Demand and Supply of Malabar Gold and diamond

Demand and Supply of Malabar Gold and diamond

Demand and Supply of Malabar Gold and diamond

Name

Affiliation Executive Summary

To start with, the diamond industry has an exceptionally high focus, which Malabar Gold and diamond controls all of South African creation and all deals through its own auxiliary (CSO), in London, amid the time of Rhodes. Second, Malabar Gold and diamond is the value pioneer. The purchasers have no privilege to deal with Malabar Gold and diamond. Despite the fact that, the quantity of sight holders has diminished from more or less 350 in the 1970s to 120 in the 1990s, and the quantity of shareholders was under 100 in 2014 (Simoni, Rabino & Zanni, 2010). The image below shows the image of diamond demand and supply.

Image 1

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://www.diamonds.net/Magazine/FilesRep/Gallery/MR_July%20RDR%206_070509.JPG” * MERGEFORMATINET

Third, Malabar Gold and diamond makes agreeable social connections between members of the cartel, which is advantage for its long haul advancement. From these three separate periods, it demonstrates that Malabar Gold and diamond keeps the idea of maintainable advancement whether in the past or later on.

Introduction

The greatest open door is the UAE market, which has the greatest utilization capacity. Despite the fact that Malabar Gold and diamond by implication offer diamonds to the UAE business sector, its benefit is still separated by mediators, who are the way to maintain a strategic distance from the strict UAE laws. The current travel deals techniques have turned into a vital obstruction of budgetary increment for Malabar Gold and diamond. A sensible way to deal with stay away from the UAE law could productively advantage the money related increment for Malabar Gold and diamond later on.

Another open door is creating nations, particularly China and United Arab Emirates. These nations have been encountering riches increment and idea redesign. A decent notice may influence new era to acknowledge the estimation of diamonds. Once the necessary origination for diamond wedding has been made, consolidated with the expanding riches amid these potential nations, this opportunity must turn into another development point for Malabar Gold and diamond (Nyame & Grant, 2012). At long last, after the advancement of society, there is an expanding number of social issues expected to be understood particularly in the diamond creating nations. As a noteworthy way to deal with make notoriety, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) reflects more specifically and obviously the commitment to society, particularly for the customers.

Image 2

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://www.diamondsinafrica.com/catalog/view/theme/dia/image/historical_prices.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

The rollercoaster direction of the diamond market lately hinted at directing in 2013 with 2-4 percent development at each point along the worth chain. Looking ahead to the following decade, the viewpoint ought to stay solid, the length of the business can venture up its emphasis on driving request and maintaining a positive picture for the business. Nonetheless, macroeconomic vulnerabilities, coupled with industry difficulties, including waning access to financing – one of the greatest obstacles confronting the diamond esteem chain’s center market– could affect future development; this as indicated by the fourth yearly worldwide diamond industry report, Diamonds: Timeless Gems in a Changing World, grew by Bain & Company and the Antwerp World Diamond Center (AWDC).

Bain’s examination discovered the diamond business’ development a year ago was focused essentially in the UAE , China and United Arab Emirates. The UAE affirmed its position as the world’s driving diamond retail market, fueled by financial development of give or take 2 percent – a huge change from the 1.6 percent decrease posted amid and quickly after the worldwide monetary emergency. In the meantime, United Arab Emirates and China kept on commanding the cutting, cleaning, and gems producing divisions, separately.

In spite of the business’ bounce back, determined macroeconomic instabilities are prodding inquiries around diamond request elements in these businesses and around the world.

The financial tops and valleys that the worldwide diamond business sector experienced in the course of the most recent couple of years are unfaltering, in any event for now, yet the business can’t bear to get excessively agreeable,” said Olya Linde, lead creator of the worldwide diamond industry report and a Bain accomplice. “Macroeconomics, alongside different elements – financing, advertising difficulties, undisclosed manufactured diamonds, ecological concerns, social mindfulness, and even nation particular inclination – hinders a simple, straight way to supported diamond industry development over the long haul.

Bain foresees that starting in 2019 the worldwide diamond business sector is ready to experience a broadening crevice of up to 5-6 rate focuses, because of waning diamond supply and expanded interest drove by extending riches and a developing working class in created and creating nations alike. Bain is exclusive estimating strategy suspect’s harsh diamond interest to develop at a normal yearly rate of 4-5 percent throughout the following decade in accordance with noteworthy patterns:

UAE – Diamond utilization in the UAE is required to proceed with its current bounce back pattern of the previous couple of years, before focalizing with its recorded long haul development rate in accordance with GDP and extra cash development, which is relied upon to develop in the scope of 2-3 percent throughout the following decade.

China – Expansion of China’s white collar class, a rising urban populace and a spike in individual riches ought to help the diamond adornments business sector support solid development. Diamond interest is relied upon to twofold by 2024. In United Arab Emirates, a resuscitated economy and a white-collar class that is required to grow 2.8 times by 2024 will convey high single-digit development for the nation’s diamond market.

The supply standpoint for unpleasant diamonds over the same time period will grow in accordance with the arranged decrease in worldwide generation levels. Bain foresees worldwide supply will develop, overall, 3.5- 4 percent amid 2013-2019 and afterward decay by 1.5-2 percent through 2024, as a consequence of maturing mines and a movement to underground mining. The report gauges supply will achieve 163 million carats in 2019, which is underneath the precrisis generation of 177 million carats in 2005, dropping to 163 million carats in 2008.

Notwithstanding tending to the developing inlet between diamond supply and interest, the industry confronts a few issues that will likewise impact the future standpoint and advancement for the business – the most noteworthy of which is declining accessibility of financing, especially for the center business sector, which incorporates brokers, cutters and polishers, and, to a certain degree, gems producers.

Image 3: Price of Diamond

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://riograndeblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/demand.supply.chart_.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

In the midst of a recently wary and obliged environment brought on by expanded getting, the industry’s rising credit danger and more tightly bank regulations, numerous conventional diamond banks have diminished their introduction to the business. Now and again they are lessening the rate of stones financed from 100 percent to 70-75 percent. Therefore, a time of deleveraging could hit with accessible levels of financing diving by as much as $3 billion in the medium term. For all partners to catch the opportunities made by the anticipated development of the diamond market throughout the following decade, banks must change the way they work together. In the short- to medium-term, this incorporates expanding straightforwardness of the reporting and stock for the center business section, presenting new and more secure items, and upgrading collaboration between conventional business banks and diamond banks,” said Ms. Linde.

Conclusion

The report likewise distinguishes three extra key difficulties that are essential in characterizing the long haul viewpoint for the business’ improvement. These include: maintaining the passionate request, and consequently, the interest for diamonds; securing long haul access to diamonds – especially for diamond adornments players – as long haul supply decreases; and characterizing the part that engineered diamonds ought to play in the business. The Antwerp World Diamond Center is glad to contribute for the fourth time to an exhaustive report, furnishing worldwide partners with an understanding into the condition of the worldwide diamond industry and its future patterns,” said Ari Epstein, CEO of AWDC. Similar to other worldwide businesses, the diamond area is defied with difficulties, while being centered around conveying on future open doors,” said Stephane Fischler, AWDC President. “In spite of an all around created purchaser society with regards to diamonds, our industry must verify we comprehend and make an association with the new era of customers and location their needs and desires. We are likewise seeing the ascent of mechanical progressions, which have an impressive effect on the elements of the diamond pipeline and are a colossal open door for those enthusiasts.

References

Heyne, Paul; Boettke, Peter J.; Prychitko, David L. (2014). The Economic Way of Thinking (13th ed.). Pearson.  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number” o “International Standard Book Number” ISBN  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-13-299129-2” o “Special:BookSources/978-0-13-299129-2” 978-0-13-299129-2.

https://www.malabargoldanddiamonds.com

Mankiw, G (2007). Principles of Economics. South-Western Cengage Learning. p. 470.  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number” o “International Standard Book Number” ISBN  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-324-22472-6” o “Special:BookSources/978-0-324-22472-6” 978-0-324-22472-6.

Nyame, F. K., & Grant, J. A. (2012). From carats to karats: explaining the shift from diamond to gold mining by artisanal miners in Ghana. Journal of Cleaner Production, 29, 163-172.

