Database Security for 21st century business

Database Security for 21st century business

Database Security for 21st century business


Most companies have servers for different purposes; however, the most critical servers any company has is the database servers. Data such as client details, financials, and human capital are the data that support any business in operations. For this reason, there is an increasing concern about the general protection of databases. Any breach of security would lead to either loss of data, exposure of sensitive data, unauthorized access to sensitive information or access to classified files. As companies develop, so is the need to secure the data stored within the databases. The benefits of controlled, protected access to the classified files as well as the preservation of the general integrity, standards and consistency of these data is much more expensive (Shamimabi, & Nicholas, 2008).

The concept of database security is much more focused on the, physical security, network security, encryption and authentication. The main constructs that the concept of database security thrives on includes confidentiality or protection from informal disclosure, integrity or prevention from illegal data access, and availability of equipment for identifying and recovering errors that might cause a denial of access to information. In the process of ensuring that the data stored are secure, most companies try to restrict access using software, reduce vulnerability, eliminate interference as well as upgrade their database auditing mechanisms.

Database security problems

Physical Commuters are becoming physically accessible to unauthorized users

Personnel Organizations are becoming more involved in system administration and database security

Procedural Most organizations have same people manage various operation of the database. This exposes the organization and its data to various risks, which necessitates the need for background checks.

Technical Storage, manipulation, and transmission of the data stored in the database. This needs safeguarding by technology that can enforce particular information control policies.

Database securities current and future trends

Database has undergone a number of metamorphoses; the main metamorphosis is the security lay out. Amongst these is the activity monitoring and blocking, classification, Encryption, consolidation, and configuration. However, organization can achieve these using various software. In this light, most companies dealing within database security have tried to developed software and application, but the most effective one is the product of oracle. it has solution for activity monitoring and blocking protection of databases irrespective of the platform is important, however, it should also be cost effective. Most companies use firewalls for windows based databases forgetting the vulnerability of their databases if open source software are used to hack into these databases (Shamimabi, & Nicholas, 2008).

The activities of the database on any network need monitoring to prevent any form of unauthorized access. Oracles have achieved this by preventing SQL injection and role escalations. Any database security system must prevent these in real time. The SQL grammar technology is an effective platform for reducing millions of SQL statement to few SQL characteristics. It has a high level of accuracy, performance and flexibility (Sandhu, 2008).

The system should be able to enforce white; lists and blacklists (positive and negative security model to provide protection without costly false positives. It should be able to allow for addressing SOX, PCI, HIPAA/HITECH, any other regulatory requirement. This should be easy to achieve without necessarily changing the existing databases.

Privileged User and Multi-Factor Access Control:

The cost of protecting corporate data should not be hefty therefore; organization should seek ways of protecting their data cheaply. The most trusted is the Oracle Database Vault; oracle database vault is an effective way by which organization can address regulatory directives. Organization also needs to secure their existing application, as is a mandatory requirement by some regulation of which Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) is the key. They call for separation of the duties from the any other activities related to data management with the aim of securing data and make certain that the veracity of data is managed. Organization face increased challenge of proactively safeguarding of their application data kept in their databases. In this way, organization will use data for the intended purpose and not adversely. Only Privileged database clients should only access data. This requires the need for multifactor policy within the organization that can control the level of access by use of any built in factor. This may include instance, IP address, application record, application bypasses as well as the authentification methods.

Data Classification:

Shamimabi, & Nicholas, (2005), argue that industry leading application software is important. The bottom line of any database security is to classify data effectively in order to mediate access to organization data stored within the databases irrespective of the classification. A good database security system should be seamless to meet all the level of security. Organizations specifically design these systems to meet the requirement of the multilevel security requirements. Organization need systems that can classify data to allow access based on need to know. In this way, organization can protect the privacy of their data and realize the regulatory compliances.  Label security should be integrated with identity management to enable centralized definition of the organization policy. The database systems should be able to support parent Data Encryption and offer hold up for PKI, Kerberos, and any other RADIUS-based well-built validation systems.

Sandhu, (2008), argues that database security should be cost effective and comply with various privacy and regulatory requirement such as the Sarbanes-Oxley, or the Payment Card Industry (PCI) and even the latest Data Security Standard (DSS). However, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), is a new regulatory mandate, which might require constant upgrading necessitating the need for flexibility and compatibility of systems. Customers should be able to transparently encrypt any of their application data and other sensitive columns like their credit card numbers social security and PIN numbers while in the database as well as in back up devices or even over then networks. The systems need to be cost effective.

Consolidated Auditing And Reporting:

There are many insider threats that most organizations phase. However, databases security systems need to automatically collect and consolidate the audits that the organization carries out in search of quality and total security. Organization are in need of systems that offer them secure and scalable audit warehouses that also enable simplified recording and automating the collection and final consolidation of audit data. Organization need to control database audit centrally and managed from within the database security system to reduce the cost related to IT security.

Secure Configuration Management,

According to Baker, et al, (2009), organization should be ready to increase the level of the database security and compliance with the IT control frameworks. This includes frameworks like Control Objectives for Information and related Technology: (COBIT), global directives require internal control, database security configuration management global directives. It should enhance discovery, and vulnerability scanning while ensuring compliance benchmarking, including any other functionality such as central management of database configuration. Organizations require this to detect and prevent configuration drift in the databases. Organizations should also have systems that can alert them in case of critical patches issued by various security framework developers. This, might help in invoking a patch wizard that automatically deploys patches and ensure that application databases within organizations are always updated and secure from unauthorized access (Bertino, Byun, & Kamra, 2007)..

Data Masking

There is increasing need for marking of sensitive information by replacing them realistic values. In this way, organization can use production data for the purpose of analysis, development, and even sharing with the out-sourced partners. Organization can also share these data with offshore partners as well. This might apply the use of templates readily available in libraries and the format rules. This consistently transforms data with the view of maintaining referential integrity for all application used within the organization.


While protecting the database from intrusion is important, it is also important to underscore the need for management restrain and controlled access. This will go a long way in ensuring that the company has the best protection from espionage, hacking, data leaks and data theft. The main database protraction platforms include oracle.


Baker, H., Hutton, A., Hylender, D., Novak, C., Porter, C., Sartin, B., Tippett, P., & Valentine, (2009). The 2009 data breach investigations report. Verizon Business. Retrieved January 31, 2010,

Bertino, E., Byun, J., & Kamra, A. (2007). Database security. security, privacy, and trust in modern data management (Data-centric systems and applications) (pp. 87-102).New York: Springer-Verlag.

Sandhu R., (2009). Database security concepts, approaches, and challenges: IEEE Dependable secure computing

Shamimabi P., & Nicholas R., (2008).Protocol engineering for web service conversations: journal of Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Special Issue on Agent-oriented Software Development

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Deadly Sins In Contemporary World

Deadly Sins In Contemporary World

Deadly Sins In Contemporary World

In the contemporary world, material lust is the greatest sin that Dante would have found room for. Indeed, lust has generates all forms of sexual immorality besides all forms of corruption in the world. According to literature, such sins would cause destruction of the culprits, a clear indication that self-control is essential for human life. In contemporary world, death hanging would be the most suitable form of death for culprits of lust. Intense desire, in his opinion, should not be forgiven as the culprits have no reason to continue being part of the society. The appropriate guard for sinners of lust would undoubtedly be undesirable as well. The punishment, according to the Inferno would be consumption with fire as it remains one of the most effective ways on wiping out evil character from the society.

Regarding the sin of last, the prominent historical figure who would be associated with it is Asmodeus. He was considered as the demon of lust that lured people into committing this heinous act. It would be impossible to discuss lust without featuring his name. The new block cell would be located in Dante’s kitchen where culprits would have to face a multitude of zombies. The fight would undoubtedly turn vicious and catastrophic, causing all the occupants to die in the process. Essentially, it would be the easiest way to isolate the culprits by exposing them to a fight from which they would not escape.

In conclusion, lust remains a heinous act in the contemporary world. From political assassinations, to terrorism and to social immorality, lust remains a significant driving force behind the culprits. The essence of terminating the lives of the culprits stems from the fact that they have lost their sense of self-control and therefore should not live.

