What do the authors mean by the term “decision?

Subject: Business / Management
Question
Part 4: Chapter 12

What do the authors mean by the term “decision?” What are the various steps in the decision-making process? What are the main decision makers in the CJ system, and what are some means through which decision making in the CJ system can be improved?

Part 4: Chapter 13

What do the authors mean by “organizational effectiveness,” and how can effectiveness be accurately measured (or can it be)? What are the pros and cons of the “goal” method and/or the “process” method? What is “variable analysis” and is it ever or always useful?

Part 4: Chapter 14

If an organization is working effectively, why should it ever change? Or should it? What’s wrong with establishing effectiveness and then continuing to do what you’re doing? If a major change is anticipated, what steps should be taken? What are the various characteristics of organizations which handle change well? Do members of organizations tend to resist change; if so, why? How can leadership or management overcome this resistance?

Part 4: Chapter 15

What, exactly, is “knowledge utilization?” What are some of the elements which lead to difficulties in the “knowledge-practice” relationship? What is the knowledge-coercion strategy? What is a normative-re-education strategy? What does it mean when people say “knowledge is power,” and is that a factual statement?

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