Simoni, C., Rabino, S., & Zanni, L. (2010). Italian and Indian gold and diamondry SMEs, marketing practices in the USA: A comparative case study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(3), 403-417.

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DELL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT CASE ANSWERS

DELL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT CASE ANSWERS

Dell supply chain management case answers

Name

9144008549640[Date]

[Company name]

[Company address]

1000000[Date]

[Company name]

[Company address]

INSTITUTION AFFILIATION

centerbottom[Company name] | [Company address]

1154000[Company name] | [Company address]

4565657948930Name

hp

1154000Name

hp

6267450233680[Year]

76009800[Year]

Dell uses a build-to-order strategy, which permits customer to custom form their Pcs the way they incline toward. When the request is gotten by Dell, the gathering procedure for the custom assembled machine starts. Dell can keep up a low stock of components in light of the fact that segments are requested like clockwork from the supplier focused around each one request. When the components arrive each one request a generation pack is assembled and send to the gathering group to fabricate and bundle for conveyance (Jacobs, Chase, R & Chase, 2010). Dell has made an exceedingly fruitful operation by making an immediate model channel instead of the retail direct like the others in the PC business. By removing the dissemination focuses and retailers out, Dell has the capacity cut the time and expenses connected with these steps. Truth be told, not at all like most PC contenders, Dell offers straightforwardly to their clients. As indicated by the reading material, Customization permits Dell to fulfill clients by providing for them an item that is near their particular prerequisites (Chopra & Meindl, 2012, p.90).

Dell’s immediate plan of action sidesteps the merchant in the inventory network and offers machines straightforwardly to clients, constructing each to request. Dell does not make the machine segments; they only gather machines focused around components that are accessible in the business sector. Dell’s utilization of engineering and data to smudge the conventional limits between suppliers, fabricates, and clients is named virtual coordination. To accomplish the focal points of a coordinated organization, Dell treats suppliers and administration suppliers as though they were inside the organization. Their frameworks are connected progressively to Dell’s framework and their workers take an interest in outline groups and item dispatches.

This kind of firm with many customer has ended up being leeway, on the grounds that Dell now knows their end clients machine inclination through their request. Further, this will permit Dell to acquaint shoppers with extra items and segments that may be of investment connected from their request inclination. As an issue of online deals, absolute transportation costs in the Dell store network are high than in a production network offering equipment through merchants and retailers (Gold, Seuring & Beske, 2010). Dell sends the custom manufactured Pcs specifically to their shoppers as opposed to sending truck burdens to circulation focuses and retailers. Dell’s high transportation expense make up a vast share of the ease Pcs sold. Dell was known for their fabricate to-request system. Shockingly, when the request was gotten, the turnaround time would be a couple of weeks due methodology to hold up until the request has been set before pulling the component of the assembly.

This method is appealing to much esteemed consumers with adaptable requests, however there are numerous shoppers that need to purchase a standard machine without paying more for tweaked segments. Customers not inspired by the adjustable segments are not so much pulled in to the online channel in view of the postponement to get their standard PC. At the point when Dell consolidates the loss of enthusiasm from purchasers requesting standard Pcs, it influences the online channel, as well as it expands the transportation costs as a result of dispatching less machines on trucks then what the expense of the ease Pcs cost. Before long there will be a shortage if not rectified. “A watchful study, be that as it may, demonstrates that a half and half model consolidating retail locations and the online channel can be exceptionally viable” (Chopra & Meindl, 2012, p.91). Dell would profit more if adaptable segments are sold through the online channel and institutionalized machines without modified components are sold in retail location. Along these lines Dell has a more ascertained approach to estimate their interest. Offering the institutionalized machines would likewise permit Dell to demonstrate a sparing in their transportation costs.

Dell wasn’t going to abandon their fabricate to-request procedure, however rather growing their store network outline to take care of purchaser demand in an adaptable and effective way. Dell has adjusted their production network configuration to address the needs of their purchasers, yet Dell didn’t simply fall in accordance with their rivals. Dell recognized their inventory network capacities were diverse for their shopper, so they deliberately manufactured the portions need to meet their customers’ needs. Dell reallocated some of their get together to create the institutionalized fittings and machines. Dell embedded the custom-made approach by outsourcing their generation for the institutionalized part to distinctive nations for the retail locations, for example, Wal-Mart. Has this methodology promptly fulfilled customers, as well as this has eliminated generation fetched and diminished their transportation costs (Waters, 2010). Also, this permits the Dell plants to concentrate on the much esteemed adaptable components their purchasers keep on ordering. This procedure expands the creations and conveyance to their consumers.

Reference

Chopra, S., & Meindl, P. (2012). Supply chain management: Strategy, planning, and operation (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.  

Gold, S., Seuring, S., & Beske, P. (2010). Sustainable supply chain management and inter‐organizational resources: a literature review. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, 17(4), 230-245.

Jacobs, F. R., Chase, R. B., & Chase, R. (2010). Operations and supply chain management. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Waters, D. (Ed.). (2010). Global logistics: New directions in supply chain management. Kogan Page Publishers.

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Democracy in America Today

Democracy in America Today

Democracy in America Today

Axia College of University of Phoenix

Pos/110

Final Project: Democracy in America

Over time, American Democracy has been transformed from its original foundation’s form. With all its adaptations, it still seems to be a well structured democratic form that supports our nation. The structure of our democracy has both strengths and weaknesses. In this essay, I will provide a review of the state of our democracy in America today. This essay will include my own viewpoint on the weaknesses and strengths of our governmental structure and include a number of subjects that are part of our constitutional rights, civil liberties, civic values, the role of our President and bureaucratic agencies in our government today.

There have been many changes within America’s democracy that have allowed us to arrive at our current state. Some of these changes have actually harmed our democratic process and our citizens. Some have helped us to achieve greater things within our democracy. Some changes have weakened our structure and our ability to take care of ourselves. Some changes have been benign, exerting little overall effect on our democratic processes. We face many obstacles and problems in our society today, but we do not always recognize the threat that these pose to our government and security.

The one thread that all American’s have in common in their position on democracy is that our democracy’s health affects every man, woman and child in our country and affects all those who live here. Everyone has their own perspective on the issue of democracy. One such view is that “Democracy is the means to select any policy maker and government, in which the policy would then represent the citizens’ preferences” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p.14). To me, democracy is the pinnacle of justice, peace and freedom for all people. The most basic freedom accorded to every U.S. citizen is the right to free speech. This is not a universal freedom in other countries and is not to be taken lightly. We also enjoy several other unique freedoms. These are the right to vote, the right to adhering to any religion or to believe and follow no religion, and the right to act as long as we do not infringe upon the rights of others. (Edwards, et al. 2008).

I do feel that our government is quite corrupt. It seems that the trend is towards government worsening our society and this is not likely to change soon. The very right to say this is inherent in our democracy. Criticism of the government includes review of the manner in which governmental officials conduct business. Political instability, the misuse of power and moral decay are all factors that increase the wealth and power of those in places of privilege, allowing them to increase their power further by political access and appointment. (Edwards, et al. 2008). This ability leads only to further corruption. The members of our society that have been marginalized economically are not having their needs met in the current political climate. This lower class has emerged in a way that is limiting their basic rights. The decay in the moral fiber of our society has led government to pass laws that control aspects of our behavior which common sense should rule, such as school prayer and smoking in public places. This process infringes on rights since some members of society act irresponsibly.

Everyone has their individual view of how democracy should function. In my own view, positive changes need to be affected in governmental process for equality and opportunity to be accorded to every American citizen.

The beliefs and values that all members of our society share are our American Civic Values. The most basic belief is freedom and justice for all people. Our democratic society uses a number of programs, laws and regulation to strengthen our civic values. Individuals use volunteerism and sound ethical practices to strengthen them. When we teach our children good civic values, we are teaching them to respect one another, to share and to take responsibility for each other in a positive, supportive way. These things engender a strong civil and political culture that better serves us all.

