Submit an essay on the role of middle management in team building, maintenance & viability being sure to incorporate each chapter provided, specifically referencing the Opening Case in chapter 11 about the Four Seasons. (Must include works cited.) Please also include other reference material (that should be available online).

CHAPTER TEN: Group Dynamics


  See Slides 10-2, 10-3

When you finish studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to:

•	Identify the four sociological criteria of a group, and discuss the impact of social networking on group dynamics.
•	Describe the five stages in Tuckman’s theory of group development, and discuss the threat of group decay.
•	Distinguish between role conflict and role ambiguity.
•	Contrast roles and norms, and specify four reasons norms are enforced in organizations.
•	Distinguish between task and maintenance roles in groups.
•	Summarize the practical contingency management implications for group size.
•	Discuss why managers need to carefully handle mixed-gender task groups.
•	Describe groupthink, and identify at least four of its symptoms.
•	Define social loafing, and explain how managers can prevent it.

In Chapter 10, the focus of the book shifts from individual behavior to collective behavior.  This chapter defines groups, discusses their functions and explores the impact of social media on groups.  This chapter describes the group development process and roles and norms in group dynamics are also discussed.  Chapter 10 explores the effects of group structure and member characteristics on group outcomes.  Finally, the threats to group effectiveness are discussed, including the Asch effect, groupthink and social loafing.
A group is defined as two or more freely interacting individuals who share collective norms and goals and have a common identity.  A formal group is one formed by the organization while an informal group exists when the members’ primary purpose is friendship.  Formal groups fulfill two basic functions: 
organizational and individual.  An organizational function, for example, would be to accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.  An individual function might be to satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation.  Internet tools and social networking sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter have blurred the line between formal and informal groups.  This has magnified the long-standing dilemma of how friendly managers should be with their direct reports.  Managers are urged to compartmentalize their official and unofficial roles, a goal which requires emotional and social intelligence.
A common model of the group development process is Tuckman’s five-stage theory.  In stage 1, forming, members tend to be uncertain about their roles, who is in charge, and the group’s goals.  Stage 2, storming, is a time of testing.  Subgroups take shape, and subtle forms of rebellion occur.  If groups make it to stage 3, norming, they generally do so because a respected member, other than the leader, challenges the group to resolve its power struggles so something can be accomplished.  A renewed feeling of team spirit is experienced and group cohesiveness is a by-product of this stage.  Stage 4, performing, is characterized by activity focused on solving task problems.  The climate is open, cooperative, and helpful.  In stage 5, adjourning, the group disbands, a time which may be marked by rituals celebrating the end.
A growing body of group development research provides managers with some practical insights.  Research indicates that groups can shift into reverse once they reach the performing stage in a process referred to as group decay.  The quantity and quality of feedback varies systematically during the group development process.  Uncertainty about deadlines is a disruptive force for group development and intergroup relations.  Different leadership styles are needed as work groups develop with directive and structured leadership styles needed in the group's early development while participative and supportive styles are more effective as the group continues to develop.
Roles represent expected behaviors for a given position.  A role episode, as illustrated in Figure 10-3, consists of a snapshot of the ongoing interaction between two people.  Role overload occurs when the role sender’s expectations exceed the focal person’s ability.  Role conflict is experienced when different members have conflicting or inconsistent expectations of the focal person.  Finally, role ambiguity occurs when the focal person does not know what is expected of him or her.  Research indicates that role conflict and role ambiguity negatively affect employees.  Norms are shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior.  Norms are developed through explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers, critical events in the group’s history, primacy effects, or carryover behaviors from past situations.  Norms help the group survive, clarify behavioral expectations, help avoid embarrassing situations, and clarify the group’s central values and identity. 
A group’s structure and composition can enhance or hinder group effectiveness, depending on how the group is managed.  Task and maintenance roles, which 
are described in Table 10-4, are important to groups.  Task roles enable the group to pursue a common purpose, while maintenance roles foster interpersonal relationships.  Research has sought to determine the optimal group size.  The mathematical modeling approach and the laboratory simulation approach indicate that groups of 3 to 5 members are appropriate when a high-quality decision is the group’s main objective but larger groups can be appropriate when the goal is to generate creative ideas, encourage participation, or socialize new members.  If majority votes are to be taken, odd-numbered groups are recommended to avoid deadlocks.  A group’s gender composition can affect group dynamics.  Research indicates a pattern of gender inequality exists in mixed-gender groups.  Men interrupt women significantly more often than they do other men.  Women moving into male-dominated fields face greater resistance than do males moving into female-dominated fields.  The increased social contact between the genders has lead to increased sexualization of the workplace.  Proactive steps are needed to ensure that increased sexualization of work environments does not erode into sexual harassment.
Three major threats to group effectiveness are the Asch effect, groupthink and social loafing.  The Asch effect is defined as the distortion of individual judgment by a unanimous but incorrect opposition.  That is, group pressure may cause an individual to go against his or her own judgment.  The Asch effect can seriously threaten the effectiveness and ethical judgment of work groups.  
Groupthink occurs when members of cohesive groups are unwilling to realistically appraise alternatives.  Symptoms of groupthink include invulnerability, inherent morality, rationalization, stereotyped views of opposition, self-censorship, illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, and mindguards.  Research indicates that groups with moderate levels of cohesiveness produce the best decisions, and highly cohesive groups suffering from groupthink make the poorest decisions, despite high confidence in those decisions.  Techniques promoting critical evaluation and debate help prevent groupthink.  
Social loafing is the tendency for individual effort to decline as group size increases.  Social loafing occurs when the task is perceived to be unimportant or uninteresting, group members feel their individual output is not identifiable, and they expect their co-workers to loaf.  Increasing personal accountability is a good way to prevent social loafing.  Hybrid rewards that include team and individual components can reduce social loafing.  In the Internet Age, firms need remedies to deal with social loafing on virtual teams and cyberloafing, defined as using the Internet for nonwork-related activities.  Table 10-6 provides recommendations for dealing with social loafing in the Internet Age.
I.	Introduction
i)	Organizations, by definition, are collections of people constantly interacting to achieve something greater than individuals could accomplish on their own.
ii)	Table 10-1: Key Social Skills Managers Need for Building Social Capital profiles the four key social skills managers need.    See Slide 10-4
II.	Groups in the Social Media Age
i)	Overview of Groups
(1)	Managers need a solid understanding of groups and group processes to both avoid their pitfalls and tap their vast potential.
(2)	Group: two or more freely interacting people with shared collective norms and goals and a common identity.    See Slide 10-5
(3)	Figure 10-1: Four Sociological Criteria of a Group presents the four criteria for the definition of a group and how they combine to form a conceptual whole.    See Slide 10-6
ii)	Formal and Informal Groups    See Slide 10-7
(1)	Formal group: formed by the organization.
(2)	Informal group: formed by friends.
iii)	Functions of Formal Groups