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Database management systems

Database management systems

Database management systems






Database management systems

Q#1)What are the advantages and disadvantages of implementing distributed and centralized databases? Does the size and location of the organization dictate if the database is centralized or distributed? Why?

Distributed database is a collection of data which are connected in a system through a simple logical network. They are managed through a distributed database management system in a single network. In the system, each part has its own dat6abse and an operating system. On the other Hand, a centralized database management has all the data stored in a single place fined as collection of logically distributed database which are connected with each other through a network.

The advantages of a centralized database are that all the data can be mined from the same network, this enhance the efficiency of the system and data recovery. This is also advantageous as the systems can be maintained from a central place in well contained manner. Centralized database is limited to those at central place, any downtime in the system leads to lose as the system is completely locked down

The distributed database is advantageous because the data can be accesses by geographically distributed clients without slowing down the system. This system is also advantageous because of the location transparency (Korth, & Silberschatz, 1998).

The size and location of the organization does not determine if the database is distributed because distribution of the database depends on the storage facilities and the computers in use. In a distributed system the remote databases have their own local autonomies over their data as they can take responsibility for the security of the data, the backup and recovery. They also control the concurrency of the database as well.

Q#2) what are some of the important considerations regarding DBMS/Database design? Explain why these considerations are important.

1) Security – DBMS is a very important part of any setting that takes care of the data stored in the database, security of the system should be given the highest priority. This does NOT only apply to the data in the data base but also to the [possible breaches. Therefore security of the dbms also concerns the hardware, software, people, and data. THIS requires the implementation of a superior mission objectives for the whole debase management systems. This increasing interest in the security of then database is as results of the reliance on the computer for the storage of data. The main concepts in ensuring the security of a DBMS include authorization, Views, backup and recovery, integrity, encryption and RAID (Elmasri, &Navathe, 2004).

2) Transaction rate: the kind of traffics to the data base. A debase is supposed to be scalable to allow for future un-predetermined database accesses. This will ensure that the number of systems downtimes is reduced and the throughput is increased thereby enabling the organization to realize their database design objectives. The designer should know whether the system is read only or both. Determination of the usage patterns also helps in determining if the system can work at peak times or even if the usage patterns are evenly distributed

3) The nature of the uptime- uptimes is also another important factor to consider as it determines the number of downtimes s set is supposed to register to [prepare for the possibilities of failures. The uptimes range from the normal 16×5 and the 24×7. But it is imperative to know that the 24×7 does not allow for downtimes when then systems can be maintained

4) The nature of database administration- according to Elmasri, &Navathe, (2004), it is important to consider the way the database will be administered, as it helps in reducing the number of system downtimes when administering the database. If the administration is to be carried every day at a central point or if the administrations to be carried at different remote points. DB administration may include backups, transfers to other systems, systems integrations, data loading etc are much more important to consider especially if the database is used for commercial purposes (Korth, &Silberschatz, 1998).

Q#3) Does MS Access support all nine DBMS functions identified listed in chapter service? Why or Why not? Describe how MS Access implements these functions.

Teorey, Lightsome &, Nadeau, (2006), states that the main functions of database management systems are: indexing, Views, Security, Integrity, Concurrency, Backup/Recovery, Design, Documentation and Update/Query. Ms Access can support a number of this function, but cannot support some functions due to incompatibility between the systems. For example, access has a number of query performance problems based on the resource mamanement systems used in the latest version of the databases. This was dues to the incompatibility and causes delays in returning the delays. However, Ms Access uses the hot fixes KB2553029 to speed up the query performance. On the other hand, ms access does not function in a number of operating systems like the Mac Os, Linux, BSD, and Amiga etc. this is due to the configuration systems used in the systems (Raghu, & Gehrke, 2000).

There are a number of functionalities such as connectivity and interactions that the ms access does not support. The ms access is a native PHP; it is therefore not easy for their connectivity to offer high indexing functionality and query / update. Ms can only achieve this by using the open database management system for direct access. Then reason form thins is that ms Access is a low end natively DBMS with a poor middle-tier PHP script. Ms can also reverse engineer the script to work sufficiently.

Ms Access has a limited support for the storage functionality. This is achieved but importing database for Ms Access jet 4. By conecting ms access to live databases through the ODBC, one can easily imports the database schemas into any standard UML model. This also enhances the level of synchronization between the data models and the live databases (Teorey, Lightsome, & Nadeau, 2006).


Elmasri, R. Navathe, S. (2004). Fundamentals of Database Systems. 4th ed., Pearson Addison Wesley,

Korth, H.; Silberschatz. (1998). Database Systems. Third Edition. Makron Books.

Raghu R., & J. Gehrke., (2000). Database Management Systems, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill,

Teorey, T.J., Lighstone S., Nadeau, (2006). Database Modeling and Design, 4th. ed., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc, San Francisco

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How the United States higher learning education has been affected by Globalization

Data projection and ethics

How the United States higher learning education has been affected by Globalization

Globalization is an essential aspect in society, as it affects almost everyone’s life. In the global world, many changes are occurring on a daily basis, especially in the educational sector. The article chosen is by Wildavsky, 2011 titled “Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared”. In engineering and science, American universities are known for being top notch, due to the research facilities they have. They are praised for their innovation and the scholarships, which they offer. This means that competition has increased all over the world in terms of higher education learning. Competent students are being targeted from different parts of the world to join American universities. Wildavsky believes that there is a reason to become worried, because many well educated Americans are working in other countries. He believes that globalization is bringing about negative aspects and a solution ought to be found. Furthermore, enterprises of academics are becoming global, and this is mostly in the sector of the sciences. It should be known that consumption is an essential aspect which influences globalization among adults. Learning and education are related to globalization and this need to be known. According to research, it has been found out that 57% of American students, who are around three million, study outside the United States. Wildavsky encourages Americans to ensure that they find solutions to deal with problems associated with globalization on higher education. He believes that the United States has the needed resources to ensure Americans are well educated (Wildavsky, 2011).

This article is extremely interesting, and thus the reason why I choose it for the reading. It is reflective as well as informative to any reader. A lot of valuable information is provided concerning statistics related to the number of American students obtaining PHD’s from foreign universities. This is in the field of physics, engineering and computer science. This is going on to extreme levels to the point whereby, American universities are not the same as they were a few decades ago. As a result of reading this article, I am aware that globalization has adverse effects on American adult learning. Adults who want to obtain PHD’s are attending foreign universities’ such as Peking and Tsinghua (Wildavsky, 2011). This is taking place in great numbers as compared to American universities, which have low numbers of such type of students. Those who are taking the course PSE6660 will have valuable information regarding how to become thinkers with free minds. This is the reason why most times, I found myself reflecting on this article. People who have an interest in adult education will be informed about what is taking place in the United States, due to globalization in the education sector.

The choices made by consumers determine if one is able to learn in the United States or abroad. This is the reason why most times I visit many websites as well as watch television. This will provide sufficient information regarding the behaviors of consumers. According to Covey Franklin, who is known for management of time, believes that consumers influence their lives. This is the reason why it is difficult for me not to watch Food TV as it makes my life worth living.

Wildavsky’s article ensures that those in the adult education sector are aware of essential aspects. Through having a possibly sense, Americans will be aware of how higher education has been impacted by higher education (Wildavsky, 2011). This is because the United States education market share is being eroded by European, Middle Eastern, and Asian universities. If a solution is not found immediately, the consequences might be detrimental. It should be known that competition is beneficial as the results are rewarding. It will also provide a great opportunity for improved higher education as well as improved excellence in the academic sector. All members as well as classmates undertaking PSE6660 should read this article (Boudousquie & Maniam & Leavell, 2007). They will benefit greatly and acquire a deeper understanding of higher education, foreign competition, and globalization. Everyone is encouraged to reflect on this article and how it will help improve their lives, both students and students.

According to an article by Terenzini and Pascarella (2011), students face many challenges while they are in college. This is because in the 21st century, education is greatly affected by globalization. Students have to ensure that the find ways of dealing with issues concerning education. They have to find ways to pay for their tuition, as well as other expenses, which they incur. The authors try and find solutions for dealing with such issues caused by globalization.