For example, when community members help one another and stand up for what is right, refusing to tolerate bigotry, drug trafficking and other harmful practices, we engender respect for one another and have healthier communities. The penalties for allowing ourselves to stray from our civic values are imposed through the enforcement of laws and regulations. Anti-discrimination laws uphold the basic right of freedom for all. These laws enforce the rights of individuals to pursue their livelihoods and to live where they please, regardless of their race, ethnic or cultural background, gender or their sexual or religious preferences.

Our world has changed in both technological and economic ways that threaten the intentions and accomplishments of our founding fathers. The Constitution is at risk of being overrun in our current political climate. The gap between the rich and poor in American society had been narrowed during the last 50 years of the last century. It has been widened during the past decade and threatens our social stability. Many people like to say that America is a place of equality and opportunity. In my opinion, it is still a place of disparity and inequality. The most basic element of our democratic process that should be its greatest strength has become our greatest weakness. This is a great issue among those in our society who cannot find access to services or opportunity and is swept under the rug by those members of our society who have been able to find a way to succeed inside the system.

A new type of inequality has crept over us in the recent past. It is the way in which government shows bias to one group of citizens over another. These economic disparities strengthen the cause of those who have against those who do not have. They relate specifically to the disparate distribution of resources, education and income potential. Those members of our society who have been marginalized have much less political voice and therefore can expect to continue to receive less in the way of equal treatment and equal access to services and education. Reviewing the Constitution and American Democracy in light of what I have learned in this course, I find that the Bill of Rights is the foundation of all our rights as American citizens. The Bill of Rights protects us from congress passing any law which would abridge our rights to practice our own religion, our freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of assembly, and the right to petition the government. I believe that protection of civil liberties is essential and has to be carefully guarded in our society. The government takes away more rights, often surreptitiously. Freedoms are challenged in ways that have little to do with the intention stated by the government when they enact new laws, such as the Patriot Act, which allows monitoring of private citizens internet use. Spying of U.S. citizens has also become acceptable under current law. Why would that be acceptable? This constitutes unreasonable search and should never have been made law to start with. The level of privacy invasion in today’s U.S. society is somewhat shocking. It is implicit in settings where a large number of people would be at risk, such as in airport travel screenings.

There are a wide variety of ways in which it is up to all of us to strengthen our communities by upholding civic values in our lives. All of the rights that we stifle will continue to affect American citizens in their daily lives. It is up to us as citizens to take responsibility for our rights. We have no right not to know what is being done in our name. This country was founded on first on freedom and it is time to regain civil liberty and equal rights.

The founding fathers framed our United States Constitution so that we would have an established, stable form of government that would function at the will of the people. They designed our government as three branches that were to equally share power in balance with one another. These are the Legislative Branch (Congress), the Executive Branch (Presidential) and the Judicial Branch (The Courts). The stability afforded by the interplay of these three branches is the strength of our government as a whole.

A formal system of checks and balances was established to control each of the three branches. This limits their power so that one branch cannot dominate the government. This system is essential to the proper working of our democracy. The Electoral College was designed to eliminate corruption in our system. It instead serves unethical government officials. The electoral system does protect Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The electoral system is meant to allow a group of officials to make the final decision on the election of the U.S. President. The Electoral College system has an extensive background and is well grounded in our current government. I do not, however, believe that it truly serves the American people to give them representation by vote. It gives government officials the right to elect who they see fit instead of taking the straight one man one vote to elect our President. This is one of the basic precepts of democracy and so, I feel, the electoral process thwarts the intention of democracy. Many people say they do not vote because their vote will not count under the electoral process. Elimination of the electoral system would likely bring an increase in voter turnout and eliminate apathy toward our system.

The U.S. Constitution is grounded in a system of power by the people for the people. We can support and help our President to succeed through being actively involved in our governmental processes. This core value of participation by the people in the interest of the people as a whole has been lost in our country. The majority is meant to rule our government, not the other way around. Minority values are to be represented in our government as well.

The Constitutional powers of our President is accorded allows them the authority to make decisions that affect our immediate national security. The role of “Commander in Chief” is the most important of all of the President’s functions. The President is limited to a reasonable authority through exercising the checks and balances that are in place in our government. The President’s main job is to protect the democratic process in our country. This is the source of our safety and stability.

A number of different bureaucratic agencies have direct effects on my daily life. Some of these are the United States Postal Service (USPS), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Each one of these agencies is designed to serve different needs of Americans and to protect the public at large.

We work around the schedules of these agencies so that we can get a motor vehicle or commercial vehicle license, purchase private or public land and to protect our business and personal interests. Some of these agencies have regulatory functions, such as the EPA and others provide us with services, such as the USPS. The requirements that they place in our path during our process is one of red tape that involves considerable performance on our part to meet standards of eligibility. Even things that do not require us to deal directly with government agencies, such as receiving many prescription medications from our health provider, require that they meet regulations and legal requirements to get into our hands.

The matter of governing ourselves is one of our greatest privileges and responsibilities. I believe that our founding fathers did an excellent job of framing a structured government that operates on the basis of morals and strong values. Some changes do need to be affected to discontinue political corruption in our country. The marginalization of many members of our society through economic disparity has yielded political access and corruption in the wealthier members. This is not the democracy that American was built upon. Only with true justice, peace and equality are we doing our best as a nation.

References:

G. Edwards III, R. Lineberry, & M. Wattenberg. (2008). Government in America People, Politics, and Policy. Retrieved on November 9, 2009.

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Democracy In The Middle East

Democracy In The Middle East

Democracy In The Middle East

Democracy

A lot of confusion and uncertainties have occurred when people have been have been called upon to explain what the term ‘democracy’ was. Some of the reasons behind the existing uncertainties have been linked to the many undeniable flaws and forms that the term has become to be associated with. The term democracy remains meaningful even though its manifestations in various cultures and times may differ in significant respects (Wood 2004, p.3). In helping us understand better the meaning of democracy, this paper goes an extra mile to analyse the various secondary literatures that addressed the meaning of this term. A conclusive interpretation of the term is then provided at the end of the analysis.

The word democracy originated from two Greek words; “demos” referring to “people” and “kratein” referring to “govern” or to “rule”. In reference to its components, Becker and Raveloson (2008) gave the literal definition of democracy as government of the people or government of the majority (p.4). The two scholars note that Abraham Lincoln’s widely adopted definition of democracy traced its source from this literal meaning. According to Lincoln ((1809-1865)) democracy was defined as the government of the people, by the people and for the people. To help us understand Abraham Lincoln’s definition of democracy, Becker and Raveloson (2008) expounded Lincoln’s definition as incorporating 3 broad subjects: a government that comes from the people; a government that is exercised by the people, and for the peoples’ own rights (p.6). Ressler (2009) introduced another dimension to the understanding of the term democracy when he argued that in asking what democracy was, one was relating 2 conditions of the current parliamentary representative democracies and the different approaches to what a more democratic system ought to resemble and the type of organizational forms it could take.

On its part, The US Department of State (2008) basically defined democracy as a government in which the Supreme power was vested in the people. To them, democracy was exercised through large societies electing their representatives. According to this department, the word democracy has been synonymously interchanged with freedom, though this should not be the case. In highlighting the difference between the two confusing words, The US Department of State (2008) noted that democracy was the superior term amongst the two since other than consisting of a set of ideas and principles about freedom; it also consisted of practices and procedures that had been modelled through a long, often tortuous history. Kolar (2005) went ahead to stress that democracy meant that all the people in a state ought to have a say in one way or another in everything that affected their lives. Drawing from Kolar’s thinking, democracy can only be considered as being representative if the elected representatives regularly consult their electorates before making commitments to matters that affect their lives.

From Hilla University’s Lecture for Humanistic Studies (2004), democracy was defined in terms of 4 key elements that included: a political system for choosing and replacing governments through free and fair elections, the active participation of people, as citizens, in politics and civic life, protection of human rights of all citizens and a rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens. Wood (2004) in trying to come up with an all encompassing definition for what democracy was, went on to list the key characteristics upon which a state can be taken to be upholding democratic principles. The listed characteristics of a democratic state are that elections are open to participation to all citizens; each vote is of equal value, voters have real or free choices, citizens have an open access to information and the availability of a rule of law that guarantees freedom to the citizens (Wood 2004, p.2). From Wood’s research, democracy should be considered as manifesting one of the most adored fundamental aspiration in human species; the aspiration for freedom.

