Markus posted a question Jul 23, 2014 at 4:06am
Hi Please help me URGENTLY 
for Cognitive Neuroscience.

It regards coming up with a reasonable diagnosis for 
an illness based on a case.
-Attached is an example, ie. a tutorial.
-And also attached is the actual case to be solved, entitled "Case to solve.pdf",
featuring "Patient C.L."

I need this very quick. If you cannot write it up, or can only do key points, that is fine... I can write it up if I get a response soon.

Name and describe the signs, symptoms and potential syndrome(s)
• Determine cognitive domain(s) impacted and possible brain damage localization (be
specific!). Also describe other areas of cognitive functioning that you think might be
impacted based on cognitive neuroscience research. Describe other clinically relevant data
you would like to obtain (e.g. neuroimaging, neuropsychological reports etc.).
• Provide potential diagnoses - list 2-3 possible diagnoses that you feel should be considered
based on the facts of the case. Then narrow your reasoning down to what you feel is the most
likely diagnosis.
Each of these aspects should be fully explained and justified based primarily on information
provided in the course (including the lectures). In addition to the course materials, you should
cite two (2) additional research papers related to your final diagnosis and that have informed
your clinical decision-making process. HOWEVER, this is not intended as a research paper. I
do not expect lengthy discussions on the etiologies nor an extensive bibliography. You may
write 750 words for this assignment so your thoughts should be well reasoned and precisely
stated. Superfluous writing and unfounded statements are STRONGLY discouraged.
Please see “Term Paper Tutorial” lecture notes in the “Term Paper” folder on Moodle further
details on how to approach the assignment.
The case study analysis is due at the beginning of lecture, July 23rd.
Case: Patient C.L.
C.L., a 55 year old right-handed woman, sought an evaluation for an overall decline in
her writing, spelling, arithmetic and reading abilities. These had been present for approximately
one year and had led her to resign from her position as a second grade teacher. Lapses of
memory occurred occasionally. Despite these deficits, daily living activities remained intact.
Her general physical examination and elementary neurological examination showed no deficits.
Examination revealed an alert, cooperative and pleasant woman who was appropriately
concerned about her predicament. She was fully oriented to time [year, month and day of the
week] and place [country, province, city and location of testing] but had only a vague knowledge
of current news events [who is the Premier of Ontario?].
She could not recite months in the correct order. Her phonemic verbal fluency [name as
many words as you can beginning with ‘S’] was normal but was below expectation for lexical
items (name as many animals as you can). Her performance on a word list recall measure [repeat
as many words as you can from the word list I just read to you] suggested that she did not have a
primary memory disorder.
There was mild hesitancy to her spontaneous (conversational) speech, but no true wordfinding
pauses. She did well on confrontation naming [what is the name of the object in this
picture?], showing only mild hesitation on naming of object parts. Only a single phonemic
paraphasia [pronouncing ‘shoulen’ for ‘shoulder’] was noted. Her language comprehension was
preserved (oral and written). Reading was slow but accurate, including reading numbers.
Writing was very poor. She had severe spelling difficulties, even for simple words, including
regular (e.g. ‘buy’) and irregular (‘bought’) forms. When asked to solve arithmetic problems she
said that 8 + 4 was 11 and could not calculate 4 X 12. When tested, she found it difficult to
verbally identify which of her fingers was tapped by the examiner. She also had difficulty
moving specific fingers to command, but was able to move the correct finger in response to a
tap.
On her way to be scanned she received detailed instructions on how to get to radiology
(which included two right and one left turn), but she kept taking the wrong turns, something her
husband describes as typical of her lately. She had difficulties in target scanning [find a
particular symbol out of an array of many different symbols]. Clock drawing showed minimal
misplacement of numbers and she could not properly copy a cube.
Because of her relatively young age and unusual presentation, an extensive workup was
performed. A variety of laboratory tests were unremarkable. A brain magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) scan showed moderate atrophic changes. Single-photon, emission computed
tomography (SPECT: a measures of blood flow and brain activity) showed reductions in regions
of the temporal-parietal junction, with greater reductions observed in the right than the left
hemisphere.