(1)	Table 10-2: Formal Groups Fulfill Organizational and Individual Functions describes the two basic functions of formal groups.    See Slide 10-8
(2)	Organizational functions:
(a)	Accomplish complex, interdependent tasks that are beyond the capabilities of individuals.
(b)	Generate new or creative ideas and solutions.
(c)	Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.
(d)	Provide a problem-solving mechanism for complex problems requiring varied information and assessments.
(e)	Implement complex decisions.
(f)	Socialize and train newcomers.
(3)	Individual functions:
(a)	Satisfy the individual’s need for affiliation.
(b)	Develop, enhance, and confirm the individual’s self-esteem and sense of identity.
(c)	Give individuals an opportunity to test and share their perceptions of social reality.
(d)	Reduce the individual’s anxieties and feelings of insecurity and powerlessness.
(e)	Provide a problem-solving mechanism for personal and interpersonal problems.

iv)	Formal-Informal Boundaries Have Blurred in the Age of Social Media
(1)	The Social Media Revolution
(a)	Thanks to Internet tools such as e-mail, blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn, YouTube, and Twitter, networking has gone hyper and global.
(b)	The Real World/Real People: Russian Culture Embraces Social Media profiles the growth of social media in one country.
(c)	Social networking site (SNS): a Web-enabled community of people who share all types of information.
(d)	There are mostly unanswered questions and unknown consequences created by social media and SNSs.
(e)	The lines between formal and informal groups in the workplace have been blurred almost beyond recognition as a result of social media.
(2)	Should Managers Be Friends with Those Who Report to Them?
(a)	Managers need a good deal of emotional and social intelligence to separate personal friendships from professional responsibilities.  
III.	The Group Development Process
i)	Overview of Group Development

(1)	Groups and teams in the workplace go through a maturation process but theorists disagree about the exact number, sequence, length, and nature of those stages.
(2)	Figure 10-2: Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development is one oft-cited model of the group stages.    See Slide 10-9
(3)	Many researchers and practitioners like this five-stage model of group development because of its easy-to-remember labels and commonsense appeal.
(4)	The stages are not necessarily of the same duration or intensity for each group and may be impacted by the goal clarity and the commitment and maturity of the members.
ii)	Five Stages
(1)	Stage 1: Forming    See Slide 10-10
(a)	Ice-breaking stage—group members tend to be uncertain and anxious about such things as their roles, who is in charge, and the group’s goals.
(b)	Mutual trust is low, and there is a good deal of holding back to see who takes charge and how.
(c)	If the formal leader (e.g., a supervisor) does not assert his or her authority, an emergent leader will eventually step in to fulfill 
the group’s need for leadership and direction.
(2)	Stage 2: Storming    See Slide 10-11
(a)	Individuals test the leader’s policies and assumptions as they try to determine how they fit into the power structure. 
(b)	Subgroups take shape, and subtle forms of rebellion occur.
(c)	Many groups stall in stage 2 because power and politics erupt into open rebellion.
(3)	Stage 3: Norming    See Slide 10-12
(a)	Groups making it this far usually do so thanks to a respected member, other than the leader, challenging the group to resolve its power struggles so something can be accomplished.
(b)	By-product of this stage is group cohesiveness: a “we feeling” binding group members together.
(4)	Stage 4: Performing    See Slide 10-14
(a)	Activity is focused on solving task problems.
(b)	Contributors get their work done without hampering others.
(c)	Climate of open communication and strong cooperation.
(d)	Conflicts and job boundary disputes are handled constructively and efficiently.
(e)	Cohesiveness and personal commitment to group goals help the group achieve more than could any one individual acting alone.

(5)	Stage 5: Adjourning    See Slide 10-15
(a)	The work is done so it is time to move on to other things.
(b)	Members feel a sense of loss.
(c)	Return to independence can be eased by rituals celebrating “the end” and “new beginnings” through parties, award ceremonies, graduations, etc.
iii)	Group Development: Research and Practical Implications
(1)	Extending the Tuckman Model: Group Decay    See Slide 10-16
(a)	Recent research on long-term groups extended the Tuckman model to include group decay, where groups shift into reverse once the “performing stage” was reached.
(b)	There are three observed stages of group decay:
(i)	De-norming: group members drift in different directions as their interests and expectations change.
(ii)	De-storming: an undercurrent of discontent slowly comes to the surface, individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines.
(iii)	De-forming: the group falls apart as subgroups battle for control and performance rapidly declines.
(c)	Group leaders should not become complacent upon reaching 
the performing stage and constructive steps need to be taken to reinforce norms, bolster cohesiveness, and reaffirm the common goal—even when work groups seem to be doing their best.
(2)	Feedback
(a)	The quantity and quality of feedback varies systematically during the group development process; the quantity and specificity of feedback increases as the group matures.
(b)	The content and delivery of interpersonal feedback among work group or committee members can be used as a gauge of whether the group is developing properly.
(3)	Deadlines
(a)	Uncertainty about deadlines is a disruptive force in both group development and intergroup relations. 
(b)	When members accurately perceive deadlines, pacing of work and timing of interdependent tasks tends to be more efficient.
(4)	Leadership Styles
(a)	Different leadership styles are needed as work groups develop.
(b)	Directive and structured leadership styles are beneficial in the group's early development while participative and supportive styles are more effective as the group continues to develop.

IV.	Roles and Norms: Social Building Blocks for Group and Organizational Behavior
i)	Roles    See Slide 10-17
(1)	Roles Overview
(a)	Roles: a set of expected behaviors for a given position.
(b)	Role theory attempts to explain how these social expectations influence employee behavior.
(2)	Role Episodes
(a)	A role episode consists of a snapshot of the ongoing interaction between two people.
(b)	Figure 10-3: A Role Episode illustrates a role episode.    See Slide 10-18
(c)	Role episodes begin with the role sender’s perception of the organization’s or the group’s behavioral requirements.
(d)	Those requirements serve as a standard for formulating expectations for the focal person’s behavior.
(e)	The role sender then cognitively evaluates the focal person’s actual behavior against those expectations.
(f)	Appropriate verbal and behavioral messages are then sent to the focal person to pressure him or her into behaving as expected.