To Pilkington (1997), the definition of democracy must incorporate the concepts of government by consent and the popular consent of lending legitimacy to the government rather than the mechanics of how the people as a whole can be involved in a participatory sense (p.5). From his works, it is clear that ‘true’ or ‘direct’ democracy should envisage a legislative and governmental process that involves all society members. In addition, Woolf (2009) looked at democracy as a system by which nations were governed (p.4). In line with his study, the following can be identified as the major components upon which the success or failure of democracy be assessed in a state: legislatures, executives, judiciaries, electoral systems, pressure groups and the media (Woolf 2009, p.22-27). Though ‘pure’ democracy calls for the people to regularly attend meetings to discuss issues that affect them mostly in small groups, Woolf (2009) notes that this is impractical in today’s world because of the millions of peoples who have accustomed themselves with details of every political issue in their countries (p.5).

Democracy in the Middle East

In analyzing the introduction of democracy into the Middle East region, it is vital if we begun by first defining what colonialism stands for. Colonialism, in earlier times, was defined as a historic phenomena supported by the notion that certain territories and people require and beseech denominations, as well as forms of knowledge affiliated with denominations (Page 2003, p.496). However, the current definition of colonialism simply states that, “colonialism is marked by a state’s successful claim to sovereignty over a foreign land” (Mahoney 2010, p.2).

The Muslim World has had a long history of authoritarianism, tribal, religious and cultural sectarianism (Ben-Meir 2006). Until recently, experts had noted that the level of transforming political institutions across Middle East regions had not looked promising. Most countries in the region were faced with obstinate domestic and external obstacles that made adoption of democracy to seem like a distant dream (Brown & Shahin 2009, p.3). Paths to political transitions were away from obvious, and the commitment of key persons or actors to practical realities of democracy that existed at those times would have provided a lot of room for questioning. However, the democratic situation across many Middle East countries has been gradually changing thus providing signs of hope that the region might eventually become fully democratised. Current Middle East states where democracy has been slightly embraced include: Israel (the leading Islamic nation to embrace democracy), Iraq, Turkey, Kuwait, Qatar, and Bahrain amongst others. The reasons behind the introduction of democracy in these states have been varying from many experts and scholars. This paper therefore goes ahead to analyze the different views as adopted across the world over widely adopted claims of whether the colonialists were behind the current introduction of democracy across the Middle East Region.

Though there have been lingering questions on whether democracy was introduced in these states by colonialists, it should be clearly be stated that it wasn’t. The British and French colonialists suppressed national movements within the colonized Middle East states (Alkady 2004, p.38).In fact, throughout the Arab world, the colonial forces suppressed nationalist movements and attempts to hold democratic elections (Valkins 2011). This, according to principles of pure democracy, this suppresses and limits the growth and development of democracy.

Many non-Muslim nations agree that Western neo-colonialists, led by the USA, should be credited for having initiated measures that went in great length in promoting democracy across the regions; though many Muslims have not bought into this notion.

The US Government came to embrace the introduction of democracy across the

Middle East when the Bush Administration officials came to reject the idea that authoritarian Arab regimes constituted the bulwark against Islamic radicalism in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (CRS Report for Congress 2006, p.5). The CRS Report for Congress (2006) goes ahead to stress that US’s change of heart to embrace the idea of democratizing the Middle East was the main reason behind the Bush administration’s invasion of Iraq, a Middle East country whose citizens had never seen the signs of political “freedom”. In embracing democracy across the region, it is highlighted that active combat phases in the Middle East region by the USA were followed with “A Forward Strategy of Freedom in the Middle East” (CRS Report for Congress 2006, p.5). According to the Tschirigi, (2007)the following excerpts taken from the former US Presidents speech of November 5, 2003 emphasized the facilitation role at which colonialists greatly contributed in introducing democracy across the Middle East. The former US president, Mr. Bush, was eluded to have said that, “Sixty years of Western nations excusing and accommodating the lack of freedom in the Middle East did nothing to make us safe — because in the long run, stability cannot be purchased at the expense of liberty. As long as the Middle East remains a place where freedom does not flourish, it will remain a place of stagnation, resentment, and violence ready for export.” (Tschirigi 2007, p.39).

Many scholars have referred to the above statement as having been the turning point in embracing democracy across the Middle East. For instance, David and Gondin (2006, p.129) confirmed to this view when he postulated that although Bush had alluded to the need for developing democracy in Arab States since 2002, his elements in the speech affirmed to his intentions. Amongst the deductions made from the elements in his speech was that Islam and democracy were no longer incompatible and that it was wrong for Western Nations to have previously favoured the flourishing of stability in the Middle East at the expense of freedom (David and Gondin 2006, p.129). On his part, Sterba (2009), in justifying the strong implication the speech had on the adoption of democracy in the Middle East, had gone on to laud the speech as a new policy-a forward strategy of freedom that emphasized or resembled the same persistence, energy and idealism as in Europe, Asia and every region of the world where democracy had been successfully adopted.

However, the USA strategy of invading some Middle East nations in the name of embracing democracy had also received critiques from some sections of the community who held different views. For instance, according to Sterba (2009, p.585), the obvious reason for invading Middle East countries of Iraq and Afghanistan was majorly to benefit from the many energy resources available in the regions. Moreover, Tschirigi (2007, p.39-40) in critiquing the US strategy, had gone on to say that Bush had casted doubt on his own optimism when he insisted that while democratic governments reflected their own cultures, they were required to also exhibit common essential principles of rule of law, healthy civic institutions, political parties, labour unions, independent newspapers, religious liberty and rights of women.

To add on that, Ben-Meir (2006) noted that Western nations could not claim responsibility for having introduced democratic reforms in the Middle East since any initiative to introduce democratic reforms in the region involved the full support of gradual reforms, which many Western powers were not ready to adhere to.

In analyzing the principal sources of political liberalization in the Middle East, Sayari and others (1993) unanimously agreed that the process of change in the Middle East’s authoritarian regimes was more heavily influenced by the defensive strategies of incumbent elites than by a groundswell of support for democracy amongst the people in the Middle East. For example, some of the region’s authoritarian leaders and regimes viewed controlled political liberalization and the creation of institutionalized channels through parliaments, elections and parties as a means of overcoming the mounting crisis of legitimacy that they faced (Sayari et al. 1993, p.4). As such, they embraced democracy when they allowed some few representative processes and institutions to provide outlets upon which Muslim people expressed their popular discontent and grievances. This was done without endangering the regimes dominant political roles.

The challenge that was posed by the Islamic fundamental movements was also reviewed as another principal reason for adoption of political reforms across the Middle East (Hunter 2005, p.193). The emergence of Islamic forces to capitalize on economic and social problems, especially on some grievances of the poor urban people may have also contributed a great deal in introducing democracy in the Middle East. These Islamic forces provided democratic openings when they held governments accountable for their actions. As a result of their increased pressures, authoritarian Middle East regimes decided to incorporate some of the leaders from these Islamic forces into their governments thus providing room for political freedom hence democracy.

Conclusion

In conclusion, though the “full” definition of democracy continues to be elusive in the modern society, it should be emphasized that only institutional pre-requisite can help in narrowing down to an identical meaning of the term. These six major institutional prerequisite for ‘full democracy’ are elected officials, free and/or fair frequent elections, alternative sources of information, associational autonomy, inclusive citizenship. The listed prerequisites are expressed in different times by citizens’ in different countries.

It is also vital to note that not all governments that are today considered democratic uphold all these pre-requisites in their systems. As such, it will only be proper if we categorised today’s governments into two categories namely ‘fully democratic’ or ‘partially democratic’. Moreover, it is also important to note that the following constitute the essential conditions that can favour the growth and development of democracy across states. These conditions include the civilian control of police and military institutions, political cultures that are democratic and the absence of foreign power interventions.

From the research above, it clearly emerged that democracy, though still in its raw stages in the Middle East, was, to a small extend, introduced by what we may refer to neo-colonialism by Western powers, USA constituting the major source. Other factors that facilitated introduction of democracy in these states have been the formation of Islamic forces and pressure movements.

