IM 2002 – Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality

Subject: General Questions / General General Questions

QuestionSection A: Essay Questions. Answer one (1) question only (30% of the total grade).
1. Personality helps shape employee behaviour. Therefore, managers need to understand the personalities of those in their employment. Using examples to illustrate your point:
a) Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model and demonstrate how the Big Five traits help predict behaviour at work. (70 marks)
b) Describe at least three other personality traits relevant to Organizational Behaviour and show how they help predict behaviour at work. (30 marks)
2. Job satisfaction is an attitude which helps predict workplace behaviours and job performance. Using examples to illustrate your point:
a) Explain what causes job satisfaction (or dissatisfaction). (40 marks)
b) What are the consequences of dissatisfaction and the benefits of satisfaction in the work place? (60 marks)
3. In order to be successful managers must learn to motivate staff effectively. Using examples to illustrate your point:
a) Describe two theories of motivation (50 marks)
b) Explain two core job dimensions in the job characteristics model (50 marks)
Section B: Multiple Choice Questions (70% of the total grade). Answer ALL questions using the blank MCQ sheet provided. You will get 1 point for every correct answer. You will lose 0.25 points for every incorrect answer or for making multiple answers to a question. You will not get or lose any points for leaving a question blank.
1) Which of the following is not a core topic of organizational behavior? 1) _____
A) conflict
B) resource allocation
C) motivation
D) work design
E) attitude development
2) There is a connection between companies which have ________ and the incorporation of organizational behavior principles. 2) _____
A) specialized technical processes
B) high turnover rates
C) superior financial performance
D) long-lasting CEO’s
E) all of the above
3) In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement your intuitive opinions with information derived in what fashion? 3) _____
A) systematic study
B) common sense
C) direct observation
D) organizational theory
E) speculation
4) Which of the following explains the usefulness of the systematic approach to the study of organizational behavior? 4) _____
A) Human behavior is not consistent.
B) Human behavior is often not sensible.
C) Human behavior does not vary a great deal between individuals and situations.
D) Human behavior is rarely predictable.
E) Human behavior is not random.
5) Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of ________ study. 5) _____
A) case-based
B) theoretical
C) systematic
D) organizational
E) intuitive
6) Austin is a graduate student helping to organize a study on individual job satisfaction. The study focuses on the top five causes of satisfaction or dissatisfaction on a job. His department is surveying 200 individuals in 100 different types of organizations. Austin is most likely a graduate student in the department of ________. 6) _____
A) psychology
B) archaeology
C) political science
D) social psychology
E) anthropology
7) Human beings are complex, and few, if any, simple and universal principles explain organizational behavior. Nevertheless, it does not mean that OB cannot offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior or make valid predictions. It does mean that OB concepts must ________. 7) _____
A) focus on the reliability and validity of research data
B) avoid assumptions
C) reflect situational, or contingency, conditions
D) attempt to establish cause-and-effect relationships
E) be consistently applicable across a wide range of situations
8) Betty believes that it is best to take the casual or common sense approach to reading others. She needs to remember that ________. 8) _____
A) behavior is unpredictable, hence there is no accurate way to analyze it
B) laboratory experiments on human behavior often result in unreliable findings
C) the systematic approach and the casual approach are one and the same
D) the casual or common sense approach to reading others can often lead to erroneous predictions
E) the casual approach is nonsensical, and should be avoided as much as possible
9) What are the three primary determinants of behavior in organizations? 9) _____
A) groups, structure, and profit structure
B) profit structure, organizational complexity, and job satisfaction
C) individuals, profit structure, and job satisfaction
D) individuals, groups, and structure
E) individuals, groups, and job satisfaction
10) The two major forms of workforce diversity are ________ and ________. 10) _____
A) organizational-level diversity; individual-level diversity
B) lateral-level diversity; deep-level diversity
C) physical-level diversity; intellectual-level diversity
D) surface-level diversity; deep-level diversity
E) surface-level diversity; lateral-level diversity
11) Differences in characteristics like education, ethnicity, regional background, and gender form part of ________. 11) _____
A) lateral-level diversity
B) organizational-level diversity
C) surface-level diversity
D) individual-level diversity
E) deep-level diversity
12) Differences in characteristics such as personality, values, and beliefs form part of ________. 12) _____
A) lateral-level diversity
B) organizational-level diversity
C) individual-level diversity
D) deep-level diversity
E) surface-level diversity
13) While initial meetings may depend on surface-level diversity in making attempts to understand other individuals, studies show that after time ________ and ________ become more important to understanding the other individual. 13) _____
A) gender; age
B) values; personality
C) stereotypes; assumptions
D) assumptions; judgments
E) age; wisdom
14) Which of the following statements is true regarding surface-level diversity? 14) _____
A) Surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, is mostly reflected in Demographics.
