PSYC 172 – How are kidneys different from Malpighian tubules

Subject: General Questions    / General General Questions
Question

1. How are kidneys different from Malpighian tubules?

a. Kidneys are only found in invertebrates.

b. Kidneys are structurally less complex than Malpighian tubules.

c. Urine made from kidneys passes out of the digestive tract, whereas urine is first collected in a bladder in the Malpighian tubules.

d. Kidneys are found only in saltwater fish, whereas Malpighian tubules are found only in freshwater fish.

e. Kidneys filter waste out of the blood, whereas Malpighian tubules concentrate wastes from the body cavity.

2. “Form follows function” refers to the fact that:

a. organisms’ physical structures generally come to reflect their physiological function only after that function has been fine-tuned by evolution.

b. organisms’ physical structures often are adaptations, shaped by natural selection, and so reflect their physiological functions.

c. natural selection can produce adaptations in physical structures but not in physiological processes.

d. all structures that have the same function also have the same structure.

e. natural selection can produce adaptations in physiological processes but not in physical structures.

3. The stomach is an organ made up of several different types of tissue. The tissue type that most likely forms the lining of the inside of the stomach would be:

a. muscular tissue.

b. interstitial tissue.

c. connective tissue.

d. nervous tissue.

e. epithelial tissue.

4. Do fish drink water?

a. The answer depends on whether the fish has Malpighian tubules or not.

b. The answer depends on whether the fish is in fresh water or salt water.

c. Yes, always.

d. No, never.

e. The answer depends on whether the fish can absorb water from the environment using its kidneys.

5. Which of the following is NOT true about organs in most animals?

a. They usually function in coordination with other organs.

b. They are usually made of a single type of tissue.

c. They may perform more than one task in the body.

d. They are under control by the nervous and/or the endocrine system.

e. They are part of larger collections of organs that act as body systems.

6. Most of the kidney’s mass is made up of small units called:

a.nephrons.

b. glomeruli.

c. neurons.

d. ducts.

e. capsules.

7. Which of the following is NOT a type of connective tissue?

a. blood

b. ligament

c. cartilage

d. bone

e. collagen

8. Which division or part of the body is made up of the brain and spinal cord?

a. axonal division

b. dendrite division

c. glandular epithelium

d. central nervous system

e. peripheral nervous system

9. Most drug-screening tests that involve urine detect the presence of:

a. metabolites of the illegal drugs.

b. the illegal drugs themselves (like molecules of Ecstasy, cocaine, and marijuana).

c. changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pH produced by the drugs.

d. toxic effects of the illegal drugs.

e. changes in the brain function produced by the drugs.

10. Which of the selections below properly differentiates between exocrine and endocrine glands?

a. Exocrine glands release their products into ducts, whereas endocrine glands release their products into the circulatory system.

b. Exocrine glands release their products into the circulatory system, whereas endocrine glands release their products into ducts.

c. Exocrine glands come in only one type, whereas there are many different types of endocrine glands.

d. Exocrine glands secretions affect cells all over the body, whereas endocrine secretions only affect adjacent cells.

e. Exocrine glands release pheromones, whereas endocrine glands release hormones.

11. A child is playing on the beach on southeast coast of Alaska in late autumn. He accidentally gets soaked by an incoming wave. Despite this, he keeps playing on the windy beach, until he becomes unresponsive and confused. What condition is this boy likely suffering from?

a. hydroencephalitis (water on the brain), because water can be forced through the sinus cavities by high pressure to cause mental problems

b. hypothermia, because he lost too much body heat to the environment

c. homeostasis, because his body shut off blood to his brain

d. hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), because he wasn’t eating enough carbohydrates compared to what his body was using

e. hyperthermia, because he had on too many layers of clothing and his body could not cool itself properly

12. The main components of an animal’s nervous system are the interconnected _____________ and their associated _____________ cells.

a. neuroglia; muscle

b. neurons; brain

c. neurons; muscle

d. neuroglia; neurons

e. neurons; neuroglia

13. The internal environment of multicellular animals is influenced by the activities of cells in the body and ___________.

a. the homeostasis of nearby organisms

b. the genes carried by different cells of the body

c. the activities of other cells in the body

d. the external environment

e. whether or not the animal has urinated or defecated recently

14. Why are snakes sometimes found on roadways in the afternoon and early evening?

a. The heat from the warm asphalt is conducted into the snake, raising body temperature.

b. They maintain homeostasis better when they are on very hard ground.

c. They are endothermic heterotherms.

d. The asphalt helps to conduct away heat, lowering the snake’s temperature.

e. Air currents from passing cars help to keep them cool.

15. In homeostasis terms, a fever is classified as:

a. a crazed reaction towards some object.

b. sweating, followed by chills.

c. any general rise in internal temperature.

d. foreign microbes entering the body and causing a rise in internal temperature.

e. All of the above are correct.

16. A woman begins to go into labor and her uterus contracts. The contracting uterus causes the release of the hormones oxytocin and prostaglandin. These hormones go on to intensify the strength of the contractions, which then go on to cause a further release of these two hormones. Appraise the following hormonal regulatory systems below, and select the one that best fits this example.

a. noncompetitive inhibition

b. negative feedback loop

c. positive feedback loop

d. competitive inhibition

e. None of the above.

17. Which of the following is a main benefit of multicellularity?

a. Only some body cells need to make ATP.

b. Each cell is free to move and position itself where it lives best.

c. Each cell can perform all of the necessary physiological processes needed by the body.

d. Each cell has direct access to nutrients in the environment.

e. Cells can specialize to perform certain functions and yet receive all the nutrients and “waste disposal services” they need.

18. A medical lab worker is using a microscope to examine a piece of connective tissue from the backside of a patient’s kneecap. The worker notes that the extracellular matrix of the tissue is rich in collagen and elastin protein fibers and that the tissue is very strong but flexible. What is this connective tissue likely to be?

a. blood

b. bone

c. cartilage

d. loose connective tissue

e. dense connective tissue

19. Skeletal muscle in the human body is often called striated muscle. If you had to predict why this is, which of the following would you predict?

a. Skeletal muscle controls voluntary actions, which are referred to as striated reactions.

b. Skeletal muscle has a striped appearance.

c. Skeletal muscles tend to be straight.

d. Skeletal muscle uses the striatiase enzyme to create contractions.

e. None of the above.

20. Birds and mammals are what types of organisms?

a. conformers

b. heterotherms

c. endotherms

d. ectotherms

e. hibernators