-Please note, exact diagnosis does not matter so much. The point is rationale behind the possible diagnoses, like "a lesion in 'this area', causing..."

Thank you most kindly. Good day. 
Additional Requirements 

Min Pages: 1 
Max Pages: 3 
Level of Detail: Show all work 
Other Requirements: Note that I will write in my own writing style, so if you are busy and cannot write me a detailed answer on such short notice, give me the jist, and
I will do the rest.

If you have "Cognitive Neuroscience" 3rd edition by Banich, that would help... I can use that textbook and its cited journals for
2 research journals. That would be helpful. 

Thanks so much and have a nice day!


-NOTE: CASE TO SOLVE is the one. Tutorial is just detailed instructions on how to...
and Textbook is last one.

Just 750 words on all this. 

I will reword and change it all anyways, so if you can only do key points, that will still help me.


Case to Solve.pdf  Download Attachment

This is an unformatted preview. Please download the attached document for the original format.
PSYC 3250 SU2, 2014
Term Paper Assignment
CASE STUDY

One of the great challenges that behavioural neurologists and neuropsychologists face is
integrating a seemingly random collection of signs and symptoms into a coherent and
conceptually sound diagnosis of a disorder. The following case is a detailed description of
neurological signs and symptoms presented by a patient in a neuropsychology clinic. Your task
is to:
•

Name and describe the signs, symptoms and potential syndrome(s)

•

Determine cognitive domain(s) impacted and possible brain damage localization (be
specific!). Also describe other areas of cognitive functioning that you think might be
impacted based on cognitive neuroscience research. Describe other clinically relevant data
you would like to obtain (e.g. neuroimaging, neuropsychological reports etc.).

•

Provide potential diagnoses - list 2-3 possible diagnoses that you feel should be considered
based on the facts of the case. Then narrow your reasoning down to what you feel is the most
likely diagnosis.

Each of these aspects should be fully explained and justified based primarily on information
provided in the course (including the lectures). In addition to the course materials, you should
cite two (2) additional research papers related to your final diagnosis and that have informed
your clinical decision-making process. HOWEVER, this is not intended as a research paper. I
do not expect lengthy discussions on the etiologies nor an extensive bibliography. You may
write 750 words for this assignment so your thoughts should be well reasoned and precisely
stated. Superfluous writing and unfounded statements are STRONGLY discouraged.
Please see “Term Paper Tutorial” lecture notes in the “Term Paper” folder on Moodle further
details on how to approach the assignment.

The case study analysis is due at the beginning of lecture, July 23rd.

Case: Patient C.L.
C.L., a 55 year old right-handed woman, sought an evaluation for an overall decline in
her writing, spelling, arithmetic and reading abilities. These had been present for approximately
one year and had led her to resign from her position as a second grade teacher. Lapses of
memory occurred occasionally. Despite these deficits, daily living activities remained intact.
Her general physical examination and elementary neurological examination showed no deficits.
Examination revealed an alert, cooperative and pleasant woman who was appropriately
concerned about her predicament. She was fully oriented to time [year, month and day of the
week] and place [country, province, city and location of testing] but had only a vague knowledge
of current news events [who is the Premier of Ontario?].
She could not recite months in the correct order. Her phonemic verbal fluency [name as
many words as you can beginning with ‘S’] was normal but was below expectation for lexical
items (name as many animals as you can). Her performance on a word list recall measure [repeat
as many words as you can from the word list I just read to you] suggested that she did not have a
primary memory disorder.
There was mild hesitancy to her spontaneous (conversational) speech, but no true wordfinding pauses. She did well on confrontation naming [what is the name of the object in this
picture?], showing only mild hesitation on naming of object parts. Only a single phonemic
paraphasia [pronouncing ‘shoulen’ for ‘shoulder’] was noted. Her language comprehension was
preserved (oral and written). Reading was slow but accurate, including reading numbers.
Writing was very poor. She had severe spelling difficulties, even for simple words, including
regular (e.g. ‘buy’) and irregular (‘bought’) forms. When asked to solve arithmetic problems she
said that 8 + 4 was 11 and could not calculate 4 X 12. When tested, she found it difficult to
verbally identify which of her fingers was tapped by the examiner. She also had difficulty
moving specific fingers to command, but was able to move the correct finger in response to a
tap.
On her way to be scanned she received detailed instructions on how to get to radiology
(which included two right and one left turn), but she kept taking the wrong turns, something her
husband describes as typical of her lately. She had difficulties in target scanning [find a
particular symbol out of an array of many different symbols]. Clock drawing showed minimal
misplacement of numbers and she could not properly copy a cube.
Because of her relatively young age and unusual presentation, an extensive workup was
performed. A variety of laboratory tests were unremarkable. A brain magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) scan showed moderate atrophic changes. Single-photon, emission computed
tomography (SPECT: a measures of blood flow and brain activity) showed reductions in regions
of the temporal-parietal junction, with greater reductions observed in the right than the left
hemisphere.


Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 	
 
•?
•?
•?
•?

Due:	
 July	
 23,	
 2014,	
 BEGINNING	
 of	
 CLASS	
 
Case	
 Report	
 (750	
 words	
 MAX)	
 
Title	
 page	
 
References	
 
–? Most	
 informaPon	
 can	
 be	
 found	
 in	
 text	
 (including	
 
references	
 to	
 primary	
 sources)	
 &	
 lectures	
 	
 
–? BUT:	
 	
 Also	
 need	
 to	
 ?nd	
 (and	
 reference)	
 2	
 research	
 papers	
 
(original	
 or	
 review	
 papers)	
 –	
 these	
 can	
 be	
 from	
 those	
 
referenced	
 in	
 the	
 text	
 –	
 relaPng	
 to	
 the	
 case	
 and	
 your	
 
diagnosis.	
 

THE	
 CASE	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 

•?

Mr.	
 M	
 is	
 a	
 50	
 year-­?old	
 man	
 who	
 presented	
 in	
 the	
 emergency	
 room	
 with	
 sudden	
 
onset	
 of	
 blurred	
 vision	
 and	
 weakness	
 on	
 his	
 le]	
 side.	
 His	
 condiPon	
 was	
 medically	
 
stabilized	
 shortly	
 following	
 admission.	
 Further	
 examinaPon	
 revealed	
 that	
 Mr.	
 M	
 
was	
 unable	
 to	
 idenPfy	
 objects	
 presented	
 to	
 his	
 le]	
 with	
 either	
 eye.	
 Sensory	
 
examinaPon	
 (vibraPon,	
 pinprick,	
 temperature,	
 and	
 propriocepPon)	
 revealed	
 
normal	
 sensaPon.	
 However,	
 when	
 bilateral	
 tacPle	
 sPmulaPon	
 was	
 presented	
 
simultaneously,	
 Mr.	
 M	
 was	
 only	
 able	
 to	
 recognize	
 that	
 presented	
 on	
 the	
 right.	
 	
 

•?

Mr.	
 M	
 was	
 admiaed	
 and	
 within	
 days,	
 his	
 motor	
 weakness	
 had	
 resolved.	
 He	
 
demonstrated	
 no	
 motor	
 de?cit.	
 However,	
 Mr.	
 M	
 experienced	
 several	
 falls	
 and	
 
acquired	
 several	
 bruises	
 to	
 his	
 le]	
 side	
 during	
 his	
 admission.	
 He	
 was	
 observed	
 to	
 
run	
 into	
 walls	
 and	
 doorways,	
 injuring	
 himself.	
 He	
 did	
 not	
 appear	
 to	
 see	
 objects	
 
approaching	
 on	
 his	
 le]	
 side.	
 When	
 asked	
 to	
 draw	
 a	
 clock,	
 he	
 produced	
 the	
 
following:	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 
THE	
 CASE	
 (cont d)	
 
•? Mr.	
 M s	
 discharge	
 from	
 hospital	
 was	
 delayed	
 because	
 of	
 his	
 problems	
 
negoPaPng	
 his	
 way	
 through	
 his	
 environment,	
 as	
 well	
 as	
 di?culPes	
 dressing	
 
himself.	
 In	
 fact,	
 he	
 was	
 unable	
 to	
 buaon	
 his	
 shirt,	
 appearing	
 as	
 if	
 he	
 did	
 not	
 
understand	
 how	
 a	
 buaon	
 relates	
 to	
 a	
 buaonhole.	
 He	
 also	
 donned	
 a	
 le]	
 glove	
 
on	
 his	
 right	
 hand,	
 placing	
 3	
 ?ngers	
 in	
 the	
 thumb.	
 He	
 seemed	
 unconcerned	
 
with	
 these	
 problems,	
 with	
 his	
 face	
 remaining	
 blank	
 and	
 his	
 voice	
 monotone.	
 	
