RUS 375 – In 1917 the Soviets took over a country

Subject: General Questions / General General Questions
Question
QUESTION 14
In 1917 the Soviets took over a “country of peasants,” in which – according to some statistics – over 60% of the population was completely illiterate (i.e. over 60% of Russians didn’t know how to spell their name). According to one of this module’s readings, what was the situation with literacy in Russia by the late 1950s? (i.e. after about 30 years of Soviet power)

62.67% of Russians between the ages of 10 and 49 could read

52% of Russians between the ages of 10 and 49 could read

98.5% of Russians between the ages of 10 and 49 could read

73.5% of Russians between the ages of 10 and 49 could read

4 points

QUESTION 15
With Gorbachev’s ascent to power in the USSR, many countries of the communist bloc echoed the new reform impulses from Moscow. Ultimately, all of these East and Central European counties began a wave of revolutions to replace their old, pro-Soviet governments. Which of the countries listed below executed their Communist dictator?

Wojciech Jaruzelski in Poland

Nicolae Ceausescu in Romania

Todor Zhivkov in Bulgaria

Janos Kadar in Hungary

4 points

QUESTION 16
In May 1985, less than two months after becoming General Secretary of the Communist Party, Mikhail Gorbachev launched a highly unpopular campaign against alcohol abuse in the Soviet Union. Which of the following measures did he implement?

Banning the sale of alcohol in restaurants before two o’clock in the afternoon

Gorbachev did not implement any of the measures listed here

Gorbachev implemented all of the measures listed here

Shutting down many vodka distilleries and destroying vineyards in the wine-producing republics of Moldavia, Armenia and Georgia

Requiring that all official Soviet receptions, both at home and abroad, become alcohol-free.

4 points

QUESTION 17
As this module’s readings discuss, glasnost encouraged a sense of civil identity and many new activist groups formed in this climate of new cultural freedoms. One of such groups discussed in your readings was called “Memorial.” What was the task of this group?

To address the problems of women of any age

To expose sores of environmental devastation that prevailed during the Soviet era

To hep rehabilitate Stalin’s victims and agitate for democratic reform

To restore old tsarist (i.e. pre-Soviet) names to cities, towns, and streets

4 points

QUESTION 18
Both of Gorbachev’s grandfathers had been arrested during the Stalinist purges (a fact that Gorbachev openly confessed on Soviet television, personally relating to victims of repressions).

True

False

4 points

QUESTION 19
The terms “perestroika” and “glasnost” entered the Soviet rhetoric with Gorbachev. None of Gorbachev’s predecessors or the Soviet Constitution had used these terms prior to 1985.

True

False

5 points

QUESTION 20
The documentary Soviet Disunioncites Iosif Stalin describing what as “sheltered from the people”?

Lubianka, the KGB offices

Ozersk, the top-secret birthplace of Soviet nuclear weapons program and one of the most polluted cities on the planet

Gulag labor camps in Siberia

Dachas (cottages outside of Moscow) of the Soviet leaders

4 points

QUESTION 21
Which one of the following changes in the Soviet society listed below is NOT associated with the name of Mikhail Gorbachev?

Opening up the public voice and weakening the Communist Party

Major alleviation of nuclear, chemical and industrial pollution in the Soviet Union

Allowing liberation of East Central Europe

Seeking security and friendship with the West and with China

4 points (Extra Credit)

QUESTION 22
Which of the following does NOT explain why Gorbachev had to abandon his anti-alcohol campaign in 1987?

Sharp rise in the production of moonshine and, similar to Prohibition in the United States, an increase in organized crime

Major protests from the Soviet citizens who barricaded the Kremlin demanding the cancellation of anti-alcohol law

The decline in state revenues, which relied heavily on the sales of alcohol. A budgetary imbalance caused by the drop of alcohol-generated revenue had to be overcome by printing more money, which fueled inflation

Rise in the instances of alcohol poisoning, as hard drinkers turned to other, more dangerous, substances.

4 points

QUESTION 23
Which of the following statistical data is INCORRECT? (please note: you must choose only ONE answer below)

An estimated 12% of Soviet population (or approximately 20 million people) provided underground services (from shoe repair to abortions)

In 1990, the USSR produced four times as many bulldozers as the USA, but only 1/50 as many pairs of women’s underwear

In 1991 Russia had one -fiftieth as many personal computers per capita as the US and one-tenth as many personal computers as South Korea

In 1989, 25% of Russians had homes with no indoor toilet and one third of Russian population had no hot running water

All of the data listed here is incorrect

In 1989, fewer than one family in three had access to a telephone

Soviet cows gave less than half as much milk as their American counterparts

All of the data listed here is, indeed, correct

4 points

QUESTION 24
After Gorbachev’s resignation, the next General Secretary of the Soviet Union was Boris Yeltsin.

True

False

5 points

QUESTION 25
The chief goal of Mikhail Gorbachov’s reforms was to abolish socialism, Communist Party rule and, ultimately, to dissolve the Soviet Union.

True

False

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