References

Alkadry, M., 2004. Colonialism in a postmodern age: The West, Arabs and “the battle of Baghdad”. [online] (Updated 9 Jan 2004) Available at: HYPERLINK “http://www.spaef.com/file.php?id=199” http://www.spaef.com/file.php?id=199 [Accessed 5 April 2011].

Becker, P. & Raveloson, 2008. What is democracy? [print] Hamburg: University of Harmburg.

Ben-Meir, A., 2006. Challenges on the road to democracy in the Middle East (part 1). [online] Available at: http://www.theglobalist.com/StoryId.aspx?StoryId=53575 [Accessed April 5 2011].

Brown, N.J., & Shahin, E.E., 2009. The struggle over democracy in the Middle East: Regional politics and external policies. [print] New York: Taylor & Francis.

CRS Report for Congress, 2006. US democracy promotion policy in the Middle East: The islamist dilemma. [online] Available at: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33486.pdf [Accessed 4 April 2011].

David, C.H., Gondin, D., 2006. Hegemony or empire? The redefinition of US power under George W. Bush. [print] England: Ashgate Publishing.

Hanson, V.D., 2002. Democracy in the Middle East.vol. 8. [Online] Available at: http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/001/769bfuqn.asp?page=2 [Accessed 4 April 2011].

Hilla University for Humanistic Studies, 2004. What is democracy? [online] Available at: http://www.stanford.edu/~ldiamond/iraq/WhaIsDemocracy012004.htm [Accessed 04 April 2011].

Hunter, S., 2005. Modernization, democracy and Islam. [print] Washington: ABC-CLIO.

Kolar, M, 2005. What is democracy? [online] Available at: HYPERLINK “http://www.whatisdemocracy.net/” http://www.whatisdemocracy.net/ [Accessed 4 April 2011].

Mahoney, J., 2010. Colonialism and postcolonial development: Spanish America in Comparative Perspective. [print] USA: Cambridge University Press.

Page, M.E., 2003. Colonialism: an international social, cultural, and political encyclopaedia. California: ABC-CLIO.

Pilkington, C., 1997, Representative democracy in Britain today. [Print] Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Ressler, O., 2009. What is democracy? [online] Available at http://www.ressler.at/what_is_democracy_film/ [Accessed 4 April 2011].

Sayari, S., Converse, P.E., & The US National Research Council, 1993. Democratization in the Middle East: trends and prospects: Summary of a workshop, [print] Washington D.C.: National Academies.

Sterba, J. 2009. Ethics: The big questions. 2 ed. [print] USA: Wiley-Blackwell.

The US Department of State, 2008. What is democracy? [online] Available at: http://www.america.gov/st/democracyhr-english/2008/May/20080619223145eaifas0.5311657.html [Accessed 4 April 2011].

Tschirigi, D., 2007. Turning point: the Arab world’s marginalization and international security after 9/11. [Print] USA: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Vaknin, S., The democratic ideal and new colonialism. [online] Available at: HYPERLINK “http://samvak.tripod.com/democracy.html” http://samvak.tripod.com/democracy.html [Accessed 5 April 2011].

Wood, A.T., 2004. Asian democracy in world history. [print] New York: Routledge.

Woolf, A., 2009. Systems of government democracy. [print] UK: Evans Brothers.

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Department of education

Department of education

Author

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Course

Date

Introduction

Education has been one of the most contentious subjects or topics in the recent times. It is widely accepted or recognized that an individual’s level of education has a bearing on the quality of life led by an individual. Of course, there are instances where individuals with little education end up as quite successful. That, however, does not undermine the role that education plays in enhancing people’s standards of living and, consequently, the economic capacity of the entire country. This would explain why many countries or governments pay quite a lot of attention on the policies that pertain to education. It goes without saying, however, that access to education has been unequal in the United States for a long time. This is what resulted to the establishment or creation of the U.S Department of Education by President Jimmy Carter in 1979. The law that established the Department of Education stated that it was to serve public interest and promote welfare, as well as ensure that all issues pertaining to education receive the appropriate treatment. In addition, it aimed at enabling the federal government to manage its education activities in an enhanced manner. At the time of establishment, the proponents felt that as much as education was a local and state responsibility education was still of national interest. This was because it directly impacted on the ability of the nation to compete at the international level, as well as defend itself during war times. In essence, its creation provided a direct line of communication and influence with the president as far as matters pertaining to education were concerned. As much as these were extremely noble causes, recent times have seen an increase in calls for the elimination of the Department of Education. Whether these calls are politically motivated or not, there emerges the question as to whether the department has lived up to its calling. Do the cons of having the department in place outweigh the pros of the same? In my opinion, the department should be eliminated if sanity in the education sector is to be restored.

First, it is worth noting that education was under the Department of Health, Education and Welfare prior to the establishment of the Department of education. These are departments that are supposed to be working hand in hand, especially having in mind that, for any child to exploit or take maximum advantage of all educational opportunities, he or she has to be healthy, have a full stomach and come from a safe home. This holistic approach is entirely absent in the federal initiatives pertaining to education (Strauss, 16). Instead, the competing departments are always engaging in bureaucratic turf wars that have tragic results for children. In fact, the establishment of bureaucracies fills the offices with unresponsive individuals who are too busy completing some paperwork to carry out real work, and intrude too much into the state and local decision-making (Strauss, 16). In essence, its elimination would enhance the efficiency and the responsiveness of the government to matters pertaining to education.

In addition, the establishment of the Department of Education tended to transfer the resources away from the state and local sources to a uniform or one-size-fits-all umbrella. This is hardly the appropriate recipe for alleviating educational problems. This explains why the meddling of the federal government in educational matters has been a failure (Murray, 56). It goes without saying that, there is no way that a few federal bureaucrats can sit in Washington DC and come up with a curriculum that meets the distinctive needs of millions of American school children across the country. This control over matters to do with education should be restored to the local and state levels, where parents and teachers will be in charge of the matters. This is because the parents and teachers understand their children best, in which case they are best suited or placed to come up with the appropriate curriculum that suits their children. This would eventually uplift the condition of the education system in the country.

Still on the same case, it is imperative that the government carries a cost-benefit analysis of the Department of Education. The education of the American children is too crucial to be left in the hands of a federal, centralized bureaucracy. It is worth noting that the creation of the Department of Education was a political payoff by Jimmy Carter to the teachers’ unions due to their endorsement in 1976. In essence, it is imperative to judge all agencies of the government, not on their intentions but by their results (Murray, 45). Unfortunately, the Department of Education seems to have only worsened things as far as the educational outcomes of students is concerned. The test scores of students in science, mathematics and reading, have either gone down or remained flat in the last four decades. This is irrespective of the fact that the federal agencies have eaten into the public coffers more than it was initially predicted. In 2011, the Department of Education’s budget was $77.8 billion up from $13.1 in 1980, in terms of 2007 dollars. This is, in fact, close to six times the size of the department’s original budget. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of the outcomes of student tests. Studies by Cato Institute have shown how an increase in federal spending has not translated into a positive impact of educational impact. It has always been known that there is no way an individual can use the same apparatus, the same process and the same variables and hope to get different results. Overturning the test scores or the performance of American students goes beyond simplistic strategies and calls for a comprehensive overhaul of the entire educational system. This would be impossible within the bureaucratic framework of the federal system, which implies that the elimination of the Department of Education is imperative.

In addition, the constitutionality of the Department of Education is extremely questionable just like many other things pertaining to the federal government. The Federal Government incorporates approximately 30 enumerated powers, which the constitution delegated to it. It is noteworthy that education is not explicitly listed in the constitution, in which case the authority and control over education should be left to the local and state governments or rather the parents and teachers (Murray, 45). In fact, Ronald Reagan campaigned on the platform of eliminating the Department of Education in 1980, right after Jimmy Carter established it. The GOP platform in 1996 read that the Federal Government incorporated no constitutional authority as far as its involvement in school curricula was concerned. In essence, the government was to eliminate the Department of Education and end the meddling of the Federal government in American schools, as well as enhance family choice in all learning levels (Murray, 34).