Heather Higgins believes that those investing their time in higher education learning should engage in research, which will help them. In the year 2006, some scholars from Fulbright became involved in research. They were interested in finding out the extent of globalization in universities located in different locations. Also, in another article by the same author, she sorts to find out participation, which occurs in higher education in Ireland and the United Kingdom. The impact on globalization is high and those in this sector seek to find out how they can ensure that they are not affected as much. This means that most adults want to learn in universities located in their region (Higgins, 2007). Most students do not want to study abroad in countries such as America and Spain. They want to ensure that the education they receive is in their country. Boudousquie & Maniam & Leavell (2007) believes that the economy of the United States has also been affected by globalization. The higher education sector has not been spared either as the consequences are being witnessed. Nothing much can be done to reduce its impact, but students should ensure that they promote their academic institutions. Thus, the issue on globalization should be known.


Wildavsky, Ben. (2011). Academic Globalization Should Be Welcomed, Not Feared

Globalization, Education, U.S. Higher Education. BOOKINGS. Retrieved from

Boudousquie, Renee. & Maniam, Bala. & Leavell, Hadley. (2007). Globalization: It’s Impact on the United States Economy. The Business Review, Cambridge. 94-100.

Pascarella, T. & Terenzini, T. (2011). Studying College Students in the 21st Century: Meeting New Challenges, The Review of Higher Education, 35. 151-158. Retrieved from

Higgins, Heather. (2007). International Research from the Fulbright New Century Scholars 2006. Higher Education Quarterly, 61, 2. Retrieved from

Higgins, Heather. (2006). Patterns and Processes of Higher Education Participation: UK and Ireland, Higher Education Quarterly, 60,4. Retrieved from HYPERLINK “”

David Grants article Top 9 Reasons Congress is Broken

David Grants article Top 9 Reasons Congress is Broken





David Grant’s article “Top 9 Reasons Congress is Broken” outlines a number of reasons why Congress is not just ineffective, passing a paltry 106 bills compared to the Congress of 1947-1948 which had passed 906 bills, but also why it is so poorly viewed by the public, achieving an approval rating of 10percent. According to the author, a gathering of scholars at the Woodrow Wilson International Center came up with a number of valid reasons for the level of dysfunction crippling the functioning of Congress. These reasons varied from insufficient presidential leadership and a lack of institutional knowledge to the Congress being back to the future by following a historical trend, all in all the author argues the current state of events cannot be allowed to play out.

According to Grant, one of the key reasons behind Congress’ failures thus far, is the lack of sufficient leadership from the presidency. Giving the example of President Clinton, the author argues that the president must know how to “work the system” in order for Congress to work effectively; for instance, the President should be able to motivate Congress to look beyond partisan interests. Secondly, Grant argues that in concurrence with the views of Thomas Mann in the Washington Post, the newcomer Republicans are at fault, as they have brought with them ideological extremes and are scornful of compromise, this has made it difficult for Congress to work in effectively. Perhaps also related to this, is the third reason: which is that members of Congress are less institutionally knowledgeable, and as a result find it difficult to be effective in deciding between policy alternatives.

Another key reason provided by Grant, is the increasing control that bmoney is having in ppolitics, as a result, members of Congress are actually forced to spend more time fundraising than is ideal, resulting in less time for Congressional functions. These changes have according to the author also spilled into the media industry, which has become significantly more vigilant, making deal cutting quite difficult, further hampering functioning of Congress. The sixth reason provided by Grant, is that of what the author refers to as the “Senate filibuster” a piece of legislation that allows a single senator to halt legislation that does not have sufficient votes (60) to overrule their disapproval. The provision has over the last two Congressional terms been abused further choking Congress’ ability to carry out its functions. Some of the other reasons provided are the electorate’s tendency to elect hardliners, the advent of strong interest groups that have usurped roles previously played by political parties and finally the advent of a partisan Congress interested in putting the interests of their parties above institutional effectiveness.

The author’s argument for Congress increasingly putting other interests above institutional effectiveness is in my opinion the most significant reason for the dysfunction currently being witnessed. This can however be intertwined with the initial reason; a lack of leadership. There is no doubt that a strong president capable of setting the agenda of Congress that cuts across partisan interests, would result in a more functional Congress, not to mention their ability to lobby a majority support for their bills, leading to greater functionality. These arguments by the author, are definitely the strongest, as they explain the shift in Congressional culture, as well as the greater Congressional functionality usually witnessed under specific presidents compared to others. I therefore agree with a majority of the reasons provided, but particularly feel that these two stand out and perhaps even encompass a number of the other reasons provided.

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Dating Violence among Adolescents

Dating Violence among Adolescents

Dating Violence among Adolescents




Unlike violence in adult intimate partners, violence among adolescent partners who are dating is phenomenon that is understudied. Although most teenagers do not experience violence when dating, for one out of every ten teenagers have abuse as an integral part of their dating partnerships. Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2007 reported that 10% of teenagers countrywide reported having experience abuse or physical violence from their dating partners in the previous year (Mulford, & Giordano, 2008). This is just an indicator of how violence is taking root in our teenagers. Violence in dating adolescent may take various forms the way it occurs in relationships among adults. According to Varia (2006) these forms include emotional violence, such as jealousy behaviors and controlling behaviors; physical violence characterized by punching, slapping, hitting etc; and sexual violence characterized by rape on nonconsensual sexual activity. Violence in dating teenagers has various effects on the teenagers. These effects are usually physically, emotionally and psychologically detrimental. Heterosexual females take much of the violence compared to male. On the other hand little studies or insignificant number of studies have been conducted on gay, bisexual, lesbian and transgender youths, however, research conducted on same gender relationships among adults show identical patterns as those done on the youths of heterosexual nature. As Varia (2006) notes the health implications of the violence is also costly to those on the receiving end. They include contraction of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infection, pregnancy, mental illness, drug abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Programs that prevent violence among dating youths can be very instrumental in helping reduce the violence and the effects associate with it. It must be understood that the violence may be a sign of other deep rooted problems that may interest counselors. The counselors may also be interested in the prevalence and the effect of the violence.


This research paper looks at literature on the trends and prevalence of violence among dating youths. It also looks at literature on the causes of this violence, its effects on the teenagers and the programs that aim at reducing the violence. It also explores the outcome of the programs.

Developmental theory

Violence among adolescents in may be a product of the teenage stage of development and may also have effects on their development at this stage. According to the developmental theory postulated by Piaget and other, teenagers fall in two development stages, early teenagers are in the concrete operational stage characterized by increase in body volume and mass, increased intelligence and ability to systematically and logically manipulate symbols in relation to actual objects. They also exhibit operational thinking and reduced egocentrism. Those in mid and late teenage fall in the formal operational stage, which is characterized by exhibition of intelligence through use of symbols connected to abstract concepts. The teenager may also exhibit geocentricism.

Literature Review

This section is a review on of literature on dating violence among youths. The section will explore trends and prevalence of violence among dating youths. It also looks at literature on the causes of this violence, its effects on the teenagers and the programs that aim at reducing the violence. It also explores the outcome of the programs.

Trends and Prevalence of violence among dating youths

Youth dating violence cuts across gender, race, and socioeconomic boundaries. Both girls and boys are victims; however girls and boys abuse each other in different ways. In most instance girls are like to yell, slap, pinch, kick scratch or threaten to cause harm on themselves. On the other hand, boy cause injury on girls more frequently and severely. Some teenagers experience violence occasionally, while others may experience more often, even daily. The prevalence of intimate partner violence is high in teenagers than in adults. A comparing of the rate of intimate partner relationship violence by Silverman et Al (2001) reveled that teenagers are at a higher risk of abuse by intimate partner than adults. According to the U.S Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice statistics (2001) girls of ages between 16-24 years are more susceptible to violence from intimate partners that any other age group. Prevalence of violence to girls in this age group is triple the national average. Silverman et Al (2001) also observes that in every five girls, at least one girl has been abused by an intimate partner . These ladies have either been abused sexually or physically by their partners. The U.S. Department of Justice (2001) also noted that 94% of those victimized by their present or former boyfriend were women of the ages between 19-16. In the last decade of the 20th century most homicide against girls of the ages between 16-19 were conducted by their intimate partners. Gay, bisexual, and lesbian youths also experience violence similar to their opposite sex counterparts (Young, 2004). Also more than a half of sex offenders commit their first offense before they attaint the age of 18 years. 58% of rape victims are normally of the age between 12 and 24 years while half of date rapes occur among teenagers. Intimate partner violence in the youths is closely linked with risk of abuse of drugs, poor weight control manners, risky sexual behaviors, suicide and pregnancy.