 
•?

Language	
 was	
 intact.	
 However,	
 Mr.	
 M	
 did	
 have	
 di?culty	
 idenPfying	
 familiar	
 
objects	
 when	
 presented	
 in	
 his	
 intact	
 visual	
 ?eld.	
 For	
 example,	
 when	
 he	
 was	
 
presented	
 with	
 a	
 fork,	
 Mr.	
 M	
 described	
 the	
 object	
 as	
  something	
 sharp	
 and	
 
shiny,	
 like	
 a	
 needle .	
 When	
 he	
 was	
 permiaed	
 to	
 touch	
 the	
 object	
 or	
 when	
 its	
 
use	
 was	
 demonstrated,	
 he	
 was	
 able	
 to	
 correctly	
 idenPfy	
 it.	
 Mr.	
 M	
 also	
 
demonstrated	
 signi?cant	
 di?culty	
 aaending	
 during	
 rehabilitaPon	
 sessions	
 and	
 
his	
 family	
 reported	
 that	
 he	
 appeared	
 highly	
 distracPble	
 during	
 conversaPons.	
 	
 

•?

Mr.	
 M	
 received	
 two	
 weeks	
 of	
 inpaPent	
 rehabilitaPon,	
 following	
 which	
 he	
 
returned	
 home	
 to	
 the	
 care	
 of	
 his	
 family.	
 Mr.	
 M	
 has	
 a	
 long-­?standing	
 history	
 of	
 
hypertension,	
 elevated	
 cholesterol,	
 and	
 he	
 is	
 a	
 long-­?Pme	
 smoker.	
 His	
 family	
 
history	
 is	
 signi?cant	
 for	
 a	
 brother	
 who	
 passed	
 away	
 at	
 the	
 age	
 of	
 58	
 from	
 
heart	
 disease.	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 
CASE	
 REPORT	
 	
 
Suggested	
 Structure:	
 

 
•? DescripPon	
 of	
 Signs	
 and	
 Symptoms	
 as	
 described	
 
in	
 the	
 case	
 (1	
 paragraph).	
 	
 	
 
•?
•?

What	
 is	
 of	
 relevance	
 to	
 you	
 as	
 the	
 clinician?	
 	
 
What	
 other	
 informaPon	
 would	
 you	
 seek	
 to	
 ?nd	
 out	
 and	
 why?	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 
CASE	
 REPORT	
 	
 
Suggested	
 Structure	
 (conPnued):	
 

 
•? Matching	
 behavioural	
 signs	
 to	
 potenPal	
 domains	
 of	
 
cogniPon	
 that	
 might	
 be	
 impacted	
 (3	
 paragraphs).	
 
–?
–?
–?

Not	
 just	
 broad	
 domain	
 (e.g.	
 vision)	
 -­?	
 what	
 speci?c	
 cogniPve	
 
processes	
 seem	
 to	
 be	
 impaired?	
 
What	
 does	
 the	
 cogniPve	
 neuroscience	
 literature	
 say	
 about	
 the	
 
neural	
 substrate	
 of	
 these	
 processes?	
 
Is	
 there	
 anything	
 else	
 that	
 you	
 would	
 like	
 to	
 test	
 for	
 or	
 examine	
 
that	
 would	
 make	
 the	
 picture	
 clearer?	
 	
 e.g.	
 types	
 of	
 
neuroimaging	
 /	
 neuropsychological	
 tesPng?	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 
CASE	
 REPORT	
 	
 
Suggested	
 Structure	
 (conPnued):	
 

 
•? DiagnosPc	
 consideraPons	
 (3	
 paragraphs):	
 
–?
–?
–?


