Database Security for 21st century business

Database Security for 21st century business

Database Security for 21st century business


Most companies have servers for different purposes; however, the most critical servers any company has is the database servers. Data such as client details, financials, and human capital are the data that support any business in operations. For this reason, there is an increasing concern about the general protection of databases. Any breach of security would lead to either loss of data, exposure of sensitive data, unauthorized access to sensitive information or access to classified files. As companies develop, so is the need to secure the data stored within the databases. The benefits of controlled, protected access to the classified files as well as the preservation of the general integrity, standards and consistency of these data is much more expensive (Shamimabi, & Nicholas, 2008).

The concept of database security is much more focused on the, physical security, network security, encryption and authentication. The main constructs that the concept of database security thrives on includes confidentiality or protection from informal disclosure, integrity or prevention from illegal data access, and availability of equipment for identifying and recovering errors that might cause a denial of access to information. In the process of ensuring that the data stored are secure, most companies try to restrict access using software, reduce vulnerability, eliminate interference as well as upgrade their database auditing mechanisms.

Database security problems

Physical Commuters are becoming physically accessible to unauthorized users

Personnel Organizations are becoming more involved in system administration and database security

Procedural Most organizations have same people manage various operation of the database. This exposes the organization and its data to various risks, which necessitates the need for background checks.

Technical Storage, manipulation, and transmission of the data stored in the database. This needs safeguarding by technology that can enforce particular information control policies.

Database securities current and future trends

Database has undergone a number of metamorphoses; the main metamorphosis is the security lay out. Amongst these is the activity monitoring and blocking, classification, Encryption, consolidation, and configuration. However, organization can achieve these using various software. In this light, most companies dealing within database security have tried to developed software and application, but the most effective one is the product of oracle. it has solution for activity monitoring and blocking protection of databases irrespective of the platform is important, however, it should also be cost effective. Most companies use firewalls for windows based databases forgetting the vulnerability of their databases if open source software are used to hack into these databases (Shamimabi, & Nicholas, 2008).

The activities of the database on any network need monitoring to prevent any form of unauthorized access. Oracles have achieved this by preventing SQL injection and role escalations. Any database security system must prevent these in real time. The SQL grammar technology is an effective platform for reducing millions of SQL statement to few SQL characteristics. It has a high level of accuracy, performance and flexibility (Sandhu, 2008).

The system should be able to enforce white; lists and blacklists (positive and negative security model to provide protection without costly false positives. It should be able to allow for addressing SOX, PCI, HIPAA/HITECH, any other regulatory requirement. This should be easy to achieve without necessarily changing the existing databases.

Privileged User and Multi-Factor Access Control:

The cost of protecting corporate data should not be hefty therefore; organization should seek ways of protecting their data cheaply. The most trusted is the Oracle Database Vault; oracle database vault is an effective way by which organization can address regulatory directives. Organization also needs to secure their existing application, as is a mandatory requirement by some regulation of which Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) is the key. They call for separation of the duties from the any other activities related to data management with the aim of securing data and make certain that the veracity of data is managed. Organization face increased challenge of proactively safeguarding of their application data kept in their databases. In this way, organization will use data for the intended purpose and not adversely. Only Privileged database clients should only access data. This requires the need for multifactor policy within the organization that can control the level of access by use of any built in factor. This may include instance, IP address, application record, application bypasses as well as the authentification methods.

Data Classification:

Shamimabi, & Nicholas, (2005), argue that industry leading application software is important. The bottom line of any database security is to classify data effectively in order to mediate access to organization data stored within the databases irrespective of the classification. A good database security system should be seamless to meet all the level of security. Organizations specifically design these systems to meet the requirement of the multilevel security requirements. Organization need systems that can classify data to allow access based on need to know. In this way, organization can protect the privacy of their data and realize the regulatory compliances.  Label security should be integrated with identity management to enable centralized definition of the organization policy. The database systems should be able to support parent Data Encryption and offer hold up for PKI, Kerberos, and any other RADIUS-based well-built validation systems.

Sandhu, (2008), argues that database security should be cost effective and comply with various privacy and regulatory requirement such as the Sarbanes-Oxley, or the Payment Card Industry (PCI) and even the latest Data Security Standard (DSS). However, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), is a new regulatory mandate, which might require constant upgrading necessitating the need for flexibility and compatibility of systems. Customers should be able to transparently encrypt any of their application data and other sensitive columns like their credit card numbers social security and PIN numbers while in the database as well as in back up devices or even over then networks. The systems need to be cost effective.

Consolidated Auditing And Reporting:

There are many insider threats that most organizations phase. However, databases security systems need to automatically collect and consolidate the audits that the organization carries out in search of quality and total security. Organization are in need of systems that offer them secure and scalable audit warehouses that also enable simplified recording and automating the collection and final consolidation of audit data. Organization need to control database audit centrally and managed from within the database security system to reduce the cost related to IT security.

Secure Configuration Management,

According to Baker, et al, (2009), organization should be ready to increase the level of the database security and compliance with the IT control frameworks. This includes frameworks like Control Objectives for Information and related Technology: (COBIT), global directives require internal control, database security configuration management global directives. It should enhance discovery, and vulnerability scanning while ensuring compliance benchmarking, including any other functionality such as central management of database configuration. Organizations require this to detect and prevent configuration drift in the databases. Organizations should also have systems that can alert them in case of critical patches issued by various security framework developers. This, might help in invoking a patch wizard that automatically deploys patches and ensure that application databases within organizations are always updated and secure from unauthorized access (Bertino, Byun, & Kamra, 2007)..

Data Masking

There is increasing need for marking of sensitive information by replacing them realistic values. In this way, organization can use production data for the purpose of analysis, development, and even sharing with the out-sourced partners. Organization can also share these data with offshore partners as well. This might apply the use of templates readily available in libraries and the format rules. This consistently transforms data with the view of maintaining referential integrity for all application used within the organization.