Causes of intimate partner abuse in youths

There are various factors that contribute to intimate partner violence among young people. An examination of 1,600 juvenile sexual offenders in the state of California indicated that about 33% of the offenders perceived sex the best way to demonstrate love and care to their partners; 23.5% felt that sex is the best way of feeling powerful and exercising power and control over their partners; 9.4% use sex as the method for dissipating anger; while 8.4% used sex as a means of punishment (California Coalition Against Sexual Assault, 2002). Some victims and abusers blame the violence on the victims dating behavior such as provocation by the girls, communication problems, provocation the personality type of the victim, influence by the peers, and the girl’s desire for affection. A large percentage of teenager in high school (67% of males and 77% of females) endorse some level of sexual compulsion from intimate partners such as unwanted hugging, kissing, sexual intercourse or genital contact. Violence by male on their female partners is most fueled by peer influence especially in educational institutions. In this regard, intimate partner violence can be perceived as a product of negative societal and psychological ideologies, influence of drugs, provocation and peer influence.

Effects of intimate partner violence on youths

Intimate partner violence has numerous effects on the partners, especially the victims. Females in relationships that are abusive have a higher risk of get infect by sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS (Mulford & Giordano, 2008). They are also at risk of getting unwanted pregnancies since the power dynamics in such partnerships deny them the ability to negotiate for the use of condoms or other contraceptives. They are intimidated by the violence and are often forced to engage in unsafe sex. The depression resulting from intimate partner violence lead to a feeling of hopelessness and sadness, and victims have an increased inclination to take part in risk sexual activities due to reduced concern about self.


Most victims of intimate partner violence among the youth do not report the incidences or seek assistance. The longer the victim has been dating with the abuser the lesser he/she is likely to report an abuse. Victims are more likely to report abuse if it occurs within the first five dates. Many teenagers continue hanging in abusive relationships due to various reasons. These reasons include self-blame, love for their partners, fear of their partners, loyalty, religious and social stigma, embarrassment, denial, privacy and lack of understanding (Varia, 2006). In a survey among high school students, 86% of students stated that they would confide cases of abuse on their close friends while only a small percentage 7% stated that they would look for assistance from the police if confronted by violence from their partners (Silverman, 2001). A large number of youths prefer seeking help from their peers rather than get help from a counselor, teacher, a caring adult or parent. Also a large number of teenagers prefer keep the incidences to themselves. Silence and seeking ineffective avenues of help present a great dilemma to counselor and adults interested in reducing and preventing intimate partner violence among teenagers.

Prevention programs

Despite numerous cases of intimate partner violence among the youths going unreported, there are numerous efforts geared towards eliminating this kind of violence. However, such programs are few as compared to those catering for intimate partner violence among the adults. Knowledge of the efficiency of the programs targeting the youths also limited since only a few programs have undergone evaluation (Hickman, 2004). Most of the prevention programs are school-base and aim at influencing attitudes and enhancing the knowledge held by the student about intimate partner violence and its consequences. The programs hope to influence behavior through knowledge and attitude change. Limited evaluations make it almost impossible to determine the effect of the prevention programs. However, the few evaluations indicate an improvement in post program knowledge, but there varying effects on the participants’ attitudes. According to Hickman (2004) long term programs show more positive results on the participants’ attitudes than short term programs. Also, girls report more positive change in attitude than boys. Program that targeted the participant self esteem, proper communication, assistance seeking and other personal strengths also proved to be effective at shaping attitudes. Other approaches such as reducing victim acceptance of violence and male use of violence and conflict resolution approaches have not receive mush evaluation and most information about their outcome is mere speculation. Programs delivered through the community settings proved to be effective than those delivered through school settings. It is, however, difficult to determine whether both the changes realized through the programs targeting boys, girls or mixed groups, delivered in school setting or community social setting were permanent and would persist through adulthood or not.

Relevance to Adolescent Development

The information present is various pieces of literate have varied relevance to teenage development. Teenagers are at a transition stage from childhood to adulthood and any negative attitudes picked or exhibited during this stage can as well be brought along into adulthood. Such adults may tolerate abusive relationships or be abusive in their feature relationships. As stated earlier, a large percentage of people who committed sexual offenses, abused their spouses or conducted any other violent deeds had done so once or consistently during their teenage. On the other hand, the victims of such violence and abuse can carry along the desperation, helplessness and sadness that they experienced during their teenage to their adulthood consequently affecting their future relationships. This is a clear indication that what happen to the youths during this transition stage of growth is very influential to their future behaviors. In this regard, tolerating violence or accepting it should be discourage. Also perpetrators of violence should be discouraged either through counseling or through punishment. Prevention programs should be encouraged to shape the thoughts and knowledge of the teenager. The youth should be enabled to seek help from appropriate avenues whenever they experience violence from their intimate partners. Youth should be made aware of the consequence of keeping quiet when their friends are abused or abuse their partners. As brothers keepers youths should look out for each other to avoid consequences such as sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, despair, unwanted pregnancies and even homicides.

Implications for Counselors

Counselors on the other hand must understand that they are dealing with a great problem with perpetrators, victims, and onlookers who like the perpetrators and the victims never disclose what takes place. This can pass for youth syndicate! Counselors must take into account of the statistic of the abuse activates in order to access as many victims and perpetrators as possible. It is not only victims that need counseling; perpetrators too need counseling to help them to desist from repeating their violence activities. For the victims it is important that the counselors deal with the effect of the violence while for the perpetrators the counselors must deal with the cause of the violent behaviors. As noted above, girls are the form the largest category of youths who suffer violence at the hand of their intimate partners. In most cases most of the girls accept the violence as a natural male behavior. Counselors should deal with this acceptance and other factors such as fear, royalty, and self-blame that affects the ability of the victims to stand against the violence. Counselors should seek to bolster the confidence, perception of self worth by the victims (Pipher, 2005). This way the counselors can empower the victim to stand against the violence.

In addressing the perpetrators the counselors have an even more difficult task of addressing deep rooted believes or attitudes that encourage violence. Perception of sex as the best way of expressing love to ones partner is the greatest violence encouraging attitude that counselors have to deal with. They also have to address other notions about sex such as expression of power and dominance, handling hunger, and punishment. The counselor must address communication issues among the youths whenever they get an opportunity to talk to them (Edgette, 2006). With proper communication skill and confidence, the would-be victims will be able to talk their way out of violence or seek help when it occurs and perpetrators will be able to communicate and express themselves instead of using violence to get their way. Perpetrators should also be made to appreciate the desires of their partner and not force their will on them. Counselors should also address the youths who keep quiet when they have information about their friend who are being violated and friends violating their partners. This group of youth is very instrumental in shaping the future of victims and that of perpetrators. They should have the courage to report violent incidents when they occur.


In sum, incidents of intimate partner violence in youths are becoming numerous. The incidents are a product of many factors both from the victims and the perpetrators. Perpetrator are violent their partners dues to attitudes that are based fallacies. On the other hand these ideologies, alongside fear, self-blame alongside a myriad of psychological reasons and fallacies encourage victims to tolerate the violence and even encourage it. The violence has numerous negative implications on the development on the adolescents such as psychological problem, physical injury and infection by STIs and HIV/AIDS. The available literature on findings on intimate partner violence among the youths and the available preventive program present and informational resource that is valuable to counselors. The preventive strategies have positive outcome. However, I believe that with knowledge about these strategies, counselor can combine several approaches and crate on powerful strategy to address victims, perpetrators, and witnesses.


