1. In 2011 the United States had a population of 311 million, of which 71 million were either under 16 years of age or institutionalized. Approximately 154 mil-lion people were either employed or unemployed but actively seeking work.  What was the participation rate in 2011?
2. Compare the participation rates of   (a)   white and African–American women and   (b)   white and African–American men. In each case explain any differences.
3. Use the following data to calculate    (a)    the size of the labor force,   (b)   the official unemployment rate, and   (c)   the labor force participation rate (Chapter 3) for a hypothetical economy: population  =   500; population 16 years or older and non-institutionalized   =   400; people employed full- or part-time   =   200; people unemployed and actively seeking work   =   20; people who have quit seeking work due to lack of success  =   10; part-time workers seeking full-time jobs  =   30.
4. Assume that the official national unemployment rate rises from 4 percent to 8 per-cent because of a major recession. What impact do you predict this would have on   (a)    the African–American to white unemployment rate ratio,   (b)   the labor force participation rate, and   (c)   the teenage–adult unemployment rate ratio? Explain.