 

Given	
 the	
 nature	
 of	
 the	
 brain	
 damage	
 and	
 the	
 clinical	
 picture	
 –	
 
what	
 diagnoses	
 would	
 you	
 consider	
 and	
 why?	
 
What	
 is	
 the	
 most	
 likely	
 diagnosis	
 and	
 which	
 brain	
 regions	
 are	
 
most	
 likely	
 impacted	
 (be	
 as	
 speci?c	
 as	
 possible)?	
 
Are	
 there	
 other	
 de?cits	
 that	
 you	
 suspect	
 might	
 manifest?	
 Under	
 
what	
 condiPons?	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 
Brief	
 Sample	
 secPons	
 …	
 	
 

Clinical	
 presentaPon:	
 
•? A	
 50-­?year	
 old	
 long-­?Pme	
 smoker,	
  Mr.	
 M 
 has	
 history	
 of	
 
hypertension,	
 high	
 cholesterol,	
 and	
 heart	
 disease	
 in	
 his	
 
immediate	
 family.	
 	
 Though	
 stabilized	
 a]er	
 sudden	
 onset	
 
of	
 blurred	
 vision	
 and	
 unilateral	
 le]-­?side	
 weakness,	
 he	
 
became	
 unable	
 to	
 detect	
 visual	
 informaPon	
 to	
 his	
 le].	
 	
 
Under	
 bilateral	
 presentaPon,	
 tacPle	
 informaPon	
 
presented	
 to	
 the	
 le]	
 was	
 ignored.	
 	
 No	
 motor	
 or	
 language	
 
de?cits	
 were	
 present,	
 though	
 he	
 showed	
 di?culty	
 
navigaPng	
 and	
 idenPfying	
 the	
 whole	
 form	
 of	
 objects.	
 	
 
Object	
 naming	
 de?cits	
 disappeared	
 with	
 touching,	
 or	
 
demonstraPng	
 their	
 use.	
 	
 Also	
 present	
 was	
 an	
 inability	
 to	
 
dress	
 himself,	
 and	
 a	
 lack	
 of	
 concern	
 for	
 this	
 problem.	
 	
 
[Good	
 summary	
 of	
 signs	
 reported	
 in	
 the	
 case	
 (remarking	
 
both	
 on	
 what	
 was	
 impaired	
 and	
 what	
 was	
 preserved).]	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 
Brief	
 Sample	
 secPons	
 …	
 	
 

Linking	
 Signs	
 to	
 CogniPve	
 Domain	
 and	
 Neuroanatomy:	
 
•? Most	
 commonly	
 presented	
 on	
 the	
 le]	
 side,	
 
hemineglect s	
 modality-­?unspeci?c	
 aaenPonal	
 de?cits	
 
can	
 be	
 sPmulus-­?centred,	
 object-­?centred	
 or	
 viewer-­?
centred	
 (Hillis	
 2006).	
 	
 	
 These	
 categories	
 are	
 based	
 upon	
 
the	
 reference	
 point	
 for	
 the	
 disorder.	
 	
 Mr.	
 M s	
 inability	
 to	
 
detect	
 sPmuli	
 on	
 the	
 le]	
 of	
 his	
 body	
 indicates	
 the	
 
presence	
 of	
 hemineglect.	
 	
 His	
 sketch	
 of	
 a	
 clock	
 lacked	
 
essenPal	
 numbers	
 on	
 the	
 le]-­?hand	
 side,	
 though	
 the	
 
image	
 was	
 intact	
 on	
 the	
 right.	
 This	
 indicates	
 a	
 sPmulus-­?
centred	
 neglect,	
 which	
 is	
 o]en	
 accompanied	
 by	
 
abnormaliPes	
 in	
 the	
 right	
 superior	
 temporal	
 gyrus	
 (Hillis	
 
2006).	
 	
 [Speci?c	
 cogniPve	
 processes	
 are	
 discussed	
 (e.g.	
 
sPmulus-­?centered	
 neglect)	
 not	
 just	
 broadly	
 speaking	
 of	
 
aaenPon	
 …	
 which	
 helps	
 with	
 speci?c	
 localizaPon	
 -­?	
 STG]	
 

Term	
 Paper	
 Tutorial	
 
Brief	
 Sample	
 secPons	
 …	
 	
 

DiagnosPc	
 analyses:	
 
•?

