foods contain these substance(s)?
2. What results would you expect if you tested ribose, a monosaccharide, with Benedict’s
solution? Biuret solution? Experiment 3: What Household Substances are Acidic or
Basic?
Data Tables and Post-Lab Assessment
Table 4: pH Values of Common Household Substances
Substance pH Prediction Test Strip Color and pH Acetic Acid (Vinegar)
Sodium Bicarbonate Solution
(Baking Soda) Take a picture of your results. Include a note with your name and date on an index
card in the picture. Insert picture here: Post-Lab Questions
1. What is the purpose of determining the pH of the acetic acid and the sodium bicarbonate
solution before testing the other household substances? © eScience Labs, LLC 2014 2. Compare and contrast acids and bases in terms of their H+ ion and OH- ion concentrations. 3. Name two acids and two bases you often use.

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