(3)	Role Overload
(a)	Role overload: when others’ expectations exceed one’s abilities.    See Slide 10-19
(b)	Role overload can lead to physical and emotional consequences and personal effectiveness may slip.
(4)	Role Conflict
(a)	Role conflict: others have conflicting or inconsistent expectations.    See Slide 10-19
(b)	Job holders often face conflicting demands between work and family.
(c)	Role conflict may be experienced when internalized values, ethics, or personal standards collide with others’ expectations.
(5)	Role Ambiguity
(a)	Role ambiguity: others’ expectations are unknown.    See Slide 10-20
(b)	Prolonged role ambiguity can foster job dissatisfaction, erode self-confidence, and hamper job performance.
(c)	In one study, people in individualistic cultures were found to have higher role ambiguity than people in collectivist cultures.
ii)	Norms    See Slide 10-21

(1)	Norms Overview
(a)	Norm: shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior.
(b)	Norms help group members determine right from wrong and good from bad.
(c)	Norms are typically unwritten and seldom discussed openly, but they have a powerful influence on group and organizational behavior.
(d)	Individuals not complying with the norms can face ostracism or rejection by other group members.
(e)	Ostracism: rejection by other group members.
(2)	How Norms are Developed    See Slide 10-22
(a)	Norms evolve in an informal manner as the group or organization determines what it takes to be effective.
(b)	Norms often develop in following ways:
(i)	Explicit statements by supervisors or co-workers.
(ii)	Critical events in the group’s history.
(iii)	Primacy.
(iv)	Carryover behaviors from past situations.
(c)	The Real World/Real People: How Founder Bill Witherspoon Made Helping Others the Norm at Sky Factory profiles norms of service at one firm.

(3)	Why Norms are Enforced    See Slide 10-23
(a)	Norms tend to be enforced by group members when they:
(i)	Help the group or organization survive.
(ii)	Clarify or simplify behavioral expectations.
(iii)	Help individuals avoid embarrassing situations.
(iv)	Clarify the group’s or organization’s central values and/or unique identity.
(b)	Table 10-3: Four Reasons Norms Are Enforced provides examples of the reasons why norms are enforced.
iii)	Relevant Research Insights and Managerial Implications
(1)	Two meta-analyses indicated that role conflict and role ambiguity were associated with job dissatisfaction, tension and anxiety, lack of organizational commitment, intentions to quit, and, to a lesser extent, poor job performance. 
(2)	Managers can use feedback, formal rules and procedures, directive leadership, goal setting, participation, and mentoring to reduce role conflict and ambiguity.
V.	Group Structure and Composition
i)	Functional Roles Performed by Group Members
(1)	Overview of Functional Roles

(a)	As described in Table 10-4: Functional Roles Performed by Group Members, both task and maintenance roles need to be performed if a work group is to accomplish anything.
(2)	Task versus Maintenance Roles    See Slide 10-24
(a)	Task roles: enable the work group to define, clarify, and pursue a common purpose. 
(b)	Maintenance roles: foster supportive and constructive interpersonal relationships.
(c)	Task roles keep the group on track while maintenance roles keep the group together.
(3)	Checklist for Managers
(a)	Roles listed in Table 10-4 can serve as a handy checklist for managers and group leaders who wish to ensure proper group development.    See Slide 10-25
(b)	Roles that are not always performed when needed can be assigned to other members.
(c)	The task roles of initiator, orienter, and energizer are especially important because they are goal-directed roles.
(d)	International managers need to be sensitive to cultural differences regarding the relative importance of task and maintenance roles.

ii)	Group Size    See Slides 10-27, 10-28
(1)	The Mathematical Modeling Approach
(a)	This approach for determining optimum group size involves building a mathematical model around certain desired outcomes of group action such as decision quality.
(b)	Statistical estimates of optimum group size based on this technique have ranged from 3 to 13.
(2)	The Laboratory Simulation Approach
(a)	This stream of research is based on the assumption that group behavior needs to be observed firsthand in controlled laboratory settings.
(b)	Research by Yetton and Bottger indicated that groups greater than five are not appropriate if the goal is decision quality.
(c)	Recent research shows that larger groups may be appropriate when using computer-mediated brainstorming, but not when using face-to-face approaches.
(3)	Managerial Implications
(a)	Groups should be composed of 3 to 5 members when a high-quality decision is the main objective. 
(b)	Larger groups are appropriate when creativity, participation, or socialization are the main objectives. 

(c)	If majority votes are to be taken, odd-numbered groups are recommended to avoid deadlocks.
iii)	Effects of Men and Women Working Together in Groups
(1)	Women Face an Uphill Battle in Mixed-Gender Task Groups
(a)	Research reveals a disadvantage for women working in mixed-gender groups. 
(b)	In laboratory studies, men interrupted women significantly more often than they did other men while women interrupted less frequently, and less successfully.
(c)	Women moving into male-dominated fields face greater resistance than do males moving into female-dominated fields.
(2)	The Issue of Sexual Harassment
(a)	Sexual harassment remains a problem in organizations.
(b)	Sexual harassment is compounded by ethnic discrimination with minority women experiencing more harassment.
(c)	The increased social contact between the genders has lead to increased sexualization (e.g., flirting and romance) of the workplace. 
(d)	Table 10-5: Behavioral Categories of Sexual Harassment identifies behavioral categories of sexual harassment.    See Slide 10-29

(e)	Women perceive a broader range of behaviors as sexual harassment as opposed to what men perceive.
(3)	Constructive Managerial Action
(a)	Proactive steps are needed to ensure that increased sexualization of work environments does not erode into sexual harassment.
(b)	The US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission holds employers legally accountable for behavior it considers sexually harassing.
(c)	The Real World/Real People: A Costly EEOC Violation for Tyson Foods profiles the dangers of not proactively addressing sexual harassment.
(d)	Diversity workshops including how to identify and avoid sexual harassment are strongly recommended.
VI.	Threats to Group Effectiveness
i)	The Asch Effect    See Slide 10-30
(1)	The Asch Effect Overview
(a)	Solomon Asch conducted a series of laboratory experiments where participants were asked to announce which line was the same length as another line.
(b)	Figure 10-4: The Asch Experiment presents a sample of the line cards used by Asch.