While protecting the database from intrusion is important, it is also important to underscore the need for management restrain and controlled access. This will go a long way in ensuring that the company has the best protection from espionage, hacking, data leaks and data theft. The main database protraction platforms include oracle.


Baker, H., Hutton, A., Hylender, D., Novak, C., Porter, C., Sartin, B., Tippett, P., & Valentine, (2009). The 2009 data breach investigations report. Verizon Business. Retrieved January 31, 2010,

Bertino, E., Byun, J., & Kamra, A. (2007). Database security. security, privacy, and trust in modern data management (Data-centric systems and applications) (pp. 87-102).New York: Springer-Verlag.

Sandhu R., (2009). Database security concepts, approaches, and challenges: IEEE Dependable secure computing

Shamimabi P., & Nicholas R., (2008).Protocol engineering for web service conversations: journal of Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Special Issue on Agent-oriented Software Development

Posted in Uncategorized

Dating Violence among Adolescents

Dating Violence among Adolescents

Dating Violence among Adolescents




Unlike violence in adult intimate partners, violence among adolescent partners who are dating is phenomenon that is understudied. Although most teenagers do not experience violence when dating, for one out of every ten teenagers have abuse as an integral part of their dating partnerships. Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2007 reported that 10% of teenagers countrywide reported having experience abuse or physical violence from their dating partners in the previous year (Mulford, & Giordano, 2008). This is just an indicator of how violence is taking root in our teenagers. Violence in dating adolescent may take various forms the way it occurs in relationships among adults. According to Varia (2006) these forms include emotional violence, such as jealousy behaviors and controlling behaviors; physical violence characterized by punching, slapping, hitting etc; and sexual violence characterized by rape on nonconsensual sexual activity. Violence in dating teenagers has various effects on the teenagers. These effects are usually physically, emotionally and psychologically detrimental. Heterosexual females take much of the violence compared to male. On the other hand little studies or insignificant number of studies have been conducted on gay, bisexual, lesbian and transgender youths, however, research conducted on same gender relationships among adults show identical patterns as those done on the youths of heterosexual nature. As Varia (2006) notes the health implications of the violence is also costly to those on the receiving end. They include contraction of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infection, pregnancy, mental illness, drug abuse, and suicidal thoughts. Programs that prevent violence among dating youths can be very instrumental in helping reduce the violence and the effects associate with it. It must be understood that the violence may be a sign of other deep rooted problems that may interest counselors. The counselors may also be interested in the prevalence and the effect of the violence.


This research paper looks at literature on the trends and prevalence of violence among dating youths. It also looks at literature on the causes of this violence, its effects on the teenagers and the programs that aim at reducing the violence. It also explores the outcome of the programs.

Developmental theory

Violence among adolescents in may be a product of the teenage stage of development and may also have effects on their development at this stage. According to the developmental theory postulated by Piaget and other, teenagers fall in two development stages, early teenagers are in the concrete operational stage characterized by increase in body volume and mass, increased intelligence and ability to systematically and logically manipulate symbols in relation to actual objects. They also exhibit operational thinking and reduced egocentrism. Those in mid and late teenage fall in the formal operational stage, which is characterized by exhibition of intelligence through use of symbols connected to abstract concepts. The teenager may also exhibit geocentricism.

Literature Review

This section is a review on of literature on dating violence among youths. The section will explore trends and prevalence of violence among dating youths. It also looks at literature on the causes of this violence, its effects on the teenagers and the programs that aim at reducing the violence. It also explores the outcome of the programs.

Trends and Prevalence of violence among dating youths

Youth dating violence cuts across gender, race, and socioeconomic boundaries. Both girls and boys are victims; however girls and boys abuse each other in different ways. In most instance girls are like to yell, slap, pinch, kick scratch or threaten to cause harm on themselves. On the other hand, boy cause injury on girls more frequently and severely. Some teenagers experience violence occasionally, while others may experience more often, even daily. The prevalence of intimate partner violence is high in teenagers than in adults. A comparing of the rate of intimate partner relationship violence by Silverman et Al (2001) reveled that teenagers are at a higher risk of abuse by intimate partner than adults. According to the U.S Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice statistics (2001) girls of ages between 16-24 years are more susceptible to violence from intimate partners that any other age group. Prevalence of violence to girls in this age group is triple the national average. Silverman et Al (2001) also observes that in every five girls, at least one girl has been abused by an intimate partner . These ladies have either been abused sexually or physically by their partners. The U.S. Department of Justice (2001) also noted that 94% of those victimized by their present or former boyfriend were women of the ages between 19-16. In the last decade of the 20th century most homicide against girls of the ages between 16-19 were conducted by their intimate partners. Gay, bisexual, and lesbian youths also experience violence similar to their opposite sex counterparts (Young, 2004). Also more than a half of sex offenders commit their first offense before they attaint the age of 18 years. 58% of rape victims are normally of the age between 12 and 24 years while half of date rapes occur among teenagers. Intimate partner violence in the youths is closely linked with risk of abuse of drugs, poor weight control manners, risky sexual behaviors, suicide and pregnancy.

Causes of intimate partner abuse in youths

There are various factors that contribute to intimate partner violence among young people. An examination of 1,600 juvenile sexual offenders in the state of California indicated that about 33% of the offenders perceived sex the best way to demonstrate love and care to their partners; 23.5% felt that sex is the best way of feeling powerful and exercising power and control over their partners; 9.4% use sex as the method for dissipating anger; while 8.4% used sex as a means of punishment (California Coalition Against Sexual Assault, 2002). Some victims and abusers blame the violence on the victims dating behavior such as provocation by the girls, communication problems, provocation the personality type of the victim, influence by the peers, and the girl’s desire for affection. A large percentage of teenager in high school (67% of males and 77% of females) endorse some level of sexual compulsion from intimate partners such as unwanted hugging, kissing, sexual intercourse or genital contact. Violence by male on their female partners is most fueled by peer influence especially in educational institutions. In this regard, intimate partner violence can be perceived as a product of negative societal and psychological ideologies, influence of drugs, provocation and peer influence.