California Coalition Against Sexual Assault (CALCASA) (2002). 2002 Report: Research on Rape and Violence. Retrieved from

Edgette, J. S. (2006). Adolescent therapy that really works: Helping kids who never asked for help in the first place. New York: W.W. Norton

Hickman, L. J. (2004). Dating Violence Among Adolescents: Prevalence, Gender Distribution, And Prevention Program Effectiveness. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Vol. 5, No. 2, 123-142

Mulford, C. & Giordano, P. C. (2008). Teen Dating Violence: A Closer Look at Adolescent Romantic Relationships. National Institute Journal of Justice No.261. Retrieved from

Pipher, M (2005). Reviving Ophelia: Saving the selves of adolescent girls. Ingram Book Company

Silverman, J. G. et Al, (2001). Dating Violence Against Adolescent Girls and Associated Substance Use, Unhealthy Weight Control, Sexual Risk Behavior, Pregnancy, and Suicidality.” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 286, 572, 576-577.

U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2001). Special Report: Intimate Partner Violence and Age of Victim, 1993-99

Varia, S. (2006). Dating and Violence among dating youths. Retrieved from

Young, M. L. (2004) Prevalence of Partner Violence in Same-Sex Romantic and Sexual Relationships in a National Sample of Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 35, Issue 2, Pages 124-131

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Data Transformation Method

Data Transformation Method

Data Transformation: Remote Sensing


TOC o “1-3” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462844” CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc323462844 h 2

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462845” LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc323462845 h 2

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462846” Introduction PAGEREF _Toc323462846 h 2

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462847” Mapping and Classification of Forest Species PAGEREF _Toc323462847 h 3

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462848” Continuum-Removed Absorption PAGEREF _Toc323462848 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462849” Data Transformation through Discrete Wavelet PAGEREF _Toc323462849 h 8

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462850” Data Transformation through First derivative PAGEREF _Toc323462850 h 10

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462851” Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc323462851 h 11

HYPERLINK l “_Toc323462852” Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc323462852 h 14

CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionRemote sensing methods have found their application in evaluating the absorption of foliar macro elements for various grasses and plants even though it has mostly been done under laboratory conditions, which are generally controlled in nature. The increased use of remote sensing in management of forest and natural resources is as a result of substantial advancements in spectral resolutions coupled with advancement in data processing techniques over recent years. These have enabled production or generation of meticulous maps for cataloging forest communities, specific plant species, groups and sub-groups of species, in addition to forest species can be generated to provide a better source of information for an array of administrative resolutions and environmental applications.

Nevertheless, remote sensing is a vital technique that helps in boosting the understanding of flora and fauna in terms of feeding patterns and other living patterns. It is therefore imperative that the quality of data collected be of high quality to improve the quality of judgment from the information gathered. Therefore, in order to improve on discrimination and classification of forest species, it is essential that the data acquired via remote sensing be as helpful and high quality as possible. Data transformation is one of the techniques that have been used to remove the noise contained in the hyperspectral reflectance data to obtain accurate measurements of biochemicals and macronutrients in the forest species. In light of this, this literature review focuses on three data transformation methods that help in noise removal in the hyperspectral data obtained through remote sensing of Eucalyptus. The methods focused on are Continuum removal, discrete wavelet and First derivative.

Mapping and Classification of Forest SpeciesMapping and classification of the spatial distribution of individual Eucalyptus species or any other forest species is a significant ecological subject that calls for sustained study to correspond with developments in remote sensing equipments. The use of high spatial resolution (80cm) or hyperspectral remote sensing imager data has been scrutinized and examined by various studies for mapping tree biophysical aspects in different places around the world. For instance, Goodwin et al (2010) conducted a study in which they used hyperspectral data from the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager 2 (CASI-2) for discrimination, classification and development of appropriate mapping for the Australian eucalypt forest. In the study, CASI-2 provided an operative dataset to enable effectual discrimination and allow for generation of maps for spectrally multifaceted species thereby allowing for successful sub-genus grouping. The use of high spatial resolution dataset enabled proper discrimination of individual tree crowns of the Eucalyptus their crown aspects like sunlit aspects and shaded aspects.

On the other hand, spectral data from ten narrow bands ranging from 400nm to 700 nm in the visible range and data from ranges from 700nm to 1300nm within the near-infrared wavelengths provided comprehensive data for thin foliage absorption and reflective aspects (for instance, the green reflectance climax at 550 nm). The findings of the study indicated that economically significant Syncarpia glomulifera (Turpentine) can be successfully discriminated within communities that have assorted species. While the study employed a multi-stage analysis, strong spectral resemblance were exhibited by the foremost two phases of analysis for specific eucalypt tree species that were once more replicated by low CASI-2 categorization accuracies. Spatial resolution relates to the size of the pixel and the acquisition of higher spatial resolutions not only bolsters the ability to detect targets besides allowing the assessment of spatial correlations between pixels within particular tree crowns (Franklin et al. 2000). In contrast, Spectral resolution indicates the bandwidth response for a specific band. Constricted spectral bands (<10nm) can intensify the number of bands documented for a given optical region and help in targeting particular absorption attributes such as chlorophyll absorption of the plant leaves.

Continuum-Removed AbsorptionVarious studies have established that continuum-removed absorption is a useful data transformation method that can be used to compare the predicted measurements of mineral distribution against the mapping band shapes of the remotely sensed data (e.g. Roberts et al 2011; Datt 2000; Muya and Oguge 2000). Kokaly and Clark (1999) conducted a study in which they applied the continuum-removed absorption method alongside a refined method of band depth analysis of biochemical absorption features in studying dried plant material of Eucalyptus species and found that when these two methods are used three problems are overcome. In a follow-up study by Kokaly (2001), the study found that this method can appropriately be used in vegetation science.

Since the remote sensing of macronutrients helps in determination of plant quality in terms of determination of plant growth and development or health status, studies have employed the continuum-removed absorption method to help in understanding the plant quality of Eucalyptus especially in the tropical rangelands (e.g. Datt 2000). In their study, Muya and Oguge (2000) found that the use of continuum-removal minimizes the problem of over-fitting when near-infrared spectroscopy laboratory methods are used to estimate macronutrients at the canopy level of the tropical rainforests.

First, the problem of inconsistency that has been noted when methods such as multiple linear regression analysis are used across different vegetation types. In addition, these regression methods suffer problems of over-fitting and when the number of wavebands used is more than the samples, there is a higher likelihood of getting higher spectral variability (Kokaly & Clark 1999). Since spectral variability is independent of biochemical concentration, spectral variability is another problem that is solved when continuum removal is used in data transformation given that by using continuum removal the known chemical absorption features of the Eucalyptus are standardized (Zhang et al 2006).

Another problem that necessitates noise removal in the spectral data is that when dealing with canopies in large forest species, water that may be present in the canopies masks absorption features thereby complicating the remote sensing of the biochemicals more so at the field level (Cheng et al 2011). This problem becomes worse when soil background features together with atmospheric absorption effects are considered. Thus, the use of continuum removal standardizes the data by overcoming these problems and removing undesirable noise from the spectral data. When Kokaly and Clark (1999) used the band depth analysis with continuum removal in their study, they established that there is a strong correlation between nitrogen concentration and absorption (r2 = 0.95). They used dried plant material of Eucalyptus sub-genera. In another laboratory experiment, Curran et al., (2001) applied the methodology used by Kokaly and Clark on 12 macronutrients and achieved higher accuracy. It is however notable that most studies have been conducted under laboratory conditions rather than field level. In addition, not many studies have aimed at exploring or estimating foliar nutrient status of certain nutrients such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium.

The following diagram shows a graph of reflectance plotted against wavelength.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1: Mean canopy spectrum and whole fresh leaf spectrum.