•?

•?

MCA	
 infarcPon	
 is	
 considered	
 as	
 hemispaPal	
 neglect	
 is	
 a	
 typical	
 
manifestaPon	
 of	
 MCA	
 infarcPons.	
 	
 However,	
 MCA	
 infarcPons	
 are	
 
commonly	
 associated	
 with	
 aphasia	
 and	
 hemiparesis,	
 neither	
 of	
 
which	
 Mr.	
 M	
 experienced.	
 	
 
Thalamic	
 stroke	
 is	
 also	
 considered	
 as	
 damage	
 a?ecPng	
 the	
 right	
 
thalamic	
 area	
 frequently	
 results	
 in	
 a	
 	
 combinaPon	
 of	
 hemispaPal	
 
neglect	
 and	
 anosognosia	
 (Karussis,	
 Leker,	
 &	
 Abramsky,	
 2000)	
 as	
 seen	
 
in	
 paPent	
 M..	
 	
 However,	
 the	
 majority	
 of	
 these	
 paPents	
 also	
 present	
 
with	
 gross	
 motor	
 de?cits,	
 whereas	
 Mr.	
 M	
 presented	
 with	
 only	
 ?ne	
 
motor	
 control	
 de?cits.	
 	
 
InfarcPons	
 of	
 the	
 PCA	
 o]en	
 produce	
 a	
 symptom	
 pro?le	
 similar	
 to	
 
MCA	
 infarcPons	
 (Maulaz	
 et	
 al.,2005).	
 Given	
 the	
 presence	
 of	
 
unilateral	
 hemispaPal	
 neglect	
 without	
 aphasia,	
 hemiparesis	
 or	
 gross	
 
motor	
 de?cits	
 comonly	
 seen	
 in	
 MCA	
 or	
 thalamicstroke,	
 it	
 is	
 likely	
 
that	
 Mr.	
 M’s	
 has	
 sustained	
 an	
 ischemic	
 stroke	
 in	
 the	
 PCA	
 territory,	
 
a?ecPng	
 the	
 right	
 temporoparietal	
 juncPon.	
 

References	
 
•? Separate	
 page	
 
•? All	
 citaPons	
 in	
 the	
 text,	
 should	
 appear	
 in	
 the	
 reference	
 secPon	
 
•? Double	
 space	
 throughout,	
 with	
 no	
 extra	
 spaces	
 between	
 
references	
 
•? Only	
 the	
 ?rst	
 line	
 is	
 not	
 indented	
 
•? AlphabePze	
 by	
 the	
 ?rst	
 author	
 
•? If	
 more	
 then	
 6	
 authors,	
 then	
 put	
 “et	
 al.”	
 a]er	
 the	
 6th	
 author’s	
 
name	
 
•? In	
 text,	
 if	
 there	
 is	
 1	
 or	
 2	
 authors,	
 always	
 list	
 them	
 
•? In	
 text,	
 if	
 there	
 are	
 3,	
 4	
 or	
 5	
 authors,	
 list	
 all	
 of	
 them	
 the	
 ?rst	
 Pme,	
 
then	
 use	
 ?rst	
 author’s	
 name	
 followed	
 by	
 “et	
 al.”	
 	
 
•? In	
 text,	
 if	
 there	
 are	
 6	
 or	
 more	
 authors,	
 use	
 the	
 ?rst	
 author’s	
 name	
 
followed	
 by	
 “et	
 al.”	
 

WriPng	
 Style	
 
•? The	
 purpose	
 of	
 scienP?c	
 wriPng	
 is	
 to	
 communicate	
 
ideas	
 	
 
•? This	
 communicaPon	
 should	
 be	
 clear,	
 unambiguous	
 
and	
 easy	
 to	
 read	
 
•? In	
 literature	
 and	
 philosophy	
 language	
 is	
 not	
 always	
 
clear	
 and	
 things	
 can	
 be	
 interpreted	
 in	
 several	
 ways	
 	
 
•? Therefore,	
 for	
 this	
 course,	
 and	
 in	
 psychology	
 in	
 
general,	
 the	
 wriPng	
 style	
 should	
 be	
 laconic	
 –	
 
concise,	
 clear	
 and	
 forceful	
 

WriPng	
 Style	
 
Use	
 of	
 Slang	
 and	
 ContracPons	
 
•? Do	
 not	
 use	
 slang	
 or	
 colloquial	
 language	
 
•? “The	
 paPent	
 su?ered	
 from	
 amnesia.	
 	
