BEHS 364 SEC 6380 – Alcohol in U. S. Society

BEHS 364 SEC 6380 – Alcohol in U. S. Society

BEHS 364 SEC 6380 – Alcohol in U. S. Society

Subject: General Questions    / General General Questions
Question

BEHS 364 SEC 6380 SEM 2172

Alcohol in U. S. Society UMUC 2016

Match Questions – 4 points each

1. The public response to excessive drinking has been a mix of two general approaches:

a. Directly reduce drinking + restrict availability/raise prices

b. Indirectly reduce drinking + increase availability

c. Directly reduce drinking + lower price

d. None of the above

2. The “neo-prohibitionists”:

a. Are comprised of economists, epidemiologists, and other scientists doing research on the causal effects of alcohol-control measures on drinking, abuse, and consequences

b. Present the case that the price and availability of alcohol affect the amount of alcohol-related harm to society

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a or b

3. During the 1930’s a new scientific understanding of alcoholism shifted the focus to:

a. Alcohol itself

b. Morality

c. The small fraction of the population vulnerable to alcoholism

d. None of the above

4. Just like tobacco:

a. A small increase in tax would have a small effect on the public health

b. A large increase in tax would have a large effect on the public health

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a or b

5. Prohibition or the 18th Amendment:

a. Promoted a substantial reduction in drinking

b. Was a political failure

c. Was repealed by Constitutional Amendment

d. All of the above

6. Today, the American public is mostly drinking:

a. Liquor

b. Beer

c. Wine

d. All of the above equally

7. The first internal revenue measure instituted by the 1st United States Congress was a tax on:

a. Wages

b. Liquor

c. Land

d. Tea

8. The most politically effective organization working for Prohibition was:

a. Alcoholics Anonymous

b. Anti-Saloon League

c. League of Women Voters

d. Al-Anon

9. The Volstead Act banned the ________________ of alcohol.

a. Purchase

b. Possession

c. Consumption

d. Manufacture and sale

10. The economist Clark Warburton claimed that during Prohibition there was a reduction in the overall consumption of ethanol coupled with a substitution of liquor for beer based on

a. Agricultural sources

b. Death rates from alcohol related causes of production

c. Arrests for drunkenness

d. All of the above

11. Under the 21st amendment the states took the lead in regulating alcohol:

a. Excise taxes

b. Tax collection

c. Distribution and sales

d. Both a and b

12. The co-founders of Alcoholics Anonymous were:

a. Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith

b. Carl Jung and William James

c. John D. Rockefeller Jr. and Pierre S. DuPont

d. None of the above

13. Jellinek reserved the disease label for those alcoholics:

a. Who evidenced dependence by an inability to stop drinking once started

b. Who had an inability to refrain from starting to drink

c. Who practiced controlled drinking

d. Both a and b

14. A procedure reserved for those that require medical help to mitigate severe withdrawal symptoms is:

a. Relapse prevention

b. Detoxification

c. Liver transplant

d. None of the above

15. Inpatient rehabilitation programs

a. Are the most costly and highly structured

b. Traditionally last 28 days

c. Include group therapy, individual therapy, and education

d. All of the above

16. The alcoholism movement engendered a research program that:

a. Seeks to identify individual characteristics that create susceptibility to alcohol problems

b. Develop effective treatments

c. Obtain federal funding

d. Both a and b

17. Quantification is essential to:

a. Assessing the scope, pattern, and trends of drinking

b. Evaluating particular interventions intended to reduce problematic drinking

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a or b

18. 80 proof whiskey is:

a. 8% alcohol

b. 80% alcohol

c. 40% alcohol

d. 100% alcohol

19. Problems with using tax records as the basis for estimating alcohol consumption include:

a. No account of wastage

b. Illicit production for sale (moonshine)

c. Tourists

d. All of the above

20. Prudent users of survey data:

a. Check data with other surveys, sales data, and other benchmarks

b. Trust but verify

c. Proceed with certainty in their data alone

d. Both a and b

21. People in _______ health are more likely to drink:

a. Poor

b. Fair

c. Good

d. All of the above

22. The public health perspective attempts to:

a. Distribute specific benefits to identified individuals

b. Improve the level or rates of health among the entire population or specific groups

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a or b

23. The sale of cold beer to drivers generates a ________ externality to the extent that it increases the chance that people who share the road with the beer buyer ( and drinker while driving) will collide with the buyer:

a. Neutral

b. Positive

c. Negative

d. Zero

24. Self-control is a matter of:

a. Willpower

b. Experience

c. Technique

d. All of the above

25. _____________ measures are aimed at reducing the harmful consequences of some unhealthy or unsafe activity

a. Government regulation

b. Harm reduction

c. Public policy

d. Abstinence

26. The Cost of Illness (COI) method:

a. Is the norm in government reports

b. Distinguishes between direct costs and indirect costs resulting from loss of productivity

c. Is implicitly based on the maximization of society’s present and future production

d. All of the above

27. Among the causes of death and disability associated with drinking, __________ disproportionally young adults

a. Heart disease

b. Cirrhosis of the liver

c. Traffic accidents

d. Brain damage

28. The brewing industry actively supports a rollback of the 1990 excise tax increase to:

a. Provide relief for the lower and middle classes

b. Allow brewers and wholesalers to expand and hire more workers

c. Boost the American economy

d. All of the above

29. An example of a harmful consequence of alcohol misuse beyond the reach of a targeted consequence oriented approach is:

a. Organ damage from chronic excess drinking

b. Drinking while driving

c. Domestic violence

d. Child abuse

30. America is predominately a __________ drinking country.

a. Beer

b. Wine

c. Liquor

d. None of the above

31. A surprising feature of government in the liquor trade is:

a. 18 states continue to control wholesale distribution as a public monopoly

b. 5 states monopolize the retail sale of package spirits

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a or b

32. In recent years the U.S. Congress has set alcohol taxes:

a. Far lower than previously

b. Far higher than previously

c. About the same as previously

d. None of the above

33. Unintended consequences of increased taxes and price include:

a. Substitution from alcohol to other drugs

b. Creation of a black market for alcohol

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a or b

34. In youths the use of one illegal substance results in greater interest and opportunity to try other substances and is known as __________ phenomena:

a. Co-op

b. Either –Or

c. Gateway

d. Challenge

35. In the public health framework an increase in alcohol taxes is justified by:

a. A reduction in morbidity and mortality

b. No decrease in overall employment

c. Impact on alcohol industry products

d. None of the above

36. Alcohol control is:

a. All or nothing

b. A continuum of possibilities

c. Both a and b

d. Neither a or b

37. Time, place, and circumstances:

a. Include efforts to motivate people to refrain from drinking when it is likely to cause damage

b. Matters are largely dealt with through counseling and private authority

c. May require government authority for intervention in some areas

d. All of the above

38. In public opinion surveys, a large majority of the public indicate support for increasing alcohol taxes provided:

a. The revenues be used for targeted and preventive programs or some other good use

b. The revenues are a preventative measure in themselves

c. The revenues go into the general fund for all to use

d. None of the above

True or False Questions – 2 points each

39. Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD) has been an ineffective influence on policy change referencing drunk drivers.

40. Throughout U.S. history there has been one standard in response to alcohol related issues.

41. Prohibition proved to be a considerable disappointment to the public and the business community.

42. In the U.S., public attention referencing alcohol related problems is primarily focused on drunk driving.

43. A sizeable share of drinking deaths involves innocent bystanders.

44. The evidence supporting the public health benefits of increased alcohol taxes is every bit as strong as for cigarette taxes.

45. Drinkers as a group are less politically influential since they are less educated, poorer, and ambivalent.

46. Prohibition was ended by the 22nd Amendment.

47. Alcohol taxes are imposed to generate revenue.

48. Home production of wine and hard cider for personal use was allowed during Prohibition.

49. The reformers and moralists were pleased with the results of Prohibition.

50. The best measure of alcohol consumption is tax paid sales.

51. After Repeal the federal government was more motivated and more successful in enforcing the tax law than enforcing the previous prohibition law.

52. The alcoholism movement insisted that only a small is vulnerable.

53. Heavy drinking is not enough evidence to make the diagnosis of an illness.

54. The natural history of alcoholism was best documented by George Vaillant.

55. Jellinek proposed that the interaction of individual susceptibility and the alcohol “wetness” of the environment determine the likelihood of individual alcoholism.

56. Twin studies proved that a single gene shapes alcoholism risk.

57. Alcoholism is the result of both individual and environmental determinants.

58. Outpatient treatment services last 28 successive days and are highly structured.

59. Motivational enhancement therapy seeks to strengthen the patient’s intrinsic motivation to change.

60. There is no doubt about the efficacy of psychotherapy alone in helping alcoholics give up drinking.

61. Brief counseling by a family physician has demonstrated to be effective in promoting more moderate drinking in patients.

62. All treatment requires voluntary compliance by the drinker.

63. Wines are fermented from the sugars in fruit, berries, and other sources.

64. The distinctive ingredient in wine, beer, and distilled spirits is ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol.

65. Proof is simply twice the percentage of alcohol content by volume.

66. Aggregate data for study is usually derived from tax records.

67. The only practical means of obtaining information on individual consumption, and on drinking patterns within a group is by direct observation.

68. Per the 2001 – 2002 NESARC, in the U.S. the top decile of the population consumes well over half the alcohol in any one year.

69. Survey data indicates no differences in drinking patterns among population groups.

70. Married people are more likely to binge drink than singles.

71. Women attending school are associated with lower rates of drinking.

72. Men drink more than women.

73. The population distribution of consumption among those who drink follows a particular shape with a high concentration of total consumption at the upper tail.

74. Government agencies are quick to intervene when a pregnant woman drinks too much and places her unborn baby at risk of being born with severe defects.

75. In the public health view, the community interest is not just the sum of self-regarding individual interests.

76. The effects on bystanders are called externalities.

77. Self-control is not just a matter of willpower, but also experience and technique.

78. Harm reduction measures benefit the drinkers themselves.

79. Information provision is a coercive approach.

80. Economists assume that the market cannot provide an accurate indication of the publics tradeoff between safety and money.

81. For a life saved or a disability averted the community is viewed as paying without gain.

82. Interventions that save younger lives tend to have a positive effect on the collective standard of living.

83. The states have been in the business of taxing and regulating alcoholic beverages since repeal.

84. The notion of drinking as a privilege rather than a right would be a hard sell to voters in the U.S.

85. Enforcing DUI and criminal laws is a profitable enterprise.

86. The revenue motive has remained paramount in federal and state tax policy.

87. Higher prices and restrictive availability of alcoholic beverages reduce per capita consumption of ethanol.

Essay Questions – 50 points each

88. Describe in detail the 6 assessment dimensions of the ASAM patient placement criteria. Discuss their impact on proper placement and treatment planning.

89. Describe Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), its origins, history, foundations, and development. Detail the AA program of recovery, philosophy, how it works, and spin-off programs.

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90. Describe in detail group therapy. Include a discussion of its curative factors, history, and processes. Note the various types of therapy groups and how they work.

91. Describe in detail the Stages of Change denoting each stage and describing the paths and processes associated with this model and each stage.

92. Discuss the physical effects of alcohol and describe in detail how various blood alcohol concentrations effect driving ability and life functions.