(c)	Since the differences among the comparison lines were obvious, there should have been unanimous agreement about the line lengths but there was not.
(2)	A Minority of One
(a)	Only one participant in each set of Asch’s experiments was not a confederate playing a role and deliberately identifying the incorrect sample line as part of the research study.
(b)	When the true participant was the last one to select the matching line, only 20% of them remained entirely independent, while most participants yielded to the pressures of group opinion at least once.
(c)	Asch effect: giving in to a unanimous but wrong opposition.
(3)	A Managerial Perspective
(a)	Research shows the tendency toward conformity has declined in the United States since the time of the Asch experiments.
(b)	Higher levels of conformity are present in collectivistic cultures as compared to individualistic ones.
(c)	Managers committed to ethical conduct need to be concerned that the Asch effect exists.
ii)	Groupthink 

(1)	Definition and Symptoms of Groupthink    See Slide 10-33
(a)	Groupthink: Janis’ term for a cohesive in-group’s unwillingness to realistically view alternatives.   See Slide 10-31
(b)	Figure 10-5: Symptoms of Groupthink Lead to Defective Decision Making describes the following symptoms of groupthink:   See Slide 10-32
(i)	Invulnerability: an illusion that breeds excessive optimism and risk taking.
(ii)	Inherent morality: a belief that encourages the group to ignore ethical implications.
(iii)	Rationalization: protects pet assumptions.
(iv)	Stereotyped views of opposition: cause group to underestimate opponents.
(v)	Self-censorship: stifles critical debate.
(vi)	Illusion of unanimity: silence interpreted to mean consent.
(vii)	Peer pressure: loyalty of dissenters is questioned.
(viii)	Mindguards: self-appointed protectors against adverse information.
(2)	Groupthink Research and Prevention    See Slides 10-34, 10-35

(a)	Research indicates that groups with moderate levels of cohesiveness produce the best decisions, and highly cohesive groups suffering from groupthink make the poorest decisions, despite high confidence in those decisions. 
(b)	Janis’ preventive measures for dealing with groupthink include:
(i)	Assigning each group member the role of critical evaluator.
(ii)	Top-level executives should not use policy committees to rubber-stamp decisions that have already been made.
(iii)	Use different groups with different leaders to explore the same issue.
(iv)	Schedule debates among subgroups and invite participation from outside experts.
(v)	Assign the role of devil’s advocate to uncover negative factors.
(vi)	Once the group has reached a consensus, all the group members should be encouraged to rethink their position to check for flaws.
(c)	These antigroupthink measures can help cohesive groups produce sound recommendations and decisions.
(d)	The Real World/Real People: How Groupthink is “Hacked” at Facebook profiles how Facebook has its own unique approach to avoiding groupthink.

(e)	Avoiding groupthink is a powerful argument in favor of all forms of diversity.
iii)	Social Loafing
(1)	Social Loafing Overview
(a)	Group performance can be less than the sum of its parts.
(b)	Social loafing: decrease in individual effort as group size increases.     See Slide 10-36
(2)	Social Loafing Theory and Research
(a)	Theoretical explanations of the social loafing effect include:  See Slide 10-37
(i)	Equity of effort.
(ii)	Loss of personal accountability.
(iii)	Motivational loss due to sharing of rewards.
(iv)	Coordination loss as more people perform the task.
(b)	Social loafing is more likely to occur when the task is perceived to be unimportant, when group members think their individual output is not identifiable, and when group members expect their coworkers to loaf.
(c)	Research suggests that self-reliant “individualists” are more prone to social loafing than are group-oriented “collectivists” unless the group is small and each member is held personally 
accountable for results.
(d)	Research shows that hybrid rewards that include team and individual components reduce social loafing.
(3)	Practical Implications in Today’s Online Workplaces
(a)	Managers can curb social loafing by making sure tasks are challenging and perceived as important and by holding group members personally accountable for identifiable portions of the group’s task.
(b)	The Internet Age provides fertile grounds for social loafing in the form of cyberloafing. 
(c)	Cyberloafing: employees using the Internet for nonwork activities.
(d)	Table 10-6: Dealing with Social Loafing in the Internet Age identifies ways to reduce social loafing in today’s online workplaces.    See Slide 10-39


1.	How did Intel’s Pat McDonald build social capital with the social skills listed in Table 10-1?
a.	The four key social skills are social perception, impression management, persuasion and social influence, and social adaptability.  Pat used social perception to perceive that employees would be upset about the layoffs and the plans to close the plant.  She used impression management when convincing other employers to create new jobs and to hire Intel employees.  She used persuasion and social influence to keep employees focused on productivity, efficiency, and quality despite the fact the plant 
would soon be closing.  She displayed social adaptability in announcing that helping employees get through the transition of the plant closing would be a higher priority than output metrics.
2.	What evidence of stage 5 in Tuckman’s group development model can you find in Pat McDonald’s handling of the plant closing?
a.	In stage 5 of Tuckman’s group development model, leaders may mark the stage with rituals or ceremonies indicating the “end” or they may emphasize the lessons the team learned.  Pat marked the end of the team by announcing that helping people with the transition would be a higher priority than output metrics.  She made it a top priority to help members transition out of the team by providing extensive outplacement counseling and visiting local employers to campaign for new jobs for Intel employees.
3.	What corporate norms are evident in the Intel case?
a.	Pat established a corporate norm that the top priority would be helping people transition to new employers.  She created a norm that everyone would assist each other in getting new jobs.  She also created a norm that it was important to recognize the contributions of those who had been laid-off and acknowledge that they had played a role in everyone else’s success.
To gain further insight and knowledge about Intel, visit its website: and explore the “Company Information” section.

OB IN ACTION CASE STUDY: Unmasking Manly Men

1.	How do the concepts of roles and norms figure into this case? Explain.
a.	Roles represent expected behaviors for a given position.  Given the long history of a machismo culture on oil rigs, the men would have had preconceived role expectations about the types of behavior others would expect of an occupant of an oil rig position.  It would be important for top management to clearly communicate the need for change and to role model the desired new behaviors for these roles to be changed.  Norms are shared attitudes, opinions, feelings, or actions that guide social behavior.  Top management wanted to change the norms to place a higher priority of safety and well-being of coworkers.
2.	What are the implications for mixed-gender work groups?  Is this a good way to combat sexual harassment?  Explain.

a.	Research reveals a disadvantage for women working in mixed-gender groups as their opinions are less likely to be heard because they will be interrupted by men.  The macho culture of the oil rigs likely contributed to sexualization in the workplace.  The strategic initiative to change the roles and norms of the male oil rig workers likely helped to avoid sexual harassment. 
3.	Does this attitude shift make groupthink more or less likely? Explain.
a.	The change in attitude described in the case makes groupthink less likely.  Safety and the well-being of coworkers would be more important goals than maintain uniformity.  The new attitudes would reduce the sense of invulnerability which is a symptom of groupthink.
4.	What are the takeaway lessons for men?
a.	A key takeaway for men is that traditional gender roles may no longer lead to organizational success today.  Men may need to change their perceptions of themselves and their perceptions of others if they want to be successful in firms.  Another key takeaway is that it may require a high degree of emotional intelligence for men to realize how they can best change their behaviors in order to be successful.
LEGAL/ETHICAL CHALLENGE: My Boss Wants to “Friend” Me Online
If You Were Paul Dyer, What Would You do Now?