Effects of intimate partner violence on youths

Intimate partner violence has numerous effects on the partners, especially the victims. Females in relationships that are abusive have a higher risk of get infect by sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS (Mulford & Giordano, 2008). They are also at risk of getting unwanted pregnancies since the power dynamics in such partnerships deny them the ability to negotiate for the use of condoms or other contraceptives. They are intimidated by the violence and are often forced to engage in unsafe sex. The depression resulting from intimate partner violence lead to a feeling of hopelessness and sadness, and victims have an increased inclination to take part in risk sexual activities due to reduced concern about self.


Most victims of intimate partner violence among the youth do not report the incidences or seek assistance. The longer the victim has been dating with the abuser the lesser he/she is likely to report an abuse. Victims are more likely to report abuse if it occurs within the first five dates. Many teenagers continue hanging in abusive relationships due to various reasons. These reasons include self-blame, love for their partners, fear of their partners, loyalty, religious and social stigma, embarrassment, denial, privacy and lack of understanding (Varia, 2006). In a survey among high school students, 86% of students stated that they would confide cases of abuse on their close friends while only a small percentage 7% stated that they would look for assistance from the police if confronted by violence from their partners (Silverman, 2001). A large number of youths prefer seeking help from their peers rather than get help from a counselor, teacher, a caring adult or parent. Also a large number of teenagers prefer keep the incidences to themselves. Silence and seeking ineffective avenues of help present a great dilemma to counselor and adults interested in reducing and preventing intimate partner violence among teenagers.

Prevention programs

Despite numerous cases of intimate partner violence among the youths going unreported, there are numerous efforts geared towards eliminating this kind of violence. However, such programs are few as compared to those catering for intimate partner violence among the adults. Knowledge of the efficiency of the programs targeting the youths also limited since only a few programs have undergone evaluation (Hickman, 2004). Most of the prevention programs are school-base and aim at influencing attitudes and enhancing the knowledge held by the student about intimate partner violence and its consequences. The programs hope to influence behavior through knowledge and attitude change. Limited evaluations make it almost impossible to determine the effect of the prevention programs. However, the few evaluations indicate an improvement in post program knowledge, but there varying effects on the participants’ attitudes. According to Hickman (2004) long term programs show more positive results on the participants’ attitudes than short term programs. Also, girls report more positive change in attitude than boys. Program that targeted the participant self esteem, proper communication, assistance seeking and other personal strengths also proved to be effective at shaping attitudes. Other approaches such as reducing victim acceptance of violence and male use of violence and conflict resolution approaches have not receive mush evaluation and most information about their outcome is mere speculation. Programs delivered through the community settings proved to be effective than those delivered through school settings. It is, however, difficult to determine whether both the changes realized through the programs targeting boys, girls or mixed groups, delivered in school setting or community social setting were permanent and would persist through adulthood or not.

Relevance to Adolescent Development

The information present is various pieces of literate have varied relevance to teenage development. Teenagers are at a transition stage from childhood to adulthood and any negative attitudes picked or exhibited during this stage can as well be brought along into adulthood. Such adults may tolerate abusive relationships or be abusive in their feature relationships. As stated earlier, a large percentage of people who committed sexual offenses, abused their spouses or conducted any other violent deeds had done so once or consistently during their teenage. On the other hand, the victims of such violence and abuse can carry along the desperation, helplessness and sadness that they experienced during their teenage to their adulthood consequently affecting their future relationships. This is a clear indication that what happen to the youths during this transition stage of growth is very influential to their future behaviors. In this regard, tolerating violence or accepting it should be discourage. Also perpetrators of violence should be discouraged either through counseling or through punishment. Prevention programs should be encouraged to shape the thoughts and knowledge of the teenager. The youth should be enabled to seek help from appropriate avenues whenever they experience violence from their intimate partners. Youth should be made aware of the consequence of keeping quiet when their friends are abused or abuse their partners. As brothers keepers youths should look out for each other to avoid consequences such as sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, despair, unwanted pregnancies and even homicides.

Implications for Counselors

Counselors on the other hand must understand that they are dealing with a great problem with perpetrators, victims, and onlookers who like the perpetrators and the victims never disclose what takes place. This can pass for youth syndicate! Counselors must take into account of the statistic of the abuse activates in order to access as many victims and perpetrators as possible. It is not only victims that need counseling; perpetrators too need counseling to help them to desist from repeating their violence activities. For the victims it is important that the counselors deal with the effect of the violence while for the perpetrators the counselors must deal with the cause of the violent behaviors. As noted above, girls are the form the largest category of youths who suffer violence at the hand of their intimate partners. In most cases most of the girls accept the violence as a natural male behavior. Counselors should deal with this acceptance and other factors such as fear, royalty, and self-blame that affects the ability of the victims to stand against the violence. Counselors should seek to bolster the confidence, perception of self worth by the victims (Pipher, 2005). This way the counselors can empower the victim to stand against the violence.

In addressing the perpetrators the counselors have an even more difficult task of addressing deep rooted believes or attitudes that encourage violence. Perception of sex as the best way of expressing love to ones partner is the greatest violence encouraging attitude that counselors have to deal with. They also have to address other notions about sex such as expression of power and dominance, handling hunger, and punishment. The counselor must address communication issues among the youths whenever they get an opportunity to talk to them (Edgette, 2006). With proper communication skill and confidence, the would-be victims will be able to talk their way out of violence or seek help when it occurs and perpetrators will be able to communicate and express themselves instead of using violence to get their way. Perpetrators should also be made to appreciate the desires of their partner and not force their will on them. Counselors should also address the youths who keep quiet when they have information about their friend who are being violated and friends violating their partners. This group of youth is very instrumental in shaping the future of victims and that of perpetrators. They should have the courage to report violent incidents when they occur.