In the diagram, HYMAP 3-m spatial resolution data for 60 mature eucalypt trees was obtained. The researchers, Huang et al (2004) were interested in getting comparatively pure spectrum hence they located each of the individual eucalypt using the false color image of the HYMAP. They achieved this via field inspection. Since the sensor receives reflectance from both vertical mixture of the foreground and the background, separating tree pixels from the adjacent pixels is considerably easy given that tree pixels are different color to the background (Huang et al 2004). When the researchers applied the continuum removal data transform method, they obtained the following spectral profile.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2: Continuum Removed Spectral Profile of eucalypt

For the study, Huang et al (2004) used the continuum removal method calculated as the band depth normalized as a ratio of the band depth at the centre of the absorption aspect and they used the following formula:


R is the reflectance at the waveband under consideration Ri represents the reflectance of the continuum line at the waveband being considered, Rc represents the reflectance at the centre of the absorption feature and Ric represents the reflectance of the continuum line at the center of the absorption feature.

In another study, Mutanga and Skidmore (2003) carried out a study in which they aimed at developing further and extending the band depth analysis method to estimate the concentration of the above macronutrients. The researchers enhanced the accuracy and validity of their study by combining the short wave infrared absorption effects that had earlier been used by Kokaly and Clark with two other key absorption features situated in the visible region. The effect of water is minimal in this region. Mutanga and Skidmore (2003) further developed and tested a modified first derivative reflectance approach to enhance the objective of continuum removal in data transformation.

Data Transformation through Discrete WaveletWavelet transform has in recent times become a very popular data transformation method when it comes to analysis, noise removal and compression of signals and images. Various research studies have been carried out exploring the latent benefits of combining active and passive remotely sensed data for assessment of forest structures (e.g. Banskota et al 2011). Image fusion has been applied as a way maintaining the incongruent data features that might be relevant to mapping of the forest structures under consideration. In the study carried out by Jan et al (2011), Eucalyptus plantations in the midlands of South Africa were studied using the near-infrared and the visible bands of ASTER and a fine beam Radarsat-1 images. ASTER is the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer. The researchers obtained the data and modified it using the discrete wavelet transformation. In addition, the researchers obtained spatially documented data sets for the 38 plantations for the sake of comparisons between the measured data and the referenced data. In order to test whether fused data sets could produce better statistical models, the researchers applied ordinary least squares regression and multiple regression analyses to obtain empirical relationships. In their findings, it was established that single bands from both data sets did not provide sufficient adeptness for modeling basal area or even merchantable volume of timber. The adjusted R2 produced values that ranged below 0.3. when they used an optimized multiple regression, they got improved results in terms of mean and standard deviation when they compared the results to those generated from single bands (also in Zhang et al 2006). Nevertheless, these were still found to be unsuitable for application or mapping of forest species (Gong et al 2001). Williams and Amaratunga (1995) used Discrete Wavelet transform in their study and obtained the following results after data transformation.

Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3: Discrete Wavelet Transform using Low Pass (a) and High Pass (b) (Williams & Amaratunga 1995)

Studies have shown that since more vigorous statistical methods are requisite for investigating phenological time series due to their characteristic of being noisy and non-stationary, wavelet transform analytic methods have been found to handle such data easily (e.g. Zhang et al 2006). Hudson et al (2011) conducted a study in which they delved to characterize flowering of eucalypt and the climate influences this flowering. In the study, the researchers used wavelet transform to remove noise from the remote sensing data. They used maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform to analyze the flowering records of four Eucalyptus subgenera. The flowering records were for the period between 1940 and 1970 and identified four sub-constituents in each flowering sequence. The subcomponents were the non-flowering phase, the duration cycle, the annual cycle and intensity cycle. A diminishing overall tendency in flowering was recognized by the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform when the series were smoothed. Similar results were achieved by Cheng et al (2011), in which the researchers observed that wavelet correlation found the same simultaneous effects of climate on flowering for all the four Eucalyptus subgenera. When the researchers carried a wavelet cross-correlation analysis, they found that rainfall and temperature have a cyclical effect on the peak flowering intensity of Eucalyptus (P < 0.0001). For every species of Eucalyptus, there are 6 months of the yearly cycle in which any particular climate variable affects flowering intensity positively. In the same cycle, there are 6 months that any specific climate variable influences flowering peak negatively. The study established that for all the Eucalyptus species, rainfall wields a negative impact as long as the temperature is positive.

In another study, Curran et al (1995) used wavelet data transform method to investigate the relationship between reflectance of near infrared or visible beam and the chlorophyll content in Eucalyptus leaves. In the study, the reflectance properties of near infrared and the visible beam for the leaves of several Eucalyptus were analyzed to establish suitable indicators for remotely sensing the chlorophyll content in the leaves (Hudson et al 2011). The study employed the use of a scatter correction method to the reflectance spectra to decrease the additive and multiplicative scattering consequences of foliar surface and interior structure. The study further established that with an improved calibration of the chlorophyll content, reflectance near 710nm wavelength demonstrated greatest response to chlorophyll content. Moreover, reflectance near 550nm showed a less sensitivity to chlorophyll content in the Eucalyptus leaves. Generally, there are two levels of discrete wavelet transform that can be used to transform hyperspectral data (Hudson et al 2011). There is the single level technique and the multiple level decomposition technique.

Data Transformation through First derivativeVisible and near infrared areas of spectrum frequently exhibit spectral differences, which are often used to describe various vegetation classes. Reflectance spectrum and first derivative spectrum that stretch from 350 to 700 nm are used to enhance the shape disparities between the spectral signatures for every tree species used or included in a sample. By precisely encapsulating these spectral differences, it is possible to improve vegetation classification by allowing for investigation of band ratios and vegetation indices. In the study done by Datt (2000), the best performing reflectance index ratio was the (R850-R710)/ (R850-R680) and hence it was proposed as the new index for estimating chlorophyll content in higher plants such eucalypt.

While Huang et al (2004) conducted a study in which they employed continuum removal to transform the hyperspectral data for the eucalypt tree, they also used standard derivative method to transform the same data and compare the outcomes. However, the researchers used the standard derivative data transform method to estimate nitrogen concentration in the eucalypt trees. They used the standard derivative method to transform the log (1/R) spectra data where R is the reflectance at the waveband under consideration. In order to reach the best possible combination for the average spectra as well as the maximum spectra, the researchers tried various scatter correction methods. They however established that Modified Partial Least Squares method resulted to a higher coefficient of determination when maximum spectra were used as compared to when the mean spectra were used. The results of the study by Huang et al (2004) agree with the findings by Mutanga and Skidmore (2003) where the latter carried out a study to investigate the correlation between nitrogen absorption and the chlorophyll level in eucalypt. For the study by Huang et al (2004), when the standard derivative method was used for nitrogen absorption in eucalypt, the following diagram illustrates the results.


Developing maps for spatial distribution of particular species is a significant ecological aspect that calls for sustained research to match the advances achieved in remote sensing technologies. Due to the characteristic of the hyper-spectral data of being noisy and non-stationary, it is imperative to use any of the wavelet transform analytic methods, which have been found to handle such data easily. The literature review has revealed that the of wavelet transform methods or techniques helps in removing noise from the hyperspectral data hence improve quality of the data for the sake of comparison with referenced data for individual plant species. The review has also revealed that the studies that used maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform to analyze the flowering records of forest species were effective in reducing inconsistencies and achieving increased accuracies. Out of many studies reviewed, many of them established that the use of data transform techniques for noise removal was not only a good approach to improving discrimination and classification among individual plant species but also increased discrimination and classification accuracies. The studies reviewed further show that reflectance spectrum and first derivative spectrum that stretch from 350 to 700 nm are effectively used to enhance the shape disparities between the spectral signatures for every tree species used or included in a sample. This is achieved by precisely encapsulating the spectral differences thereby improving vegetation classification by allowing for investigation of band ratios and vegetation indices.

The findings of the literature review also indicate that due to the economic viability of most of the eucalypt sub-species such as Syncarpia glomulifera (Turpentine) discrimination within communities that have mixed species can be achieved successfully using data transformation methods highlighted such as continuum removal, standard derivative and wavelet transformation. Lastly, the review has also showed that the math treatment method adopted also affects the consistency of the results hence it is important to choose method astutely. Most studies successfully used modified least squares regression method with increased accuracy.