1.	Big mistake.  Unwind the situation as quickly and as graciously as possible, preferably in person.  Explain how.
2.	Don’t panic.  Let the online relationship wither away from lack of attention.
3.	Play along for awhile in the hope that the boss has a short online attention span and will flit off to pester others.
4.	You’ve made a bad decision; don’t compound it by alienating your boss.  Participate in the virtual relationship, applying your own ethical boundaries.  Explain those boundaries.
5.	Invent other interpretations or options.  Discuss.

As professional and personal lives continue to collide with the ever-increasing role of social networking sites, this is a quandary that is likely to face a lot of young professionals.  Perhaps without realizing it, Paul’s boss put him in a very awkward situation.  If Paul takes no action to his boss’ friend request, he risks sending the message that he has an inability to communicate or that he lacks follow-through skills.  If Paul denies the request, he may alienate his boss and/or send a message that he has something to hide.  If he adds his boss as a friend, his personal life will collide with his professional life, potentially with disastrous consequences.  One solution is to accept the boss’ friend request but limit the content he can access.  Facebook has the capability for users to create separate classifications of friends and with permission filters users can limit the information that is available to each profile.  Paul could create a “colleague” group within Facebook which would allow the boss to only see certain types of information.  Another option for Paul would have been to re-direct the boss to his LinkedIn account.  LinkedIn accounts are professional in nature and therefore are a way to foster professional collaboration with one’s boss.  Before initiating a friend request, everyone, but in particular bosses, should think through the request before doing so.  Bosses may unintentionally force their subordinates into a potentially awkward situation.  Professional relationships should start with a request to join a LinkedIn network, which may be reciprocated with a request to friend on Facebook.  
INTERNET EXERCISE is a free learning and development resource.  Its name is derived from juggling balls which are often used in experiential training approaches.  The site is a collection of learning and development ideas.  The purpose of this exercise is to introduce you to a variety of activities that can be used as icebreakers or to promote group development.

From the homepage select the link “Subjects in Categories” in the upper left corner.  Then scroll down to select the heading “Teambuilding/Games.”  Here you will see a collection of (1) quizzes, (2) free team building activities, and (3) puzzles, riddles, games and exercises.  Take a few minutes to review each one of these content areas and explore some of the activities under each heading.  Review as many of the assessment as you like, but be sure to read the content about the Johari Window team building exercise.

1.	How could these quizzes be used to promote group development?  Which topic area would be most relevant for any groups in which you participate?
2.	Describe how the Johari Window exercise would help a group progress through the stages of group development.
3.	Discuss the benefits of using puzzles for fostering group development.
4.	Explain how using quizzes, team building exercises and/or puzzles might help a group to achieve higher performance in the performing stage of group development.

1.	See “Topic 9: Groups and Teams” in “An Instructor’s Guide to an Active Classroom” by A. Johnson and A. Kinicki (McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2006).
2.	See “Sexual Harassment: Workplace Issues” by D. Harvey and G. Stevensen (CreateSpace, 2008).
3.	Transferring learning experiences between the student classroom and the workplace is discussed in “Facilitating Transfer of Skills Between Group Projects and Work Teams” by D. Ettington and R. Camp in Journal of Management Education, 2002, Vol. 26(4), pp. 356-379.
4.	See “Providing Interpersonal Variety in Skill Practice Triads: A Two-Rule Method” by J. Bigelow in Journal of Management Education, 2004, Vol. 28(2), pp. 260-270.
5.	See “Using a Dual Role Assignment to Improve Group Dynamics and Performance: The Effects of Facilitating Social Capital in Teams” by K. Aquino and M. Serva in Journal of Management Education, 2005, Vol. 29(1), pp. 17-38.
1.	For a classic exploration of functional roles see "Function Roles of Group Members," by K. Benne and P. Sheats in Journal of Social Issues, 1948, Vol. 2, pp. 43-54.
2.	See “Work Group Diversity and Group Performance: An Integrative Model and Research Agenda” by D. van Knippenberg, C. De Dreu and A. Homan in Journal of Applied Psychology, 2004, Vol. 89(6), pp. 1008-1022.

3.	See “Collective Induction” in “Small Groups” (pp. 199-206) by P. Laughlin and T. Shippy (Psychology Press, 2006).
4.	See “Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Work Groups: A Group Norms Approach” by M. Ehrhart and S. Naumann in Journal of Applied Psychology, 2004, Vol. 89(6), pp. 970-974. 
5.	See “Collective Estimation: Accuracy, Expertise, and Extroversion as Sources of Intra-Group Influence” by B. Bonner et al. in Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 2007, Vol. 103, pp. 121-133.
1.	For an interesting look at groupthink, see the film "Groupthink" (CRM Films).
2.	Group dynamics and inappropriate group decisions are explored in "Abilene Paradox" (CRM Films).
3.	Methods of group development are discussed in "Group Productivity" (CRM Films).
4.	Insight Media produces two films on group dynamics: “Group Dynamics” and “Group Dynamics in the Electronic Environment.”
5.	Interpersonal relationships among group decision makers are the focus of “Group Decision Making and Leadership” (Insight Media).
1.	Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the fact that social media is blurring the boundaries between formal and informal groups in organizations.
2.	Think of a group of which you are or have been a member, either a class project group or a work group.  Did your group progress through the five stages of group development as proposed in Tuckman’s model?  How did your group handle challenges in each one of these stages?
3.	Do you believe members of the Millennial generation are more or less likely to comply with organizational roles and norms?  Explain your response.
4.	What are the dangers of groupthink in group decisions? Discuss how you would work to prevent groupthink if you were the leader of a cohesive group.

