Philosophy: Answer Questions

1/ Briefly explain St. Anselm’s ontological argument for the existence of God. Explain one problem that this argument faces. 

2/ Briefly explain the problem of evil, as set forth by J.L. Mackie in his paper, “Evil and Omnipotence.” A theist might try to solve the problem of evil by arguing that because there is evil in the world, humans can exercise freewill in choosing to do good rather than evil. Therefore, he might argue, the world is a better place with some evil in it than it would be if there were no evil at all. Explain one problem that Mackie sees with this proposed solution.

3/ Explain what a monad is, according to Leibniz. Given the nature of monads, how would Leibniz’s view of reality explain the apparent presence of change in the world and the nature of space and time?


4/ Explain what determinism is. Why would freewill be impossible if determinism is true? How would an indeterminist challenge the determinist position? Explain one problem with the indeterminist position. 


5/ How does Aristotle use his view about the unique function of human beings (as opposed to the functions of plants and animals) to show that happiness for human beings consists in the exercise of rationality? Why would Aristotle think that a successful criminal or gangster would not be living a good life, even though such a person might be exercising his rational abilities effectively in enabling him to be a successful gangster or criminal?