 This	
 
condiPons	
 is	
 really	
 hard	
 on	
 the	
 person	
 and	
 his	
 
family.”	
 
•? Do	
 not	
 use	
 contracPons	
 (e.g.,	
 “don’t”,	
 “can’t”	
 
etc.)	
 

WriPng	
 Style	
 
Choose	
 Clear	
 and	
 Plain	
 Words	
 
•? Use	
 words	
 based	
 on	
 
their	
 primary	
 meaning	
 	
 
•? Avoid	
 using	
 a	
 
thesaurus	
 (especially	
 if	
 
you	
 are	
 going	
 to	
 use	
 it	
 
incorrectly)	
 

Fancy

Plain

Utilize

Use

Transpire

Happen

Obviate

Prevent

Paragraphs	
 
•? Create	
 clear	
 paragraphs	
 organized	
 around	
 
speci?c	
 ideas/arguments	
 

Be	
 Concise	
 
•? During	
 the	
 period	
 of	
 Pme	
 that	
 she	
 was	
 periodically	
 
monitored	
 her	
 condiPon	
 improved.	
 
•? While	
 she	
 was	
 monitored,	
 her	
 condiPon	
 improved.	
 

 
•? These	
 children	
 do	
 not	
 develop	
 cogniPve	
 abiliPes	
 in	
 the	
 
childhood	
 years,	
 which	
 greatly	
 a?ects	
 them	
 in	
 later	
 life.	
 
•? These	
 children	
 do	
 not	
 develop	
 cogniPve	
 abiliPes.	
 	
 This	
 
a?ects	
 them	
 in	
 adulthood.	
 
•? The	
 type	
 of	
 memory	
 that	
 was	
 measured	
 in	
 this	
 study	
 
was	
 declaraPve	
 memory.	
 
•? The	
 researchers	
 measured	
 declaraPve	
 memory.	
 

Choose	
 AcPve	
 Over	
 Passive	
 Verbs	
 
•? The	
 data	
 were	
 collected	
 and	
 analyzed	
 by	
 the	
 
researchers.	
 
•? The	
 researchers	
 collected	
 and	
 analyzed	
 the	
 
data.	
 
•? The	
 paPent	
 was	
 examined	
 by	
 the	
 doctor.	
 
•? The	
 doctor	
 examined	
 the	
 paPent.	
 

Grammar/PunctuaPon	
 

  
 A	
 panda	
 walks	
 into	
 a	
 café.	
 	
 He	
 orders	
 sandwich,	
 eats	
 it,	
 then	
 draws	
 a	
 
gun	
 and	
 ?res	
 two	
 shots	
 in	
 the	
 air.	
 

 	
 	
 

 	
 	
 	
 	
 	
  
 “Why?”	
 ask	
 the	
 confused	
 waiter,	
 as	
 the	
 panda	
 makes	
 towards	
 the	
 exit.	
 	
 
The	
 panda	
 produces	
 a	
 badly	
 punctuated	
 wild	
 life	
 manual	
 and	
 tosses	
 it	
 
over	
 his	
 shoulder.	
 	
 	
 

 

  
 “I	
 am	
 a	
 panda,”	
 he	
 says,	
 at	
 the	
 door.	
 	
 “Look	
 it	
 up.”	
 	
 

  
 The	
 waiter	
 turns	
 to	
 the	
 relevant	
 entry	
 and,	
 sure	
 enough,	
 ?nds	
 an	
 
explanaPon.	
 	
 	
 

 

  
 “Panda.	
 Large	
 black-­?and-­?white	
 bear-­?like	
 mammal,	
 naPve	
 to	
 china.	
 Eats,	
 
shoots	
 and	
 leaves.”