5.	What could your instructor do to prevent cyberloafing if it occurs during class time?  What can managers do to help prevent cyberloafing?
This is an engaging group exercise that involves solving a complex, judgmental task.  Assemble groups of 3 to 6 students and provide them with the information below.  Although there are no correct answers to this task, it provides an excellent device for generating discussion on such issues as ambiguity (there is information missing in some of the descriptions) and priorities in collective decision making.
* * *
You know that there will be a neutron bomb blast that will wipe out all of humanity and destroy all technology.  You built a bomb shelter that can save 5 people from the blast but you have very little time to find people to put in it with the result that you need to choose from among 10 people found at the local bowling alley.  There is much that you do not know about these people as you have limited time to gather information.  You yourself cannot bear to live life in this strange new future and so decide not to go into the bomb shelter.
Based on the incomplete information provided below, choose 5 of the 10 people described below.  These people will be the sole survivors and will be charged with rebuilding humanity.
1) 	Steven, male, 47, ordained minister, musician
2)	Chris, 19, Olympic athlete, Japanese-American
3)	Jack, male, 35, paraplegic, computer programmer
4)	Mary, female, 29, doctor, will not come without Jack
5)	Janis, female, 41, carpenter
6)	Jesse, female, 5, likes to play video games
7)	Clara, female, 16, pregnant, high school dropout
8)	Ira, male, 27, Jewish, drug dealer, heroin addict

9)	Jeb, male, 25, materials engineer, violent
10)	Pat 
Who did you choose and why? 
This is the fifth installment of the continuing case which started in Chapter 1 with “Introduction to Roberta.” In order to increase the effectiveness of this case, it’s a good idea to have students at least read “Introduction to Roberta” from Chapter 1.  It provides the background information needed to fully understand the situation.  The current case deals with groupthink issues in the context of a very contemporary problem – AIDS and the workplace.  The groupthink issue is the primary focus, but there are other side issues to consider including discrimination on the basis of a medical condition, dealing with fears and hysteria over the AIDS crisis, and the ethical and legal issues of the human resources person who ignored company policy and revealed highly confidential information.  Finally, there’s the consideration of the responsibilities of Roberta and HRI, Inc. in handling this situation.  Discussion questions follow the case information.
* * *
Rodney Gibson, a forty-six-year-old employee in Roberta's Customer Service Department, had open heart surgery in 1986.  He has had several health-related problems in the last couple of years.  Even so, Rodney's work performance is exemplary, and he is well liked in the department.
On July 15th, he had a complete physical examination.  Due to an oversight at HRI's health insurance provider's office, the results of Rodney's exam accidentally were sent to HRI's human resource department along with the billing information.  The report indicated that Rodney tested positive for HIV, but did not have AIDS-Related Syndrome at the time.
Ruth Bailey, a personnel benefits and compensation clerk, noted the medical evaluation and filed it in Gibson's file.  She later shared her knowledge of Gibson's medical condition with her sister, whose son plays on the YMCA basketball team coached by Gibson.  Bailey's sister immediately removed her 
son, the best player on the team, from the YMCA program.  When the other parents asked why, she told them about Gibson's situation.  As a result, some parents circulated a petition to have the YMCA remove Gibson from his volunteer position as coach.
Andrea works in Roberta's department, and her daughter is on the swimming team at that YMCA, so she heard about Rodney's situation from other parents there.  Very concerned, she quietly told five of her best friends in the department on Monday and they decided to meet at lunch and talk about it.
Andrea started, "I think the main issue here is getting rid of Rodney before any of us catches AIDS."
Frank commented, "I didn't realize that this meeting was about getting rid of Rodney... "
Andrea interrupted with, "Of course, what else? The YMCA is already working to get him canned as a coach, and they wouldn't do that unless they were concerned."
Kent responded, "Well, I like Rodney, and ..."
Stephanie cut in.  "We all like Rodney.  I never even knew he was, well, you know.  But he uses the same restrooms we do, drinks coffee from the same pot and passes reports on to each of us, and I frankly don't like anyone well enough to die from hanging around with them.  I want him out of here."
Frank responded, "I guess it's probably better for the department, not having to worry about everything you're touching and eating and so on."
"And it's only going to get worse," said Andrea."  He's already been out sick twice in the last six months.  You know who would have to cover for him all the time, us."
Kent observed, "You know, I thought you couldn't catch AIDS from casual contact.  Aren't we overreacting a bit?"
Stephanie answered, "That's what they say, but I don't believe it.  I think they're just saying that so the public doesn't worry.  Do you really want to see this entire department get AIDS, just to keep Rodney in his job?"
Andrea said, "Well, I guess the next step is to go to Roberta to discuss this.  Any other comments? Good, then we're all in agreement."
After lunch, a group of the employees decide to discuss the situation with Roberta.  When she returned from lunch, five staff members were waiting for her.

"Can we talk with you for a minute?" Stephanie asked.
Roberta nodded, "I'm not certain that I can squeeze all of you into my office.  Is this something that affects all of you or can Stephanie represent your concerns?"
Andrea responded, "It affects all of us and we want action now."
"Well, squeeze in.  Does the door need to be shut?" Roberta questioned.
"Yes, we don't want anyone to hear." Stephanie replied.
After everyone got settled in, Andrea explained, "We want Rodney to be terminated immediately.  He has AIDS and we don't want to catch it.  He's being fired as a coach in the YMCA league and we don't want him around here either.  That AIDS is a killer disease and we're just not willing to risk catching it."
"How do you know he has AIDS?" Roberta asked.
"My daughter is on the swim team at the YMCA," Andrea answered.  "I heard about it from one of the other mothers there.  Apparently, the information came from the personnel files here at HRI, Inc., so I'm sure it's true.  Besides, look at how frail he is, and he's been out sick a lot recently."
Stephanie added, "We want him out of here right away.  I'm scared to work with him.  You either get him out of here or were all going to stay home until you do."
Roberta responded, "Will you please do me, yourselves, and Rodney a favor? Go back to work and finish the day's projects.  That will give me time to investigate your accusations.  We've been through a lot over the past six months.  You know that I won't let anything happen to jeopardize your health.  Let me look into this, and come back to you tomorrow morning with some answers.  In the meantime, I need your patience and understanding.  Can I count on you for the rest of the day?"
Roberta scanned the group for a sympathetic face.  Several of the staff looked belligerent; the others wouldn't meet her eyes.  Finally, Andrea responded tersely, "We'll stay for the rest of the day, but he better not be here when we come in tomorrow."
1.	Can you identify the symptoms of groupthink in the lunch meeting?
2.	Could Roberta have done a better job of defusing the controversy? What else could she have done?