In sum, incidents of intimate partner violence in youths are becoming numerous. The incidents are a product of many factors both from the victims and the perpetrators. Perpetrator are violent their partners dues to attitudes that are based fallacies. On the other hand these ideologies, alongside fear, self-blame alongside a myriad of psychological reasons and fallacies encourage victims to tolerate the violence and even encourage it. The violence has numerous negative implications on the development on the adolescents such as psychological problem, physical injury and infection by STIs and HIV/AIDS. The available literature on findings on intimate partner violence among the youths and the available preventive program present and informational resource that is valuable to counselors. The preventive strategies have positive outcome. However, I believe that with knowledge about these strategies, counselor can combine several approaches and crate on powerful strategy to address victims, perpetrators, and witnesses.


California Coalition Against Sexual Assault (CALCASA) (2002). 2002 Report: Research on Rape and Violence. Retrieved from

Edgette, J. S. (2006). Adolescent therapy that really works: Helping kids who never asked for help in the first place. New York: W.W. Norton

Hickman, L. J. (2004). Dating Violence Among Adolescents: Prevalence, Gender Distribution, And Prevention Program Effectiveness. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, Vol. 5, No. 2, 123-142

Mulford, C. & Giordano, P. C. (2008). Teen Dating Violence: A Closer Look at Adolescent Romantic Relationships. National Institute Journal of Justice No.261. Retrieved from

Pipher, M (2005). Reviving Ophelia: Saving the selves of adolescent girls. Ingram Book Company

Silverman, J. G. et Al, (2001). Dating Violence Against Adolescent Girls and Associated Substance Use, Unhealthy Weight Control, Sexual Risk Behavior, Pregnancy, and Suicidality.” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 286, 572, 576-577.

U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2001). Special Report: Intimate Partner Violence and Age of Victim, 1993-99

Varia, S. (2006). Dating and Violence among dating youths. Retrieved from

Young, M. L. (2004) Prevalence of Partner Violence in Same-Sex Romantic and Sexual Relationships in a National Sample of Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 35, Issue 2, Pages 124-131

Posted in Uncategorized

Dating and God a comparison

Dating and God a comparison

Dating and God a comparison

Student’s name

Unit code

Lecturer’s name

Date submitted

Religion contributes to most of the aspects of human life and people associate religion with spiritual and social growth. God governs the society mode of behavior ensuring the society refrains from some actions and encouraging certain behavior in the society. Christianity is a combination of culture and social beliefs of the community and the global views on the given region and the community tends to follow what God wants according to the bible. God is the creator thus governs the behavior of his creation. Their different religions in the globe due to different cultural beliefs, Christianity and Muslims are a common in the globe having a wide range of believers globally. Gods intended dating to be mans way of selecting a partner and mating a way of reproduction. The secular world uses dating to socialize and understand potential mates. Mating is also used as a display of affection in the secular world apart from reproduction.

Dating and matting is an important aspect of human life. This are the fundamental processes in nature present in all animals that ensure continuity in animal life. According to the bible, God created man in his own image and after some time he noticed he was lonely and needed a companion. This lead to the creation of woman, the woman was created as a companion to man. The religious and secular nature of the religion in the society has different effects on dating and mating (Horton, 2009).

The secular world is a liberal world allowing the people in the community to diversify in their thoughts and act according to personal opinion. The secular world does not restrict the individual to some beliefs but encourages the person to experiment and learn from nature. With respect to dating, the secular world does not govern the individual or guide the person to a specific path of life but allows the person to choose what is best for him. The bible acknowledges the need for courtship and mating in the society but the restriction way. The presence of a commandment against adultery, is Gods way of preventing experiments I relationships.

The secular world experiences diversity in the society as no restriction to the belief of people. With little restrictions to dating, the secular world experiences a range of practices allowed by the community. Such communities practice same sex marriages and marriage to object with objections as the personal values are respected. The issue of mating thus becomes complicated among such couples and a danger to the community. Sex before marriage is prohibited by God according to the bible. The main purpose for dating and mating in the religious world is to ensure that the person have found a suitable partner with whom they would spend their life’s with. The traits of the partners should be compatible and with love growing in them mating is the second step where the Lord guides the couple towards population of the world (Goshen-Gottstein, 2001).

Most people go about their mate selection through evaluation of the physique. This is usually what leads to attraction leads to communication between the couple and understanding is built. The better suited the couple the better the relationship and with a prolonged relationship mating will occur. God created two genders; the Christian culture encourages understanding between the couple. The couple should understand each other for some time before courtship. The Lord encourages selection of a mate with the same religious beliefs to ensure religious growth. The bible acknowledges marriage where a man and woman unite, the bible states that God created man and woman thus for every man there is a woman, the Lord has made a match for every man in the world.


Goshen-Gottstein, A. (2001). God The Father In Rabbinic Judaism And Christianity: Transformed Background Or Common Ground?. Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 38(4), 470.

Horton, D. J. (2009). Discerning Spiritual Discernment: Assessing Current Approaches For Understanding God’s Will. Journal of Youth Ministry, 7(2), 7-31.

Posted in Uncategorized



Central and South America

Posted in Uncategorized

New Hope Of Mangum

New Hope Of Mangum

New Hope Of Mangum is a website belonging to the New Hope of Mangum, a chemical dependency reform centre. The New Hope of Magnum is a website that highlights the services offered at the center, which has the mandate of dealing with cases of drug and substance dependency. It has links to other information but on the home page the information availed is that of the mission statement and the vision. Links of the website include that of philosophy & services that the facility offers to the individuals admitted there. Treatment, admission, satellite clinics, resources, and contacts are some of the information available at the website (New Hope of Mangum, 2012). While navigating through the website, there are pictures of the facility that allow interested parties to have experience or evaluate the facilities of the center. This paper concentrates on the website majoring on the merits, limitations and the relevance of the website.

The website boosts major strengths. One of the advantages of the website is that it is quite resourceful. Once an individual accesses the website, there are able to access contact information, a brief history of the centre, its location, and other information. The link on treatment gives interested parties on various modes of treatments available at the facility. It is in accordance to this that this website is superior to some of the competitors. Not only does an individual acquire information on treatment from the webpage but also admission details by following the admissions link. On the issue of information, the site offers the much-needed resource to an individual that is seeking to have services at the centre or has relatives that require the services. Accordingly, the strength of the website is that it is resourceful and provides vital information.