BibliographyAsner, G. P., Wessman, C. A., Bateson, C. A., and Privette, J. L., (2000): “Impact of tissue, canopy and landscape factors on the hyperspectral reflectance variability of arid zone ecosystems” Remote Sensing of Environment” 74, pp. 69- 84.

Banskota, A., Wynne, R.H., & Kayastha, N. (2011). “Improving within-genus tree species discrimination using the discrete wavelet transform applied to airborne hyperspectral data” International Journal of Remote Sensing, 32, 3551-3563

Cheng, T., Rivard, B. and Sánchez-Azofeifa A. (2011) “Spectroscopic determination of leaf water content using continuous wavelet analysis” Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (2): 659–670

Clark, R. N., and Roush, T. L., (1984): “Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications” Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, pp. 6329-6340.

Clevers, J. G. P. W., (1999): “The use of imaging spectrometry for agricultural applications. ISPRS” Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 54, pp. 299-304.

Clevers, J., and Buker, C., (1991) “Feasibility of the red edge index for the detection of nitrogen deficiency” Proceedings of the 5th International Colloquium – Remote sensing, 165 – 168.

Curran, P. J., (1989) “Remote sensing of foliar chemistry” Remote Sensing of Environment, 30, pp. 271-278

Curran, P. J., Dungan, J. L., and Peterson, L., (2001) “Estimating the foliar biochemical concentration of leaves with reflectance spectrometry: testing the Kokaly and Clark methodologies” Remote Sensing of Environment, 76, pp. 349-359.

Curran, P. J., Dungan, J. L., Macler, B. A., and Plummer, S. E., (1991) “The effect of a Red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration” Remote Sensing of Environment, 35, pp. 69-76.

Curran, P. J., Windham, W. R., and Gholz, H. L., (1995) “Exploring the relationship between reflectance red edge and chlorophyll concentration in slash pine leaves” Tree Physiology, 15, pp. 203-206.

Datt, B. (2000). “Recognition of eucalyptus forest species using hyperspectral reflectance data” In T.I. Stein (Ed.), Igarss 2000: Ieee 2000 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Vol I – Vi, Proceedings (pp. 1405-1407). New York: Ieee

Dawson, T. P., and Curran, P. J., (1998) “A new technique for interpolating the reflectance red edge position” International Journal of Remote sensing, 19, pp. 2133-2139

Elvidge, C. D., (1990) “Visible and near infrared reflectance characteristics of dry plant materials” International Journal of Remote Sensing, 11, pp. 1775-1795

Fillella, I., and Penuelas, J., (1994) “The red edge position and shape as indicators of plant chlorophyll content, biomass and hydric status” International Journal of Remote sensing, 15, pp. 1459 – 1470.

Foley, B., Mcllwee, A., Lawler, I., Agragones, L., Woolnough, A. P., and Berding, N., (1998) “Ecological applications of near infrared spectroscopy – a tool for rapid, cost effective prediction of the composition of plant and animal tissues and aspects of animal performance” Oecologia, 116, pp. 293 – 305.

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Dating And The Single Parent Book Review

Dating And The Single Parent Book Review

Dating And The Single Parent Book Review

Student’s Name


Dating and the Single Parent Book Review


Single parent dating is an exciting and at the same time a very complex topic that most single parents, at one point, face either with palpitation apprehension or devout joy (Phillips & Phillips 2006). Regardless of the circumstance surrounding single parents in their singlehood life, they tend not to spend their time lonely live. Whenever they plan to begin dating, the questions that dominates their minds is; are there rules and regulations that govern single dating? At what time do they bring the children into their lives?In an attempt to answer these questions, when individuals date other single parent like themselves, the most things that they are required to discover is the custody of their arrangement. This will enable both of them to schedule their dating time without interfering with their children, who are priority in their life. It is always advisable for partners to introduce their children to the other dating partners as friends during initial stages (Deal, 2012). One should always be focused on his children than dating, so that the children feel secured.

Summary of the Book

In the case where kids predate dating, the couple’s relationship will inherently produce competing adherence. Choosing to be with children or one’s partner automatically calls for omission of the other. In this case, the children will feel left out of the new move (Deal, 2012). In addition, children usually feel unsafe with their mother’s or father’s relationship. Wise singles will always recognize this crucial dynamic and tend not to take for granted that being couples not necessarily yield to a family. They will always serve both parties and take more time evaluating how the potential stepfather or stepmother relationships are evolving.Parents, who plan to date quickly after the end of a relationship (maybe as a result of death or separation) or those who make a quick decision to marry after a shorter dating period, more often than not find their children opposing their marriage plans. Smart single parents always take a good wider look of themselves in the mirror before initiating a date (Deal, 2012). They analyze their need for dating, awes (like their children being fatherless), solitariness, and dissonant heart (particularly after divorce)Long before dating, single parents usually initiate a series of conversation with their children especially those who usually conjecture a lot about their relationships. They think of many ‘what ifs?’ questions that surround their lives and the perception and reactions attached to their children concerning their intended date. They will always engage in the questions like, what if I get married, how would my children feel? Mature single parents will never allow their children to dictate their dating progress, but will always listen and give consideration to their children attachments. Engaging in these types of conversations with single parents throughout their dating period is welcomed as they anticipate the development in each stage of the relationship.Whenever individuals fall in love, they should never abandon their family by spending much free time with their new lovers. Even though it is very tempting, doing so instills fear in their children. This is because they lose the one they love, and this gives a wrong impression about their new dating partners. As a result, they should try never to lose balance amidst your new dating (Deal, 2012).If individuals love their relationship, they should always advise your partners to go home and have some time with their children. This act will yield so many benefits; it helps to lower the fears in children regarding your relationship, at the same time, keeps perspective in their relationships. One should always remember that the relationship is as more important to the other partner’s children as it is important theirs. To the kids, liking their parent dating partner sometimes produces a problem. They are sometimes not well equipped with skills of embracing other people and accepting their feelings without hurting them. Since most children are commonly caught in royalty of conflicts, they sometimes give a warm reception to the parent’s partner, but later may develop cold reception (Deal, 2012). One should not rush to judge the children harshly, but to relax and be comfortable with what they are giving.

Potentials for ‘Dating and the Single Parent’ Book for Christians Premarital Couples

This book is not a surface-feel-good book, after flipping through all the pages, it makes one to look at him realistically. Every page is found relevant and significant to all Christians especially the single parents who are opting for dating. The author is always up front in one’s face with real issues facing single parents who are already dating and are just about to cement their relationship. The author first of all asks his readers to seek God‘s blessings in everything they do include dating (Deal, 2012). He goes further and list discussion questions so as to prevent users from repeating the same mistakes they have made in life (Phillips & Phillips, 2006). These issues are listed at the end of each chapter some with biblical supports that hammer home information and make a reader look realistically as a Christian currently dating or planning to initiate a date.The author of the book encourages the readers always to seek for God’s wisdom needed to make the best dating decisions. The Christians single parents should always be ready to follow God’s guidance even when they seem difficult. The readers should keep in mind their perspective in relationship is limited and on the other hand God’s decision is perfect, therefore, it is always important to trust in God (Phillips & Phillips, 2006). Christians should be able to understand what motivates dating and kinds of goals they have in the dating relationship. If both dating partners can walk humbly in God guidance and share common values, and both dating partners sacrifice to love each other with full hearts, then the partners’ children will be truly blessed by God. Additionally, God’s goal for single parents dating is to form a healthy marriage and a happy family.Quick dating or marriage can sometimes harm your romantic life or family relationship. Christian should take an ample time to truly get to know the ability of their spouses and their family in details before making a final decision that will entirely change their entire life and the life others concern. It is usually good to wait for at least two years after the death or divorce of the spouse before one begin to date. This is coupled with another two years after dating before deciding on marriage. The book advises the readers to be focus on becoming spiritually and emotionally healthy as they look for the right person to date. This is what God wants a single parent to practice before he begins another relationship (Phillip & Phillips, 2006). In addition, one should heal fully from trauma of divorce or death of a spouse and always lay confidence in God alone for the future prosperity. Single parents should understand that the loss of the previous marriage has brought a permanent change in their lives and their kids. They should, therefore, remain stronger and believe in Jesus Christ.

