Subject: Psychology    / General Psychology

1. According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that:

a) people are naturally predisposed to be hostile and aggressive

b) even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

c) the desire to be accepted by others is one of the strongest human motives.

d) people value their freedom and react negatively when they feel they are being coerced.

Question 2

A relatively enduring evaluation of people, events, or objects is termed an ___________.

a) attribution

b) impression

c) appraisal

d) attitude

Question 3

Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart most clearly highlight the importance of _______ in personality development.

a) gender schema

b) parental influence

c) genetic predispositions

d) testosterone

Question 4

Dr. Handy studies how other people influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions. Dr. Handy studies ____________ psychology.

a) developmental

b) personality

c) cognitive

d) social

Question 5

In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought:

a) three others were pulling with them

b) three others were pulling against them.

c) no others were pulling with them

d) no one was monitoring how hard they pulled.

Question 6

The set of assumptions, rules, and procedures that scientists use to conduct empirical research. This statement best describes _____

a) data

b) empiricism

c) the scientific method

d) the hindsight bias

Question 7

Compared with many Asian and African parents, today’s North American parents are more likely to teach their children to value which personality trait?

a) civil obedience

b) emotional closeness

c) personal independence

d) family traditions

Question 8

Sue bought a used, high-mileage car because it was all she could afford. Attempting to justify her purchase, she raved to her friends about the car’s attractiveness, good acceleration and stereo. According to Freud, Sue is using the defense mechanism of:

a) displacement

b) reaction formation

c) rationalization

d) projection

Question 10

Gene is to environment as _____ is to _____.

a) determinism; free will

b) unconscious processing; conscious processing

c) nature; nurture

d) free will; determinism

Question 11

Phillip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:

a) team membership on social loafing

b) self-disclosure on conciliation

c) frustration on aggression

d) role-playing on attitudes.

Question 12

Ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association urge psychological investigators to:

a) treat information about the participants confidentially

b) protect participants from harm and discomfort

c) ensure that research participants give informed consent to participating in the research

d) all of the above

Question 13

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that “you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends.” Mark’s amazement at the psychic’s apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates:

a) the spotlight effect.

b) an external locus of control.

c) the Barnum effect.

d) the self-reference phenomenon.

Question 14

Which of the following describes the individual difference measure of self-efficacy

a) Conventional, superstitious, and concerned with sex

b) Believing that one can control his or her own outcomes

c) Examining one’s own self and feelings

d) Enjoying thinking about things

Question 15

Which of the following research strategies would provide the most effective way of demonstrating that the observation of violence on television causes children to act aggressively? a) naturalistic observation

b) the experiment

c) the survey

d) the case study

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