Although the webpage has its strengths, it also has some limitations. The webpage eloquent demerit is lack of events or a calendar. It is essential that visitors to the website have a event/calendar that informs the interested parties of the ongoing of New Hope of Magnum. Lack of such crucial information is a setback to the organization. On the other hand, the company lacks faces. That is, there is no message from the authorities of the facility nor are there faces of stakeholders of the organization. It is important that the website have individuals that are currently receiving treatment at the facilities and the psychiatrists that are treating them. It is hence necessary to upgrade the website to include individuals benefiting from the facility.

New Hope of Mangum is a drug and substance dependency facility located in Mangum, Oklahoma in the United States of America. The mission statement of the organization according to its website is that of offering chemical dependency treatment services at affordable prices in an environment that is habitable and luxurious (New Hope of Mangum, 2012). It has a website that has the mandate of not only providing information to the world but also marketing the organization. On one hand, the website is resource in that it offers the much-needed information to the world thereby informing the globe and marketing the company on that platform too. On the other hand, the organization does not have an events calendar on their website meaning that stakeholders are not able to follow the proceedings of the company. It also lacks personalities that will adorn the facility a face. Accordingly, while the company boosts strengths it also has its limitations.


New Hope of Mangum has its headquarters in Mangum, Oklahoma in the United States of America but has satellite clinics in other states.

Calendar or events tab has the application of indicating to interested parties what is going on at the center.

Webpage is a page in a given website.

Competitive advantage is a superior characteristic that a given company will have over other companies.


New Hope of Mangum (2012). New Hope of Mangum website. Retrieved from

Posted in Uncategorized

New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana

New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana

New Orleans is a city in southern Louisiana, located on the Mississippi River. Most of the city is situated on the east bank, between the river and Lake Pontchartrain to the north. Because it was built on a great turn of the river, it is known as the Crescent City. New Orleans, with a population of 496,938 (1990 census), is the largest city in Louisiana and one of the principal cities of the South. It was established on the high ground nearest the mouth of the Mississippi, which is 177 km (110 mi) downstream. Elevations range from 3.65 m (12 ft) above sea level to 2 m (6.5 ft) below; as a result, an ingenious system of water pumps, drainage canals, and levees has been built to protect the city from flooding.

New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, sieur de Bienville, and named for the regent of France, Philippe II, duc d’Orleans. It remained a French colony until 1763, when it was transferred to the Spanish. In 1800, Spain ceded it back to France; in 1803, New Orleans, along with the entire Louisiana Purchase, was sold by Napoleon I to the United States. It was the site of the Battle of New Orleans (1815) in the War of 1812. During the Civil War the city was besieged by Union ships under Adm. David Farragut; it fell on Apr. 25, 1862.

And that’s what it say’s in the books, a bit more, but nothing else of interest. This is too bad, New Orleans , as a city, has a wide and diverse history that reads as if it were a utopian society built to survive the troubles of the future. New Orleans is a place where Africans, Indians and European settlers shared their cultures and intermingled. Encouraged by the French government, this strategy for producing a durable culture in a difficult place marked New Orleans as different and special from its inception and continues to distinguish the city today.

Like the early American settlements along Massachusetts Bay and Chesapeake Bay, New Orleans served as a distinctive cultural gateway to North America, where peoples from Europe and Africa initially intertwined their lives and customs with those of the native inhabitants of the New World. The resulting way of life differed dramatically from the culture than was spawned in the English colonies of North America. New Orleans Creole population (those with ancestry rooted in the city’s colonial era) ensured not only that English was not the prevailing language but also that Protestantism was scorned, public education unheralded, and democratic government untried. Isolation helped to nourish the differences.

From its founding in 1718 until the early nineteenth century, New Orleans remained far removed from the patterns of living in early Massachusetts or Virginia. Established a century after those seminal Anglo-Saxon places, it remained for the next hundred years an outpost for the French and Spanish until Napoleon sold it to the United States with the rest of the Louisiana purchase in 1803.

Even though steamboats and sailing ships connected French Louisiana to the rest of the country, New Orleans guarded its own way of life. True, it became Dixie’s chief cotton and slave market, but it always remained a strange place in the American South. American newcomers from the South as well as the North recoiled when they encountered the prevailing French language of the city, its dominant Catholicism, its bawdy sensual delights, or its proud free black and slave inhabitants; In short, its deeply rooted Creole population and their peculiar traditions. Rapid influxes of non-southern population compounded the peculiarity of its Creole past. Until the mid-nineteenth century, a greater number of migrants arrived in the boomtown from northern states such as New York and Pennsylvania than from the Old South. And to complicate its social makeup further, more foreign immigrants than Americans came to take up residence in the city almost to the beginning of the twentieth century.

The largest waves of immigrants came from Ireland and Germany. In certain neighborhoods, their descendants’ dialects would make visitors feel like they were back in Brooklyn or Chicago. From 1820 to 1870, the Irish and Germans made New Orleans one of the main immigration ports in the nation, second only to New York, but ahead of Boston, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. New Orleans also was the first city in America to host a significant settlement of Italians, Greeks, Croatians, and Filipinos.


African Americans compile about half of the city of New Orleans population to date. How did this come about? Well, during the eighteenth century, Africans came to the city directly from West Africa. The majority passed neither through the West Indies nor South America, so they developed complicated relations with both the Indian and Europeans. Their descendants born in the colony were also called Creoles. The Spanish rulers (1765-1802) reached out to the black population for support against the French settlers; in doing so, they allowed many to buy their own freedom. These free black settlers along with Creole slaves formed the earliest black urban settlement in North America. Black

American immigrants found them to be quite exotic, for the black Creoles were Catholic, French or Creole speakers, and accustomed to an entirely different lifestyle. The native Creole population and the American newcomers resolved some of their conflicts by living in different areas of the city. Eventually, the Americans concentrated their numbers in new uptown neighborhoods. For a certain period (1836-1852), they even ran separate municipal governments to avoid severe political, economic, and cultural clashes. Evidence of this early cleavage still survives in the city’s oldest quarters.