Perhaps the worst aspect pertaining to the Department of Education is the fact that, it has regenerated into a monstrous propaganda machine that is funded using public coffers to promote an agenda that is against most American’s values (Goetsch, 23). It is a monstrous entrenched bureaucracy that utilizes the power of the purse to instruct or indoctrinate teachers, administrators and students in ways that promote revisionist history, socialism, multiculturalism and homosexuality. Its programs emphasize on victimhood over personal responsibility, entitlement mentality over work ethic, self-esteem over discipline, and compliance over individual liberty (Goetsch, 23). This is hardly the best way to bring up the American children who happen to be the future of the nation. In essence, it is imperative that the Department of Education is eliminated at least to eliminate the wastage of public funds on unsuccessful schemes and propaganda.

In conclusion, the Department of Education was established in an effort to enhance welfare in the educational system and enhance the quality of education. However, it has regenerated into a monstrous propaganda machine, delivered nothing in terms of enhancing the performance of American children, and has no explicit constitutional basis. In addition, it is devoid of a holistic approach that is necessary in enhancing the education of American children as pertaining to safe homes, and having a full stomach, something that was well catered for when Education was under the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Studies have shown that the educational outcomes have continuously dropped or remained stagnant despite the increase in the amount of money pumped into the Department of Education’s budget. These dismal outcomes can only be remedied through the elimination of the Department of Education.

Works cited

Strauss, Valerie. Why the Education Dept. should be eliminated – Wood. The Washington Post 2010, retrieved 9th July 2012 from HYPERLINK “http://voices.washingtonpost.com/answer-sheet/george-wood/why-the-education-dept-should.html” http://voices.washingtonpost.com/answer-sheet/george-wood/why-the-education-dept-should.html

Goetsch, David L. Should We Eliminate The U.S. Department of Education? 2012 Web retrieved 7th July 2012 from HYPERLINK “http://patriotupdate.com/articles/should-we-eliminate-the-u-s-department-of-education” http://patriotupdate.com/articles/should-we-eliminate-the-u-s-department-of-education

Murray, Charles. Real Education, Four Simple Truths for Bringing America’s Schools Back to Reality. New York: Crown Publishing Group, 2009. Print

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Democracy plays a very pivotal role in the governance of a country

Democracy plays a very pivotal role in the governance of a country

Introduction

Democracy plays a very pivotal role in the governance of a country. Such kind of governance may be initiated by the citizens or by their representatives whom they have elected. At the outset, democracy provides a suitable system of governance where different calibre of people coexists despite their class, gender, origin, ethnicity, religion and culture among other affiliations. The more striking aspect of democracy is the provision of political freedom to the citizens in a country given the fact that majority dictates what is good for them. In essence, the civil rights of people is upheld and respected. However, democracy should be coiled with elaborate institutional framework as the majority who has the say can abuse such privileges and oppress the minority group within their area of jurisdiction. Different countries have varied degree of democracy given their status of civilization hence the variability in the freedom enjoyed by their citizens. In highly democratic states, citizens enjoy a variety of freedom including freedom of speech, association and assembly among other freedom issues. It is however, worth noting that coiling democracy with other values such as trust enhances the positive coexistence of different people within same environmental setting. This paper therefore examines the relationship of democracy and the social values by comparing and contrasting nations that have different degree of freedom.

To begin with, political freedom is one such important factor in a society that everyone is willing to benefit from. It is however dependent on the mode of governance and the legal as well as political framework existing in a state that guides such governance approaches. Different nations have varied degree of freedom brought about by the levels of democracy practiced within a nation. Some states such as France and Germany have high freedom rates while other nations such as Iraq and Iran enjoy little freedom. The first two states were democratically established a long time ago unlike the latter two countries which have had their struggle for democratic space for a short period of time notably after the disintegration of communist bigwigs. Varieties of values are correlated to democracy in many ways and are therefore important in upholding the democratic space within a nation. It is therefore important to examine the various values, beliefs and attitudes that are have tried to shape up the democratic systems in the aforementioned countries. It is partly true though majorly hypothetical that the post-communist states of Iran and Iraq have to undergo a long and challenging task in an attempt to gain democratic stability currently enjoyed by Germany and France. The choice of the aforementioned countries was based on the fact that these nations share some things in common such as culture and religion. For instance, Iran and Iraq are Islamic nations while France and Germany are Christian-based States.

The procedure of democratization is affected by a variety of social issues including religion, tradition, and emphasis of education among others which shapes up the social values and beliefs which in turn affects the behavior of the populace. To begin with, Germany and France are predominantly Catholic territories even though East Germany is occupied mainly by the Protestants. Iraq and Iran on the other hand are strongholds of Islamic religion. The values and beliefs of the two cliques of countries are sharply different. As Germany and France campaign for the respect and upholding of individual human rights of each and everyone in their country, Iraq and Iran on the other hand lobby for the elevation of group ideals and the subsequent handling of individual or personal issues as secondary in priority. According to the Islam religion, the ethics and virtues of the believers emphasize the support an individual is supposed to offer to his/her group and not putting his personal needs a head of the group’s needs. This has negative impact on democratic practices lobbied by the western countries that requires that individual human rights be respected. Besides, Islamic religion has other beliefs and values that hamper the process of democratization. To begin with, the issues concerning of morals are highly demanding according to the Islamic teaching unlike Christianity practiced in Germany and France. According to the Confucian morals churches give answers to all the moral problems an individual faces. The World Values Survey provides statistics where 64.3% and 77.3% of respondents in Iran and Iraq respectively supported the idea compared to 42.6% of similar respondents in Germany. 35.7% and 22.7% of the respondents in Iran and Iraq opposed the idea as 54.7% of the German respondents believed that churches do not offer solutions to moral problems.

Moreover, the rule of virtue and not the rule of law are prominent in the two Islamic countries of Iran and Iraq as opposed to Germany and France which enforces the latter. According to Muslims, individuals are supposed to define their interest in the interest of where they come from and not their personal interest. In essence, in politics and governance, there are no basic human rights in Iraq and Iran but the rights of community as a whole. This is in contrast with the two secular countries of France and Germany where civil human rights is respected. Democracy is deeply rooted in the rule of law and provides an environment for the upholding of human rights. The Islamic value that campaigns for the primacy of group over individual interest may be a factor derailing the democratization process in Iraq and Iran compared to Germany and France which have well established democratic processes.

Besides, the Confucian morality stipulates that the relationship between an individual and his/her parents are based on loyalty as well as filial piety unlike contracts or mutual benefits as witnessed in the pro-western countries. According to the Confucian morality individuals are judged by the honor and benefit they have brought to the family as the latter forms the basic facet of governance in Iraq and Iran. However, this is greatly different with Germany and France’s moral beliefs where an individual is entitled to be independent and therefore guided by personal liberty. He makes his own decisions and therefore does what he deems necessary. According to the statistics, 86.4 % of the French, 93.8 % Iranians, 96.1 % Iraqis as well as 81.8 % German believed that family was very important in day to day life. Democracy requires that on be is left to make his own choice in a free world. Individuals are required to accountable to what they do as individuals not as a group. The important moral goods encompass independence, individual rights, freedom, as well as self-determination.

The Confucian morality also presents a hierarchical form of relations in a Muslim family. It argues that the siblings should respect any decision made by the parents particularly by the father. The children are bound to respect this without questioning such decisions no matter how wrong they might prove to be. This is in contrast to the pro-western constitutions which enable the son to criticize apparent and disregard a decision when he feels that it has been wrongly made. Democracy provides for freedom of speech and that everyone with a sound mind should be allowed to criticize any decisions by anybody that the individual is uncomfortable with.

