21. Andrew Johnson has been described as

A) extremely friendly toward black rights. B) an eager defender of traditional southern aristocrats. C) hating all things southern. D) a consummate politician and party man. E) specializing in opposition and alienating members of his own party.

22. During the bitter days of Reconstruction, most Northerners

A) believed in giving blacks the vote. B) opposed true equality for blacks. C) were not concerned at all about blacks. D) completely supported the radicals. E) supported political equality, but not social equality for blacks.

23. As a result of black demands for economic independence and the shortage of capital, the South developed the agricultural system known as

A) sharecropping. B) gang labor. C) tenant farming. D) wage-crop economics. E) crop rotation.

24. In 1872 Horace Greeley and the Liberal Republicans focused on the issue of

A) guaranteeing civil rights and economic aid to former slaves. B) defending laws to help unions and farm organizations. C) ratifying the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. D) granting women the vote. E) supporting civil service reform and low tariffs.

25. After the Compromise of 1877, the former slaves

A) gained economic and political power in the South. B) were condemned to poverty and indignity in the interests of sectional harmony. C) made no more dramatic political or economic gains until after World War II, but also suffered no economic or political losses. D) continued to share in America’s growing wealth and power. E) made dramatic political or economic gains up until World War I, but suffered major economic or political losses after 1920. Bonus questions (1 point each).

26. According to your text, among the most basic justifications for secession for the South were the

A) exaggerated sense of honor and code of the duel that defined Southern masculinity. B) traditional states’ rights arguments. C) refusals of Lincoln and the Republicans to support constitutional guarantees to protect slavery where it already existed. D) fears of the overpowering Northern economy. E) promises of aid from England and France.

27. After secession began in 1860, the proposed constitutional amendment which would have guaranteed the future existence of slavery south of the old Missouri Compromise line was the A) Compromise of 1860. B) Crittenden Compromise. C) Douglas Amendment. D) Lincoln-Buchanan Compromise. E) Constitutional Union Compromise.