During the infamous Atlantic slave trade, thousands of Muslims from the Senegambia and Sudan were kidnapped or captured in local wars and sold into slavery. In America, these same Muslims converted other Africans and Amerindians to Islam. As the great Port of New Orleans was a major point of entry for merchant ships, holds bursting with human, African cargo, the Port was also, unbeknownst to many, a major point of entry for captured Muslims (most often prisoners of local wars) who certainly brought with them their only possession unable to be stripped from them by their captors, their religion, Islamic.

The historical record of shipping manifests attests to the fact that the majority of slaving merchant vessels that deposited their goods at the mouth of the Mississippi took on their cargoes from those areas of West Africa with significant Muslim population. As the Islamic belief system forbids suicide and encourages patient perseverance, the middle-passage survival rate of captured African

Muslims was quite high. For example, one such courageous survivor was Ibrahima Abdur Rahman, son of the king of the Fulani people of the Senegambia region, named “The Prince”” by his master Thomas Foster of Natchez

Posted in Uncategorized





A stroke is a medical condition which is characterized by rapid loss of brain function which is caused by interruption in the blood supply to the various parts of the brain. It can be due to a blockage and it’s known as thrombosis or lack of blood flow known as ischemia or a leakage of blood that is hemorrhage (Feigin, 2005). It results in the person’s inability to move certain parts of the body.

Case study

The brain is designed in such a way that the right hemisphere always controls the left side of the body while the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body. This explains why Joseph’s left part of the body got paralyzed even if not entirely. This also depends on the part of the right side of the brain that has restricted blood flow.

Joseph’s left face and hand has been paralyzed, but not the rest of his arm or his leg because of the restricted blood flow to a portion of his right precentral gyrus which is known to control moments of the muscles in the left face and hand and it is the right side that controls the left side.

What is preventing Joseph from moving his left hand is because of lack of communication between neurons that is between the central nervous system and motor neurons.

Motor neurons are neurons that transmit signals from the brain to the effector cells which include muscle cells. Motor neurons form synapses with effector cells. When an action potential reaches a synapse pore which are present in the cell membrane opens which in turn allows positively charged calcium ions into the pre synaptic terminal. This causes neural transmitters which are chemical in nature to be released in a gap between the two cells and this is known as the synaptic cleft. The neural transmitter is able to diffuse across the synaptic cleft and proceeds to interact with proteins called receptors which are usually embedded in the post synaptic membrane (Sherwood, 2001). The receptors serve as ion channels which allow charged atoms to pass through pores within their structure and this is propagated along the dendrite towards the soma.

The destruction of a neuron that communicates with the motor neuron prevents Joseph from moving his hand by disruption of the transmission process. The motor neuron is not able to receive signal from the central nervous system neuron and thus it is not able to propagate the signal to the effector muscle that is the hand (Garrett, 2011).

In an adult human being the brain takes longer time to redevelop damaged neurons because the neurons are fully developed and this is because why Joseph’s brain cannot simply replace the damaged neurons immediately (Altman, 1963). Compensation might allow Joseph to regain some of the lost movements. This occurs through the neurons that were not damaged and serve extra role of transmitting signals for the damaged neurons but this takes time and it is achievable through therapy. Experimental treatment that might improve Joseph’s movement of his left hand is by slowly exercising the hand through aided extension and constriction of the hand muscles. The exercises can be done from time to time and it impacts on his nervous system by using the existing motor neurons to transmit signals to the hand. His nervous system will slowly undergo rearrangement so that it can utilize the existing neurons to control the left hand.


It is possible for the nervous system to recover from damage through natural processes for example compensation and reorganization. These processes enable the recovery of impaired functions for example of limbs and hands or any other impaired part. There are also experimental treatments that facilitate the growth of new neurons in a mature nervous system. Through proper treatment and therapy patients who suffer stroke do not suffer permanent disability especially because of these processes. This has greatly aided patients who have suffered strokes to be able to regain function of the affected parts through therapy.References

Altman, J. (1963). Autoradiographic investigation of cell proliferation in the brains of rats and cats. Chicago: The Anatomical record.

Feigin VL. (2005). Stroke epidemiology in the developing world. USA: Lancet.

Garrett, B. (2011). Brain and Behavior: An Introduction to Biological Psychology (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.

Sherwood, L. (2001). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems (4th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks-Cole.

Posted in Uncategorized

Neurotransmitters And Sensory Adaptation

Neurotransmitters And Sensory Adaptation

Neurotransmitters And Sensory Adaptation

Part 1

Located in the brain, neurotransmitters are a vital feature in the regulation and control of the functions of the central nervous system. One of the qualities of neurotransmitters is that they are stored in chemical form giving them the name chemical transmitters. Neurotransmitters have different roles that they perform depending on the category they belong. There are a variety of neurotransmitters which perform different duties in relation to the communication of the body organs. The most common neurotransmitters are the Biogenetic neurotransmitters which are responsible for the regulation of anxiety, appetite sleep, mood thoughts stress and motivation. Lack of proper transportation of these neurotransmitters causes several issues such as brain damage, Alzheimer’s and schizophrenia. Such conditions impact on the behavior of an individual’s communication with the outside environment, reasoning memory and mental development (Coon, Mitterer, Talbot, & Vanchella, 2010).

Another category of neurotransmitters are the Peptide neurotransmitters which contribute significantly in the regulation of appetite and nutrition of the body in relation to the brain. The inability of the peptide neurotransmitters to perform their work can lead to various illnesses such as bipolar disorder, eating disorders Huntington’s disease. The third category of neurotransmitters is the amino acid transmitters which control the anxiety and memory of the brain. Improper function of amino acid transmitters leads to the degeneration of the cells. This in turn, leads to the acquisition of Alzheimer’s disease which involves the loss of a substantial percentage of memory (Comer & Gould, 2013).

