Nursing theories-2132268

Nursing theories are used for describing; developing, disseminating and they use present day knowledge in nursing. There are various nursing theories that are used by nurses as a guide to their day to day practice in nursing. This paper will look give views on theory-driven and evidence based of tow nursing theories.

One of these theories is the self-care theory by Dorothea Orem. The major concept in this theory is an art through which the nursing practitioner gives assistance that is specialized to individuals with disabilities that makes more than ordinary assistance necessary for meeting the needs for self-care. Self-care requirements are actions that are directed towards providing self-care presented in three categories; universal self-care requisites, development self-care requisites and health deviation self-care requisites.

There are various assumptions that were made in this theory such as people have to be self-reliant and responsible when it comes to their own care as well as others within the family needing care. It also assumes that people are distinct individuals and nursing is a form of action that involves an interaction between two or more people. Another assumption is that meeting universal and development self-care requirements is a crucial component when it comes to the primary care prevention and illnesses. There is also an assumption that an individual’s knowledge of potential health problems is an important thing when it comes to the promotion of self-care behaviors (Gonzalo, 2011).

This theory is applicable for nursing by those beginning the practice as well as the advanced people. In this theory nursing is needed when a person can not maintain continuously the amount and quality of self-care that is required to sustain life and health recover from an injury or disease or cope with the effects from illnesses or injuries.

Another nursing theory is the need theory by Virginia Henderson. The background of the theory was emphasis the importance of increasing the independence of a patient in order for progress after hospitalization not to be delayed. It aims at assisting individuals in gaining independence in relation to performance of activities that contribute to their health or recovery. According to this theory the role of nurses is substitute, supplementary, complementary with the main aim of helping the individual become as independent as possible. There are several assumptions in this theory one is that nurses are supposed to care for patients until they are able to care for themselves once again. Another assumption is that nurses are willing to serve and that they will devote themselves to patients day and night (Currentnursing, 2012).A lot of focus on Orem’s work is self-care. Even if there is a wide scope as seen when it comes to encompassing theory of the nursing systems, Orem’s goal of letting readers look at nursing care as a way of providing assistance to people was apparent when it came to all the concepts that were presented. From the definition, health that is sought as rigid can now be refined through making it suitable to general view of health as a state that is ever changing and dynamic. The role of nurses when it comes to the mantainace of health of patients was set by Orem with a lot of coherence according to the life-sustaining needs of every person. This theory appears simple but yet it is quite complex, the use of self-care agency, self-care deficit, universal self-care can be quite confusing. The theory does not recognize the emotional needs of an individual (Gonzalo, 2011).

The needs theory is based on four major concepts the individual, who has basic needs which are component of health. The second concept is environment is the setting which an individual learns of unique pattern of living. The third concept is health whereby nurses are required to stress on promoting health and prevention and cure of illnesses. The final concept is nursing that assists and supports individuals in life activities as ell as their attainment of independence. The theory puts emphasis on basic human needs as being a central focus of the nursing practice which has led to the development of theory when it comes to needs of an individual and how nursing can be used to meet these needs (Currentnursing, 2012).


Gonzalo, A. (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved October 7, 2014 from (2012). Virginia Henderson’s Need Theory. Retrieved October 7, 2014 from