3.	Roberta realizes that she knows very little about AIDS.  Where can she go to gain insight in the short time she has?
4.	What should Roberta do now?
5.	Assume HRI has a policy against any type of discrimination based on testing HIV positive.  Given this, what can Roberta do to resolve her staff concerns?
This lecturette may be used to complement the chapter’s coverage of sexual harassment.  It presents steps companies can take to actively discourage sexual harassment and protect themselves legally against sexual harassment charges. 
* * *
As the ratio of men to women in the workplace approaches 50/50, there is an increased likelihood of sexual harassment instances.  That has employers concerned, since a single incident can hit both the bottom line and staff morale.  Fortunately, companies can take steps to avoid the often devastating impact sexual harassment has on both their business and their employees.
Don't think on-the-job sexual harassment isn't happening.  Sexual harassment costs American business plenty--before and after it reaches the courtroom.  It affects the morale of victims, witnesses and harasser who remain on the job.  The kind of physical and emotional trauma they undergo cuts into productivity and increases absenteeism and, in many cases, turnover.
In addition, when a case goes to court, a company pays its own attorney fees and, in the event of a loss, the victim's fees, back pay, unemployment compensation and other damages assessed by the court.  Moreover, most cases receive media coverage, which may drive away both customers and prospective employees.
Employers can combat and even prevent sexual harassment through the following five-point program.

1.	Develop a sincere sexual harassment policy and complaint resolution procedure.
The landmark 1986 Supreme Court case, Meritor Savings Bank vs. Vinson, provides direction in the area of policies and procedures.  In the case, the court ruled that a company is liable for sexual harassment by supervisors and employees even if management is unaware of the situation, unless the employer has certain policies in place, including:
•	A policy that defines sexual harassment, states that it will not be tolerated and promises that harassers will be disciplined for the harassment and any resulting retaliation against those who report incidents.
•	A disciplinary policy that includes termination as an option.  Such a policy should delineate expectations for acceptable and unacceptable behavior.
•	A complaint resolution or grievance procedure that provides for immediate investigation of reported incidents; prompt corrective actions if allegations are found to be true; and alternative complaint-receiving parties, such as a representative of HR, since immediate supervisors may be involved in the harassment.
Reasons complainants often give for filing lawsuits include, "I didn't think anyone in the company would take me seriously."  The above policies address those reasons before a lawsuit is filed.
2.	Train managers to disseminate and implement the policies.
Management needs to be educated in hearing and immediately investigating complaints and in the disciplinary procedure.  Such training may force managers to restrict their own behavior, since they will know the costs of sexual harassment and their own liability in the event that they are the harasser.
3.	Educate employees to recognize and confront harassment.
Employers can protect against low morale only if their employees define "unwelcome sexual behavior" for themselves, have specific terminology to talk about it and know who to talk to.
The best way to accomplish this is through periodic workshops.  Address the vocabulary of specific body parts considered private, and practice using these terms in describing harassment.  Offer mock situations so employees can practice confronting harassers.  When role playing how to report incidents, employees should be encouraged to state specific behavior and body area involved, and name any witnesses.  This gives them an alternative to direct confrontation.

While it may be a difficult session, the training reinforces and convinces employees that employers are sincere in the belief that sexual harassment is unwelcome in their companies.
4.	Provide follow-up care after harassment incidents.
If sexual harassment occurs and management takes appropriate disciplinary action, management should also periodically visit victims and witnesses to ensure that harassment has stopped and no retaliation is taking place.  In these visits, assuring the victim and other workers that the harasser has been disciplined according to policy emphasizes the condemnation of the sexual harassment and supports employees' actions in reporting the incidents.
5.	Periodically assess the workplace for awareness of and compliance with sexual harassment policies.
A periodic written questionnaire should ask, among other things, the extent to which employees believe they understand the policy; their factual knowledge about what to do if sexual harassment occurs; and their opinion of the level of sexual harassment within the company.
In addition, a survey can be especially useful during exit interviews to identify and support employees who may be quitting because of sexual harassment.  The incidents uncovered in the interview should be investigated and appropriate action taken.  This in itself may keep the departing employee from filing suit.
Sexual harassment policies may be costly to implement; but they may be cheaper than the alternative – for both the company and the traumatized victim.
1.	Have you ever experienced sexual harassment on a job?  If so, what did you do about it?  Why? Do you feel it affected your work performance?
2.	If you work outside the home, what policy does your organization have in place to handle the issue of sexual harassment?  Does it seem satisfactory, based on the issues discussed?
3.	The courts ruled that the definition of sexual harassment was changed to reflect behavior that was unacceptable to a reasonable woman rather than simply a reasonable person.  Do you think this will change the legal definition of sexual harassment significantly?  Why or why not?

This lecturette may be used to complement the chapter’s coverage of group structure and composition. 
* * *
Ethnic diversity in groups.
A popular research topic involves the impact of diverse group composition on group functioning.  One theme which has emerged is the idea that organizations should learn to properly manage diversity not only because of the inevitable demographic trends, but also because of the potential to use a diverse workforce as a source of competitive advantage.  For example, ethnically diverse groups might be better able to plan strategies to appeal to diverse customer markets.  That is, ethnic diversity when properly managed can produce tangible, positive effects on organizational outcomes. 
Research by Watson, Kiman, and Michaelsen showed that ethnically homogeneous groups performed better than heterogeneous groups during the early stages of group development.  However, these between-group differences in performance converged over time, with heterogeneous groups eventually performing better than homogeneous groups on some measures.  McLeod, Lobel, and Cox explored the impact of ethnic group diversity on creativity.  Briefly, their reasoning was as follows: “Heterogeneity of group member characteristics is associated with variety in perspectives.  Variety in perspectives is associated with high-quality idea production, especially when group members are heterogeneous along a dimension relevant to the task facing the group.  Therefore, the variety of perspectives associated with heterogeneity along the dimension of ethnicity should lead to the production of high-quality ideas on a task that is relevant to ethnicity.  To explore this hypothesis, they compared the performance on a brainstorming task between groups composed of all Anglo-Americans with groups composed of Anglo, Asian, African, and Hispanic Americans.  Approximately 22% of the ethnic minority group members were born outside the US.  They found that the ideas produced by the ethnically diverse groups were of significantly higher quality (i.e., more effective and feasible) than the ideas produced by the homogeneous groups.  Members of homogeneous groups were marginally more attracted to their groups than were members of the diverse groups.

Gender and ethnic diversity in groups.
Emily Filardo investigated gender-related interaction patterns on a cooperative problem-solving task.  Groups were composed of African American and White mixed-gender adolescents who were matched on age, socioeconomic status, and school achievement.  Her reasoning was based on the idea that within the African subculture, women have traditionally worked outside the home more so than have white women.  That is, African American women have traditionally filled the dual roles of homemaker and employee, or worker, much more often than have White women.  Because of this, it is argued that stereotypic expectations for men and women are less sharply differentiated with the African subculture, suggesting there may be greater equality in mixed-gender social interactions among African American adolescents than White adolescents.  She found significantly greater gender equality (as measured by levels of activity and levels of influence) in the African American groups than in the White groups.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Developing and Leading Effective Teams


  See Slides 11-2, 11-3

When you finish studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to: 

•	Explain how a work group becomes a team.
•	Identify and describe four types of work teams.
•	Explain the model of effective work teams, and specify the two criteria of team effectiveness.
•	Identify five teamwork competencies team members need to possess.
•	Discuss why teams fail.
•	List at least four things managers can do to build trust.
•	Distinguish two types of group cohesiveness, and summarize cohesiveness research findings.
•	Define virtual teams and self-managed teams.
•	 Describe high-performance teams, and discuss team leadership.