Neurotransmitters cannot function without the activity of the neurons which are responsible for the transfer of chemical messages from the body to the brain and back. The neurons are part of the central nervous system. They receive messages from different parts of the body to the brain. The messages are converted by the brain and later redirected to the body through the same neurons. The messages in this case are the neurotransmitters that which have the chemical element suitable for identifying an issue in the body (Berger, 2001).

Part 2


Sensory adaptation is the reaction to the change of a different environment when a sensory organ is introduced. There are five different sensory organs responsible for feeling the change in temperature. The introduction to an environment leads to a response in stimulus that affects the comfortable environment. Repeat of a certain activity can cause the organ to adapt to the new environment. The following experiments are intended to display the process of sensory adaptation when sensory organs are exposed to a different environment (Domjan, Grau & Krause, 2010).

Experiment 1

The first experiment involves rubbing of the index fingers on a course surface. This then repeated on the same surface so as to determine the different reaction from the initial stage. On the first attempt, the feeling of rubbing the hands is uncomfortable due to the course surface that rubs against the fingers. The coarseness is rates 6 on the scale of 1-7 making it considerably high. The second time, the feeling is relatively different in that the fingers still register a course feeling. It is however different from the first time seeing as it is not as uncomfortable making the rating of the coarseness at 3. The fingers adapt to the new surface making the activity less strenuous than before. Adaptation is evident in the fingers are more receptive to the course texture of the first surface as opposed to the first. The friction between the fingers and the coarse surface is transferred to the brain through the skin which is one of the sensory organs. The brain receives the messages from the neurons through the neurotransmitters. This information is then transmitted back to the body through the same avenues. The second reaction is different because the first reaction interferes with some of the sensory organs affected by the course surface. This makes the receptors have a weaker response compared to that of the first experiment (Domjan, Grau, & Krause, 2010).

Experiment 2

The second experiment involves drinking a cup of sweet water and swishing it around the whole mouth until the sweet taste disappears gradually. The next step involves tasting fresh water immediately after tasting the sweet water. The experiment is mainly to prove whether the taste of the fresh water changes after. On completion of the task, the water of the fresh water is different in that it acquires a slightly sour taste. The sensory organ in this case is the tongue which is responsible for the sense of taste. The sensory nerves transmit the messages received from the first experiment to the brain. The brain receives the message and registers the information transmitted. The information is then returned back to the tongue which records the sweetness that deteriorates with time. The same process occurs during the second step but using different circumstances. The nerve transmitters dictate the interference of the sensory nerves in the tongue delivering a different message to the brain. The information is then returned back to the body registering a slightly sour taste (Lawless & Heymann, 2010).

Experiment 4

The fourth experiment involves the assembling of three bawls with three different temperatures of water. The first bawl has hot water the second bawl has lukewarm water and the third bawl has cold tap water. The next step involves submerging of the left hand into the cold water and the left hand into the hot water. Both hands are then dipped into the lukewarm water at the same time. The initial dip gives two reactions due to using two different temperatures. The left hand becomes cold and the rights hand becomes hot. When both hands are dipped into the lukewarm water, the left hand becomes warm and the right hands delays to adapt to the warm water. The feeling in the right hand is numb due to the heat of the water that it has been submerged. The sensory organ that is affected in this case is the skin which is the largest organ in the body. One the submerging of both hands into the two bawls of water, the two adapt to the temperatures in the bawls. When both hands are dipped into the lukewarm water, the sensory organs in the skin transfer the massage to the brain. The brain responds by interpreting the information from both temperatures. The messages are returned back to the body which causes the skin to react to the new environment. The numb skin is a result of the heat in the second bawl that affects the sensory organs of the skin causing it to detect a feeling of numbness (Coon & Mitterer, 2011).


Berger, D. S. (2001). Music therapy, sensory integration and the autistic child. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Comer, R. J., & Gould, E. (2013). Psychology around us. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

Coon, D., Mitterer, J. O., Talbot, S., & Vanchella, C. M. (2010). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning



Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2011). Psychology: A journey. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Domjan, M., Grau, J. W., & Krause, M. A. (2010). The principles of learning and behavior. Australia: Wadsworth CenageLawless, H. T., & Heymann, H. (2010). Sensory evaluation of food: Principles and practices. New York: Springer.

Posted in Uncategorized

New Imperialism, Taiping Rebellion and Opium Wars

New Imperialism, Taiping Rebellion and Opium Wars

New Imperialism, Taiping Rebellion and Opium Wars

Student’s Name


New Imperialism, Taiping Rebellion and Opium Wars

World history is among the significant study in human lives that helps people to keep track of the past in regards to the social, economic and political development of various nations. During the colonialization period, many transformations occurred which significantly affected the world then and the impacts are experienced up to date. The New Imperialism, Taiping rebellion, and opium wars are among the historical chronologies that are read globally, and significant in learning system as well as a remembrance of the ancient nations struggle for overseas acquisition and independence. In the first part, the two questions regard opium and the Taiping Rebellion as well as the New Imperialism. While on the second portion the query regarding the analysis of the Taiping Rebellion. The Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion are discussed in consideration of the problems in the Chinese government, economy, and society that led to their emergence. Furthermore, the Taiping Rebellion is analyzed with regards to the changes that occurred in both the leaders and the movement, the groups that joined and opposed the move as well as its consequences to the government and the people of China.

The problems the led to the start of Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion.

The Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion were experienced in the China lands both involving the Western colonizers and the emperors of China. They were significantly caused by the government, of China, society and the economy. The Opium Wars are the two armed conflicts that were experienced in China between the Qing dynasty and the Western nations during the 19th century. From 1644 to 1912 China was under the rule of the Western countries such as the Britain and French that were involved in the Opium Wars (Brook, & Wakabayashi, 2016). In the first Opium War, China fought with Britain while in the second war they fought with both Britain and the French. In both the Opium Wars the China loose and the foreign powers gained commercial, civil liberties, territorial and legal refreshment stands in the country. The first Opium war emerged due to the China attempt to suppress opium trade in the country. The opium was being imported by the British merchants from India to China, and the cause of government intervention to the trade was because of the widespread addiction of the civilians to the drug the deprived the nation’s economic development.

