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1. Each molecule of pyruvate processed through the TCA cycle (aka the Krebs Cycle or Citric
acid cycle) produces what products and how much total ATP? Describe each of the major stages
by providing a list of products and their amounts at that stage. (Assume that during oxidative
phosphoylation, each NADH produces 2.5 ATP and each FADH2 produces 1.5 ATP.)

2. If a suspension of yeast supplied with glucose as its source of energy was transferred to an
anaerobic environment. What would happen to the rate of glucose utilization and the rate of
ethanol production after the transfer?

3. The overall stoichiometry of glycolysis is, as we know:
Glucose + 2ADP + 2Pi + 2NAD+ ? 2 pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH + 2H+ + 2H2O
The overall stoichiometry of glucose synthesis (i.e., gluconeogenesis) is:
2 pyruvate + 4ATP +2NADH + 2H+ + 4H2O ? glucose + 4ADP + 4Pi + 2NAD+
What is the overall stoichiometry of the process of breaking down 1 mol of glucose through
glycolysis followed by the synthesis of 1 mol of glucose through gluconeogenesis?

Why is it necessary that these two processes be controlled independently within the glucose
metabolism of an organism and differ by at least one reaction? (be sure to answer both parts of
this question) EXPLAIN
(Hint: what is the definition of the term “futile cycle”?)

Additional Requirements 

Level of Detail: Show all work 
Other Requirements: Answer all the questions neatly. You can either type or write the answers on a separate paper and scan it.