Furthermore, emphasis on education is another vital social value affecting the democratization process in a given nation. To begin with, the pro-west countries of Germany and France introduced education long time ago compared to Iran and Iraq which initiated such similar programs after communism had been overthrown hardly ten years ago. For instance, statistics retrieved from the world values survey provides highlights on an initiative of primary education established by Germany. According to the survey, 51.1% give the initiative top priority while 34.5% gives it high priority, 12.3% and 2.1% prioritizes the project as medium and low respectively. Other data are actually missing. Besides, gender equality should also be considered while offering educational services to the citizens. Responses on the whether university is more important to a boy then a girl demonstrated how Iran and Iraq despised undermined girl child education compared with Germany and France. According to the statistics, 13.8% strongly oppose the idea of elevating boys at the expense girl education while 13.3% strongly agree with the idea. 27.1% strongly oppose the idea in Iraq while 24.8% strongly agree with the idea. On the other hand, Germany and France presents sharply contrasting data results. In Germany, 49.3% strongly disagree that university is more important to a boy than a girl and 3.1% strongly agree with the idea. France presents even stronger data results in opposition of the idea. 73.1% strongly disagree while 1.8% strongly agrees. For any state to claim efficient democratization, subjecting its populace to education procedures is a fundamental aspect in the process. Education is vital for the democratic life of students as they can now to think critically, be efficient, and participate in all political spheres through engagement in lobbying, voting as well as involvement in decision-making processes. Issues of gender are also vital in the democratization process.

Besides, egalitarianism is another vital social value that can also be used in the comparison of the four countries in respect to democracy. Egalitarianism entails the belief on the equality of human beings concerning issues of economic, political as well as social factors. At the outset, democracy provides a foundation for the facilitation of equality in all the aforementioned spheres. Equality has been campaigned for by a variety of human groups as well as some state governments in the western region. Christian-based countries such as Germany and France encourage equality on the issues raised above by citing the bible that everyone is equal before God. Such equality is important in the democratic space where everyone is accorded equal opportunity so as to be productive. However, equality is highly disputed by Muslims world they undermine women in many occasions. This is exemplified in Iran and Iraq where men are elevated above women in many instances. For instance, a question was asked concerning the performance of women compared to men in the position of company executive. The responses were not surprising. French respondents disagreed strongly with the idea that women would make good chief executive compared to men.54.8% strongly agreed while 2.2% strongly opposed the idea. Germany had 44.8% respondents strongly disagreeing with idea as 3.0 strongly agreeing. On the other hand, Iran strongly agreed recording 20.7% followed by strong disagreement with the idea at 5.3%.

Table

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Political system and Justice are also other important aspect of democratization process. To begin with, fairness in the offer of judgment is very vital in any civilized society. In respect to the four countries of France, Germany, Iran as well as Iraq, equal justice to all people is a vital component of attaining democracy in a country. Political system on the other hand provides a framework as well as guideline that would control all the political activities. Different countries have different political system in their government. For instance, some countries have systems that have democratic system. World Value Survey presents such analysis as used in the four nation’s analysis. The data presented are more or less similar in trend. For instance, Germany is rated at 56.7% as very good but at 1.0% as very bad political system. This is the highest score that insinuates that has political system with very goods political system with democratic political system. The table below summarizes all the data pertaining to the four nations. Iraq for instance had a very good score of 54.8% with the very bad score of 3.7%. Sound political system is the basis to the governance needed in the modern democratic world.

Table

EMBED MSGraph.Chart.8 s

Social trust is another equally important social value that has close relationship with democracy. To begin with, social trust entails the ability of a person or a group of people to embrace another stranger(s) in his/their midst. When people can have such behavior and attitude to accommodate other people no matter the differences in origin, class, ethnicity, religion or race, then harmony and unity can be effectively achieved. It is believed that people with trust are active and always connected to other people be they families or just friends. In the process, they try to uphold and maintain the positive character trait so as to sustain the friendship. It is more important to stay connected to other people so that an individual’s mistake or undoing is corrected. If such an action is not pursued one may end up getting used to the wrongs he/she has been committing.

Trust is however affected by a variety of factors. Firstly, the prevailing political and economic climate in a country has an impact on the trust on other people or certain things such as media, health care and education among others. The trust on a given political view in a media such as press is highly relevant to democracy in a state. Such trust ensures that we are in a position to accommodate other people’s ideas and opinions concerning pertinent issues of politics. It is however, worth mentioning that the confidence in press has deteriorated in France as statistics show that only 2.1% have trust in the press but 19.1% do not have trust at all. This is almost similar in Germany where 2.1% are known to have trust in the press but 15.8% lacks the trust in the press. Unlike the aforementioned statistics of the two pro-western countries, Iran presents a different scenario. In this survey results, 5.1% do not have trust in the press while 8.4% have trust in the press.

Table EMBED MSGraph.Chart.8 s

Even though social trust is not in many instances associated with the usual set of economic, social as well as political variables including gender, age, education, income, race, and employment, it is sometimes found in some of the aforementioned social categories. It is always associated with high status, high education as well as high income and is therefore more likely to be exhibited among the middle aged men and women and the psychologically satisfied individuals in respect to their jobs or general lifestyle.

It is noteworthy that trust has a close relationship with the democratization process. The ability of an individual to embrace a stranger within his midst despite differences in class, religion, ethnicity, race or culture is an encouraging undertaking since it ensures that unity and harmony prevails. The occurrence of social trust among people in a society contributes to certain aspects of solidarity, productive cooperation as well as peaceful coexistence and stable relations which are suitable for the nourishment of democracy. Democracy is known to prevail in such aforementioned environments as peace and harmony.

Generally, the difference witnessed between the four discussed countries is partly dependent on time factor when democracy was established in the aforementioned nations as well as the differences in the social values of the Asian countries from those of the pro-western. For instance, Germany and France had established the democratization process long ago before Iran and Iraq which are in still the process of establishing democracy following the fall of communism. France and Germany established liberal democracy many years back and have therefore positioned themselves in vantage points as far as political freedom is concerned. Their citizens enjoy the fruits of freedom as well as respect for human rights. Iran and Iraq on the other hand are still on the verge of trying to integrate the native Confucian value of the East Asia in an attempt to enhance democratization process. They lack freedom of expression and still engage in violations of civil rights.

Conclusion

As mentioned above, democracy is a fundamental aspect in good governance of any nation. Sound democratic practices employed by those in power ensure a suitable environment characterized by high degree of freedom. Democratization process may be initiated by the leaders themselves or compelled by elected people. The aspect of democracy is related in one way or another to a number of social values including morality, tradition, culture, social trust, and education among other values. The above discussed nations have demonstrated sharp differences in various aspects of the social values according to the world value survey. For instance, such sharp contrast has been witnessed in the issue related to gender and education. The pro-western countries of France and Germany strongly oppose the idea that university is more important to boy than girl as supported by Iran as well as Iraq. Countries such as France and Germany had long time ago established democratically compared to Iran and Iraq which are developing their democratic process after the fall of communism. It is therefore noteworthy that the social values associated with democracy would be developed at a similar slower pace as the democratic process. Finally, a democratic process, practice as well as institution should ensure high quality public policy that is in the interest of the public.

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Democrats & Republicans

Democrats & Republicans

Democrats & Republicans

Both democrats and republicans fear the hard road head they see ahead. The groove that has cut between the two is growing bigger day by day even inside the houses, yet they are the ones supposed to govern this great nation together for the next term. The American people decided to leave the Republicans to control the lower house but let the democrats stay on top of them so they voted in President Obama. Even though they expressed frustration due to the stand still that almost pulled the nation into defaulting on its loans in the last year, they showed a sort of 50-50 split among the supporters considering the very narrow win against a republican, Mitt Romney. This will be a divide that will in a major way; slow down the progress of any issues maybe for the next 2 years and this might soon be an arousal of a crisis in the American nation. During the campaigns, Obama put his focus more on giving help to the middle class and the high number of believers of “yes we can”. Even with Mitt Romney and his allies spending more than $1 billion trying to throw him out, Obama’s tactics were more of a coalition of identity rather than ideology. Other than winning himself the seat, as a democrat of the nation, he also won himself a seat in history next to those other eight men who were re-elected more than once.

Even with the re-election of democrat and President Barrack Obama, the republicans continued hold of the house with House Speaker John Boehner saying that they will have as much mandate as Obama. They had made it their goal four years ago that they would work towards the loss of power for President Obama. Mitch McConnell, a senate republican leader, in his remarks following the elections said that the voters were not looking at the failures and excesses of the president’s first term. This showed their effort toward throwing him out of the white house. The republicans also went against the health care law that Obama tried to push through. They did not give even one single house or Senate vote for it but instead beat down the efforts towards ending tax cuts targeting the richest households, instituted during the Bush era. They had tried to use the high rates of unemployment in the states to show his incapability for a second term. In an attempt at deficit reduction, republicans have failed to raise taxes targeting the rich citizens.