The major problem the frustrated the British allies was the act of Chinese government confiscating and destroying large quantities of opium. The destroyed drugs belonging to the British merchants included more than twenty thousand opium chests, and around one thousand four hundred tons of the drug was stored in a warehouse in Canton. Also, the government forced Britain to surrender their people who killed a Chines so that they can be sentenced as per the China law. The British power was against that, and they reacted with hostility leading to fierce and tension in the country. The interference with Britain’s opium trade in the country and the act of attempting to sentence the Britain civilians that killed Chinese in the country were the major problems that caused the beginning of first Opium War. The society of China can be blamed for the emergence of Opium War to the acceptance and absorption of Britain will of abusing opium for their economic beneficiaries. Also, economic deprivation, on the other hand, led to the beginning of the war as the resistance of Opium trade was the best sound solution to the problem.

The second opium war was caused by the act of the British trying to extend the opium trading rights in China while the Qing government was entangled in their attempt to quell the Taiping Rebellion and it which was against the Chinese will. The major problem that facilitated its start was the act of Chinese officials getting into the Britain registered ship by the name Arrow as it was curtailed in Canton, captured the Chinese members of the group who were later freed and intentionally lowered the Britain flag (Brook, & Wakabayashi, 2016). Later, Britain avenges by bombarding Canton leading to considerable degradation of the Chinese economy. Furthermore, the joining of French into the second Opium war was facilitated by the act of Chinese killing a French missionary during early 1856. Later China was forced into negotiations by signing the treaties of Tianjin that granted the westerns various rights such as the freedom of movement for Christian missionaries and granted the foreigners right into interior China.

The Taiping Rebellion is a religion and radical political upheaval the occurred during the 19th century significantly impacting China. The Rebellion started in the southern part of Guangxi after the local Chinese officials launching a movement of religious oppression against a millenarian sect commonly known as the God Worshipping Society led by Hong Xiuquan. Hong supposed himself to be a brother to Jesus Christ thus attracting the attention of many peasant civilians whom he mobilized with the hope of being helped. The Chinese government can to a significant extent be blamed for the toleration of specific movements that got to the extent of capturing several states and causing deaths of many people. The unstable economy was also a problem that led to the survival of Hong’s movement that had any intention of conquering the government by the use of the poor public.

The beneficiaries of the New Imperialism and the methods applied.

The New Imperialism was significantly felt by the Africa and Asia nations as the European nations struggled to expand their boundaries and search new markets for their products. The European nations were the potential beneficiaries of the new imperialism as they intended to gain economic benefits from the new markets found as well as maintaining their name as superpowers. The leading causes of new imperialism in Africa were to find a market for their products and raw materials due to industrial development in Europe. Also, the European nations believed that they were superior to others thus had the urge to own as much vast land as possible and dominate many countries globally (Auerbach, 2014).

In Asia imperialism was as a cause of French desire to take over the Pacific Rim where agriculture, plantation, and trading were excellent considering the productive lands on Southern Asia. The European nations faced lots of resistance and challenges on the newly acquired colonies, but they ended up the beneficiaries. Their will of getting market, raw materials, productive lands and many colonies was accomplished even though it was under severe struggle. They used armaments to conquer the resisting empires, and they later ended up exploiting the resources found in these nations for their benefits. However, the Asians and Africans, on the other hand, benefited from industrial development and advancement in technology as well as agriculture.

The Analysis of the Taiping Rebellion.

Over the cause of the rebellion, the Taiping movement and leaders incurred significant changes. At first, the rebellion was established under the leadership of Hong Xiuquan who greatly influenced the Christianity teachings and had some visions as well as believing that he was a brother to Jesus Christ who was sent to reform China. The attempt of Yang to gain more power of the Tainwang he was assassinated together with a thousand other followers. Wei Changhui the Taiping general who had killed Yang was later murdered by Hong and the action made Shi Dakai the current Taiping general fear abandoning their fertile land and left with many of his followers. The Taiping rebellion fought for property and their attempt to regain Shanghai was prevented by the western military. Although the resistance group had ailed and refused all the requests of Qing government to release the Nanjing city, its power ended after the death of Hong after committing suicide. The rebellion weakened the Qing dynasty to the extent of having no capability of efficiently holding over the country. The Taiping Rebellion resulted in the deaths of millions of people and also a significant loss of property (Chappell, 2016). The Taiping was a significant movement that enhanced the origin of Chinese nationality, as well as Chinese communist which, are fundamental up-to-date. It facilitated peace and cohesion in the nation and also significantly enhanced social-economic and political development.

As discussed above, the world history is vital to people and development of the nations as it plays a significant role of enhancing them trace their roots and be aware of the things that can create difference as well as civil wars among the counties. The Taiping Rebellion as the necessary foundation of the Chinese Nationality postulated the need for humanity and act of following ethical, cultural beliefs. The New Imperialism, the Opium Wars as well as the Taiping Rebellion, are all educative and significant to the present and future generations.


Auerbach, S. (2014). “We cannot bury him, only strangers can”(Achebe 1958). It seems appropriate to begin an essay on the New Imperialism with the words of one of its most prominent chroniclers and critics, Chinua Achebe. Achebe’s passage, uttered by an Igbo villager following the death, by suicide, of the protagonist in Things Fall Apart (1958), evokes the violence of imperial conquest and the loss of power and culture (to say nothing of life) experienced by those in colonized territories. There was much that was new about …. The Fin-de-Siècle World, 335.

Brook, T., & Wakabayashi, B. T. (2016). The Opium Wars. Shooting Up: A Short History of Drugs and War, 58.

Chappell, J. (2016). The Limits of the Shanghai Bridgehead: Understanding British Intervention in the Taiping Rebellion 1860–62. The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 44(4), 533-550.

Posted in Uncategorized