Ideas that can be Highly Criticize in the Book are as Follows

Even though the author of the book hails more reasons as to why single parents should take more time and also gives the guidelines on single parent dating, there are some of his ideas that open weakness necessary enough for critics. Some of the ideas can be criticized as follows:It usually makes sense that some men with kids always schedule and have fixed time with them. Whether they are in full custody of the children, they will always devote little time to leisure that they would have enjoyed together with dating partner. These men will tend to avoid most outings since for them to go, they may require carrying babysitters or looking for some people to take care of their kids. Some dates may be forced to be postpone or canceled in case there are no babysitters or when there are no people to take care of the kids (Munroe & Levine, 2009). This can proof tedious and sometimes bring inconvenience in the relationships.In some cases, where the single mother is in a relationship with a man with kids, the woman should know that she is in a relationship with his children, his kids’ mother, his own mother and his relatives. She should remember that his family was there long before she came into his life. The man will always take his kids and families more seriously than the dating partner. Under normal circumstances, the woman will feel she is of less priority in that relationship (Munroe & Levine, 2009).

In conclusion, the author of the book has captured most touching issues affecting single parents who are dating. His book is found relevant to modern society full of divorce cases as it gives divorcee hope of beginning another word of love. Single dating rules that are outlined in this book are found relevant even to the modern Christians because the author had used biblical references in supporting his facts. The dating rules outlines here give the do and don’ts in dating. Even though there can be critics to the ideas conveyed by the author, the positive reactions that the book has received from readers supersedes the negative critics. The book is therefore found very relevant to dating and single parents.


Deal, R. (2012). Dating and the single parent: Are you ready to date?, talking with your kids, avoiding a big mistake, finding lasting love. Minneapolis, Minn.: Bethany House.

Munroe, E., & Levine, I. (2009). The everything guide to stepparenting: Practical, reassuring advice for creating healthy, long-lasting relationships. Avon, MA: Adams Media.

Phillips, R., & Phillips, S. (2006). Holding hands, holding hearts: Recovering a biblical view of Christian dating. Phillipsburg, N.J.: P & R Pub.

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Database Systems

Database Systems

Database Systems




System documentation refers to written materials describing the functionality of a computer system so as to ease the performance of business operations. Varied sorts of documentation may be used in SMEs. Administration documentation targets project managers and system administrators. It gives an overview of the system while defining the requirements and prerequisites for use. Installation documentation, on the other hand, would target installers and administrators. It defines the installation and configuration processes through varied scenarios. On the same note, there is procedure documentation which shows the day-to-day users how to carry out system tasks with step-by-step instructions (Yadav, 2006). Reference documentation, on the other hand is alphabetized by command name and component, offering a succinct definition of every component of the system, thereby allowing for quick access to information by experienced technical users. While documentation may be effective in varied aspects, the most effective feature would be functionality and security. These allow the applications or systems to be used for their appropriate functions, while ensuring that the information is not used by unintended or unauthorized individuals to cause havoc to functionality (Yadav, 2006). However, documentation comes with a number of problems including too high costs, time consumption, hard to read and understand, vagueness, and being built on the assumption that readers have certain levels of knowledge which they may not have.

Applications must be tested so as to determine their reliability, usability, as well as safety with regard to the functionality of the entire system. It is imperative that the specialist determine the functionality of varied features of the application. The following checklist would be used in testing applications.

Mandatory fields are shown using an asterisk symbol.

Correct positioning of validation error messages.

Display of all error messages using similar CSS style.

Display of general confirmation messages using CSS style.

Meaningfulness of tool tips.

Delete functionality asks for confirmation.

Dropdown filed have their first entry with a text such as “select” or simply blank.

Amount values are shown in the appropriate currency symbols.

Availability of the default page sorting.

Properly formatted numeric values

All fields have their default values set by the reset button functionality.

Input values are within the accepted limit.

Functionality and applicability of special characters.

Configuration capacity of the timeout functionality.

Page sorting functionality following delete, edit, or add operations.

Grammar and spelling functionality.

Redirection of application crash to the error page.

Proper validation message capabilities.

Functionality of buttons that are available in every page.

However, as much as there is a checklist for testing an application, it is noteworthy that testing never ends. Nevertheless, an application is deemed as having been sufficiently tested in instances where a maximum number of test cases have been executed and passed, budget depleted, deadlines reached and fundamental functionalities determined as functioning appropriately (Yadav, 2006). The optimistic or hopeful stopping rule is followed in instances where reliability of an application meets the requirements, or in cases where the benefits emanating from further testing would not justify the testing cost.

As much as meeting deadlines in making applications is imperative, it is imperative that time is reserved for testing the application. Software testing involves a trade-off between quality, time and budget (Yadav, 2006). Upper manager would be persuaded to set aside time and money for testing applications in spite of the deadlines through outlining its importance and dangers of not carrying out tests. The tests are usually carried out so as to assess the capabilities and attributes of a system and program, thereby determining whether it meets the required parameters and results (Yadav, 2006).


Yadav, D. S. (2006). Foundations of information technology. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited.

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Dating and God a comparison

Dating and God a comparison

Dating and God a comparison

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Religion contributes to most of the aspects of human life and people associate religion with spiritual and social growth. God governs the society mode of behavior ensuring the society refrains from some actions and encouraging certain behavior in the society. Christianity is a combination of culture and social beliefs of the community and the global views on the given region and the community tends to follow what God wants according to the bible. God is the creator thus governs the behavior of his creation. Their different religions in the globe due to different cultural beliefs, Christianity and Muslims are a common in the globe having a wide range of believers globally. Gods intended dating to be mans way of selecting a partner and mating a way of reproduction. The secular world uses dating to socialize and understand potential mates. Mating is also used as a display of affection in the secular world apart from reproduction.

Dating and matting is an important aspect of human life. This are the fundamental processes in nature present in all animals that ensure continuity in animal life. According to the bible, God created man in his own image and after some time he noticed he was lonely and needed a companion. This lead to the creation of woman, the woman was created as a companion to man. The religious and secular nature of the religion in the society has different effects on dating and mating (Horton, 2009).

The secular world is a liberal world allowing the people in the community to diversify in their thoughts and act according to personal opinion. The secular world does not restrict the individual to some beliefs but encourages the person to experiment and learn from nature. With respect to dating, the secular world does not govern the individual or guide the person to a specific path of life but allows the person to choose what is best for him. The bible acknowledges the need for courtship and mating in the society but the restriction way. The presence of a commandment against adultery, is Gods way of preventing experiments I relationships.

The secular world experiences diversity in the society as no restriction to the belief of people. With little restrictions to dating, the secular world experiences a range of practices allowed by the community. Such communities practice same sex marriages and marriage to object with objections as the personal values are respected. The issue of mating thus becomes complicated among such couples and a danger to the community. Sex before marriage is prohibited by God according to the bible. The main purpose for dating and mating in the religious world is to ensure that the person have found a suitable partner with whom they would spend their life’s with. The traits of the partners should be compatible and with love growing in them mating is the second step where the Lord guides the couple towards population of the world (Goshen-Gottstein, 2001).

Most people go about their mate selection through evaluation of the physique. This is usually what leads to attraction leads to communication between the couple and understanding is built. The better suited the couple the better the relationship and with a prolonged relationship mating will occur. God created two genders; the Christian culture encourages understanding between the couple. The couple should understand each other for some time before courtship. The Lord encourages selection of a mate with the same religious beliefs to ensure religious growth. The bible acknowledges marriage where a man and woman unite, the bible states that God created man and woman thus for every man there is a woman, the Lord has made a match for every man in the world.


Goshen-Gottstein, A. (2001). God The Father In Rabbinic Judaism And Christianity: Transformed Background Or Common Ground?. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 38(4), 470.

Horton, D. J. (2009). Discerning Spiritual Discernment: Assessing Current Approaches For Understanding God’s Will. Journal of Youth Ministry, 7(2), 7-31.

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