Democrats however think that Obama has learnt his lesson in his first term that has led him to the realization that at times he will have to get involved in not just the crafting of, but also the negotiation of legislation. In addition, democrats topped up that such tax hikes by the republicans might always accompany such deals. By re-electing Obama back to power, the democrats made sure even with the number of republicans in the house, democrats sat on the throne. It is probable that the larger number that voted him in were democrats.

Obama proceeded to show the urge for unison between the republicans and democrats in the house when in his victory speech he stated that he was looking forward to working with leaders from both sides of the divide in order to meet the challenges that can only be solved through collaboration. This greatly supports my personal view of the situation. The United States of America will either have to change this name or rephrase by the end of this term if they do not set aside their differences and lead this nation together.

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Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

Name

Course

Tutor’s Name

Date

Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

When the United States dropped two atomic bombs over the two Japanese towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, World War II gradually came to an end. But shortly afterwards, the world entered into a cold war, a period of great tensions as two sides (NATO and Warsaw Pact) engaged in an arms race. The situation was so tense that analysts came with a term Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), to refer to a situation whereby the two protagonists (Soviet Union led by Russia and the United States) will simultaneous strike each other with nuclear weapons and wipe themselves out of the planet (Gaddis, 1982). Eventually the two sides had to step away from the brink of a major catastrophe.

As to whether the presence of more nuclear weapons can guaranteed continued world peace and stability is a matter of conjecture. On one side it has been argued that more nuclear weapons has a deterrent effect on nations (Oupblog, 2009), so that in case of a conflict, countries will always pull back from the brink by the mere thought that war will escalate to nuclear war. The consequences of nuclear war are too grave that anybody will not dare use them.

It can also be argued that, nuclear weapons cannot sustain the peace we have all along known. Countries such as Iran look at such weapons as leveling the ground against states that are out to bully them, casting doubts as to whether sobriety can prevail when it faced with obvious threat of an attack. It should also not be forgotten that terrorist elements such as Al Qaeda, have proved that they derived great delight from mass killings of innocent civilians (Oupblog, 2009, and Greenpeace, n.d.). The September 11 attacks in the United States are clear example of their thinking. One wonders what the world will look like should they access either the technology or the nuclear war heads.

In the current dispensations, and with the reality of terrorism, more nuclear weapons simply mean less control and easy access to terrorists, turning them into killing devices.

References

Gaddis, J. L.(1982). Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Post-war American

National Security. New York: Oxford University Press.

Greenpeace,(n. d). Moving to a nuclear weapons-free world. Retrieved October 4, 2013, from

http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/peace/moving-nuclear-weapons-free-world

Oupblog, (2009, March, 26). Do nuclear weapons make the world a safer place?

Message posted to http://blog.oup.com/2009/03/nuclear-weapons/

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NSA not only one watching

NSA not only one watching

NSA not only one watching

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Course Instructor

Date

Americans do complain about confidentiality of their information. According to McClatchy of Tribune Business News in their article “NSA not only one watching” that was published on 14 July, 2013, the NSA is not the only institution accessing confidential data. There are businesses that also track customers without their knowledge such as the one instituted by Nordstrom that connects clients phones with the Wi-Fi systems. Companies doing the tracking system have largely gained customers from both the corporate world and even individuals. According to the self-proclaimed leaker Snowden, NSA has revealed a lot concerning government’s ability of using complicated scrutiny and data mining procedures on the citizens without much consideration (Dilanian, 2013).

However, it is believed that data gathered and oppressed by the internet gurus such as the social media are more superior to the information gathered by the National Security Intelligence. Of course the NSA cannot gather sufficient information from individuals concerned without using very powerful IT tools. The clients to these internet specialists are very ignorant about how their data is used (Dilanian, 2013). They do not understand where all the information that they have provided online are shared and cannot even tell the importance of their information by the respective companies.

According to the Chief technology officer of Madison Logic, the notion that NSA has advanced technologically compared to the corporate America is not true. Indeed the corporate American corporate are in a better position of acquiring all the information belonging to the citizens compared to the government. The government must therefore get the information from the companies because they are the only source. The government has to rely on technology to enhance their data mining job (Dilanian, 2013).

It is apparent that most companies access some of the most crucial and confidential information without the citizen’s knowledge. Google accesses all the emails that we send and receive anytime as Amazon company gets to know more about our shopping and even people we shop for. It therefore remains clear that the emails we send or4 receive are never as confidential as deemed by the users. This is really disturbing and it leaves one wondering whether advancement in technology means an increase in interference with individuals’ confidentiality rights (Dilanian, 2013).

The Big Data revolution has catapulted the issue of collecting and analyzing citizens data particularly clients to the internet giants. Though the idea of Big Data Revolution is of great help to consumers because the companies are able to design products according to the consumer’s opinions it is still privacy arbitrage. The customer satisfaction has been raised to a certain standard of their own feedbacks and recommendations as a result of automated analysis of customer preferences. The Big Data revolution is further essential in streamlining services offered by the government such as reduction of crime but the question is whether the need to provide services and security by the government overrides the need to ensure one’s confidentiality rights (Dilanian, 2013).

All the information about an individual can be manipulated due to ease of access and can therefore be wrongly used by groups such as identity thieves or even opponents in a civil lawsuit. Data access should therefore be regulated as much as possible to avoid such kind of access. It is unfortunate to see smartphones acting as tracking gadgets due to their ability to occasionally send signals about user’s locations. There are many other applications that give more details about individuals thus interfering with the confidentiality rights (Blanpain & Gestel, 2004). Just like the NSA argues that they only use personal data for security purposes such as terrorism, the companies such as Google and Verizon Wireless insist on using these data purely for sales purposes. However regardless of the different purposes and reasons suggested by these parties, whatever they do is privacy arbitrage. Every individual has a right of privacy which is very essential. The fact remains that they still hold very confidential information belonging to the citizens and they can manipulate them anytime because they may not be able to control the data (Dilanian, 2013).

This argument is very valid and effective because it addresses the main concern of Americans in an openly manner. The authors have pointed out several instances such as the way Google and Amazon companies accesses people’s data without their consent. It is also very true that the companies and the NSA may not be able to fully control the data they collect from people thus subjecting the information to manipulation (Blanpain & Gestel, 2004). It is very important for the individual’s confidentiality rights to be respected by both the internet companies and the NSA. Although it may seem difficult controlling these issues, their need a strong law constituted to at least minimize the effects of privacy arbitrage.

References

Blanpain, R., & Gestel, M. V. (2004). Use and monitoring of e-mail, intranet, and internet facilities at work: Law and practice. Hague [u.a.: Kluwer Law Internat.Dilanian, K. (2013, Jul 14). NSA not only one watching. McClatchy – Tribune Business News. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1399810235?accountid=45049

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NUTRITION RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT

NUTRITION RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT

NTR 198

NUTRITION RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT

You will be required to research a nutrition topic of your choice based on the subjects we are discussing. You must find one article of original research on your topic, from an accredited journal (i.e. The Journal of Clinical Nutrition, The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (JADA, JAMA. The Journal of the American Medical Association or any other medical journal available the library or on the library’s database. You will submit the first page of the article with your paper and include a bibliography of the article read and proper citations when necessary. The final assignment will consist of the following components: Minimum of 500 words

A summary of your topic, including issues of concern or what research is being done and why.

Include a copy of the first page of the article, bibliography and citations.

Write a summary of the research article including who the subjects were, how many subjects were involved, what exactly was being studied, the methodology, the results and conclusion. – IN YOUR OWN WORDS

Then write your own conclusion on the topic relating to the research your just read what you learned. Was it good science? Why? What did you come to believe about the topic?

*Topics must be specific, i.e. not simply “Vitamin A” but “Vitamin A and Cancer Prevention” or not just “Pediatric Nutrition” but “Parental Influence of Food Choices of Children.

*** Research articles must have subjects, methods, experiments and conclusions. It must be the original research NOT an arable about research. Not all articles in journals are original research, choose carefully.

**** All citations must be written in APA format (see directions). Help is available at the Library and the Writing Center

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