Chapter 11 defines teams and presents a typology of four forms of work teams.  This chapter discusses the criteria for effective work teams and discusses why work teams fail.  The impact of cooperation, trust and cohesiveness on teamwork is discussed.  Chapter 11 describes two specific types of teams: virtual teams and self-managed teams (SMTs).  Finally, the topics of team building and leading teams are discussed.
A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for a common purpose, goals, and approach. Effective teams typically have fewer than 10 members.  Table 11-2 lists four general types of work teams: advice, production, project, and action.  Advice teams are created to broaden the information base for managerial decisions.  They have low degrees of technical specialization and coordination.  Production teams perform day-to-day operations.  Their degree of technical specialization is low but the degree of coordination is high.  Project teams require creative problem solving and have a high degree of technical specialization.  Their degree of coordination may be high or low.  Action teams must 
exhibit peak performance on demand.  They are characterized by high degrees of both specialization and coordination. 
Two effectiveness criteria for work teams are performance (acceptability of output) and team viability (member satisfaction and continued willingness to contribute).  Work teams must be nurtured and facilitated by the organization.  Table 11-3 describes the teamwork competencies needed to be effective team members.  Table 11-4 identifies characteristics of effective teamwork.  Figure 11-2 profiles why work teams fail.  The main threats to team effectiveness are unrealistic expectations resulting in frustration on the part of team members.  Common managerial mistakes revolve around an unsupportive organizational environment for teams and teamwork.  On the other hand, it’s common for teams to take on too much responsibility too quickly.
Three necessary components of successful teamwork are cooperation, trust, and cohesiveness.  Research shows cooperation to be superior to competition in promoting achievement and productivity.  Trust is defined as a reciprocal faith that the intentions and behaviors of another will consider the implications for you.  Propensity to trust represents a general willingness to trust others.  Six recommended ways to build trust are through communication, support, respect, fairness, predictability, and competence.  Cohesiveness is a sense of “we-ness” that transcends individual differences and motives.  Two types of cohesiveness have been identified.  Socio-emotional cohesiveness is a sense of togetherness based on emotional satisfaction.  Instrumental cohesiveness is a sense of togetherness based on mutual dependency needed to accomplish the group’s goal.  Research indicates a small but significant relationship between cohesiveness and performance.  This effect was stronger for smaller and real groups and was influenced by commitment to the task at hand.  Table 11-5 presents tips for fostering both forms of cohesiveness.
Virtual teams meet electronically since members are physically dispersed.  Virtual teams may be flexible and efficient, but the lack of face-to-face interaction may weaken trust, communication, or accountability.  There is no substitute for face-to-face contact, even in virtual teams.  Table 11-7 presents tips on how to create and manage a virtual team.
Self-managed teams are groups of employees granted administrative oversight for their work.  Typically, self-managed teams schedule work and assign duties, with managers present to serve as trainers and facilitators.  An organization embracing self-managed teams should be prepared to undergo revolutionary changes in management philosophy, structure, staffing and training practices, and reward systems, and should expect that some managers may view self-managed teams as a threat to their job security.  A common feature of self-managed teams is cross-functionalism, or having specialists from different areas on the same team.  Despite the fact that the research on the effectiveness of self-managed teams is mixed, the trend toward self-managed work teams will likely continue in North America given a strong cultural bias in favor of direct participation.  

Team building is aimed at improving the internal functioning of work groups.  Experiential learning techniques such as interpersonal trust exercises, conflict-handling role play sessions, and interactive games are commonly used in team building.  Attributes of high-performance teams include: participative leadership, shared responsibility, aligned on purpose, high communication, future focused, focused on task, creative talents, and rapid response.  Managers can evaluate team building activities based on reaction, learning, behavior and results to determine their effectiveness.
Leading a team is not the same as leading individuals.  Managers need to be able to lead both individuals and teams.  Managers sometimes erroneously equate the management of their team with managing the individuals on the team and pay little or no attention to team culture and performance.  There is no single one-size-fits-all leadership style for today’s team-based organizations.

I.	Work Teams: Types, Effectiveness, and Stumbling Blocks
i)	Work Teams Overview
(1)	The terms group and team cannot be used interchangeably.
(2)	Team: small number of people with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for common purpose, goals, and approach.    See Slide 11-4
(3)	Relative to Tuckman’s theory of group development, teams are task groups that have matured to the performing stage.
(4)	Table 11-1: The Evolution of a Team profiles how work groups can become teams.    See Slide 11-6
(5)	A work group becomes a team when:   See Slide 11-5
(a)	 Leadership becomes a shared activity.

(b)	Accountability shifts from strictly individual to both individual and collective.
(c)	The group develops its own purpose or mission.
(d)	Problem solving becomes a way of life, not a part-time activity.
(e)	Effectiveness is measured by the group’s collective outcomes and products.
ii)	A General Typology of Work Teams    See Slides 11-8, 11-9
(1)	Typology of Work Teams Overview
(a)	Work teams are created for various purposes and thus face different challenges.
(b)	Table 11-2: Four General Types of Work Teams and Their Outputs profiles the various purposes of different types of work teams.    See Slide 11-7
(c)	Four key variables in Table 11-2 deal with technical specialization, coordination, work cycles, and outputs.
(i)	Technical specialization is low when the team draws upon members’ general experience and problem-solving ability and high if team members are required to apply technical skills acquired through higher education or extensive training. 
(ii)	The degree of coordination with other work units is determined by the team’s relative independence or interdependence. 

(iii)	Work cycles are the amount of time teams need to discharge their missions.
(iv)	Outputs are the real-life impacts of the team.
(2)	Advice
(a)	Advice teams are created to broaden the information base for managerial decisions. 
(b)	They have low degrees of technical specialization and coordination. 
(3)	Production
(a)	Production teams are responsible for performing day-to-day operations. 
(b)	They require a low degree of technical specialization but a high degree of coordination.
(4)	Project
(a)	Project teams demand considerable creative problem solving. 
(b)	They have a high degree of technical specialization and may require a high or low degree of coordination.
(5)	Action
(a)	Action teams must exhibit peak performance on demand. 
(b)	They require high degrees of both technical sp