B) Surface-level diversity will overcome fundamental differences and promote harmony.
C) Surface-level diversity does not affect employees’ perceptions.
D) Surface-level diversity can co-exist with deep-level diversity within an organization.
E) Surface-level diversity in the workforce can be eliminated by effective diversity management.
15) Although diversity does present many opportunities for organizations, effective diversity management means also working to eliminate ________. 15) _____
A) ethnic diversity
B) unfair discrimination
C) irrelevant biographical characteristics
D) surface-level diversity
E) discrepancies in employee performance
16) Diane and Clarke are two employees in an organization who recently started working together. Diane is an older, long-tenured woman raised in rural Kansas, who achieved her current level in the organization by starting as a high school graduate and working her way up the hierarchy. Clarke is a young, recently hired male college graduate with a business degree, raised in a Spanish-speaking neighborhood in Miami. However, both are deeply committed to their families, share a common way of thinking about important work problems, like to work collaboratively, and are interested in international assignments in the future. Which of the following describes the diversity between these two? 16) _____
A) surface-level diversity
B) individual-level diversity
C) lateral-level diversity
D) hierarchical-level diversity
E) deep-level diversity
17) ________ is defined as the biological heritage people use to identify themselves. 17) _____
A) Civilization
B) Ethnography
C) Diversity
D) Race
E) Culture
18) ________ can be defined as actions taken by representatives of the organization that deny equal opportunity to perform or unequal rewards for performance. 18) _____
A) Discriminatory policies or practices
B) Sexual harassment
C) Intimidation
D) Exclusive practices
E) Inclusive practices
19) Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude? 19) _____
A) Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone.
B) Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event.
C) Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures ones actions.
D) Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated.
E) Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of a person, object, or event.
20) The emotional or feeling component of a person’s attitude is called ________. 20) _____
A) the affective component
B) the cognitive component
C) the behavior component
D) complex understanding
E) a complex attitude
21) Janice is spending the summer working as an intern writing copy for a local firm. Today Janice’s senior editor sent back some of Janice’s work covered in red ink corrections. Up until now, all of Janice’s work had been corrected in green or blue ink. Janice is upset and worried that her senior editor doesn’t like her.
Which component of an attitude is not represented in the previous scenario? 21) _____
A) the affective component
B) the cognitive component
C) the behavioral component
D) the negative component
E) the positive component
22) The belief that “violence is wrong” is an evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes the ________ component of an attitude. 22) _____
A) behavioral
B) affective
C) reflective
D) reactive
E) cognitive
23) Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in ________. 23) _____
A) values clarification
B) attitudinal clarification
C) affective reactance
D) organizational dissonance
E) cognitive dissonance
24) Individuals will be more motivated to reduce dissonance when the attitudes are important or when they believe the dissonance is ________. 24) _____
A) completely out of their control
B) the work of a disgruntled coworker
C) they are in control of the dissonance
D) directly related to their pay
E) their supervisor is showing favoritism
25) ________ is the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. 25) _____
A) Psychological empowerment
B) Job involvement
C) Perceived organizational support
D) Organizational commitment
E) Employee engagement
26) An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he/she performs is known as ________. 26) _____
A) job involvement
B) psychological empowerment
C) employee engagement
D) job satisfaction
E) loyalty
27) To get his company through some hard economic times, Ben’s hours have just been reduced from 40 a week to 33. Ben is upset about the reduction in time and pay, but he shows up at work every morning and is willing to patiently wait until economic times improve, and he can go back to working full time. Which of the following best describes Ben’s response to his dissatisfaction? 27) _____
A) active, constructive, loyal
B) passive, constructive, loyal
C) active, destructive, exit
D) active, constructive, voice
E) passive, destructive, neglect
28) Which of the following is a generic term that covers a broad range of feelings that people experience? 28) _____
A) affect
B) emotional labor
C) emotions
D) cognition
E) moods
29) Which of the following terms best describes feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions? 29) _____
A) thoughts
B) cognition
C) moods
D) affect
E) reactions
30) People feeling different emotions after being subjected to identical emotion-provoking stimuli is a result of ________. 30) _____
A) positivity offset
B) personality
C) emotional labor
D) cognitive dissonance
E) emotional dissonance
31) Which of the following is the term used for the strength with which individuals experience emotion? 31) _____
A) emotional dissonance
B) emotional intelligence
C) affect intensity
D) positivity offset
E) emotional labor
32) If an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions (irrespective of his true emotions), then it is known as ________. 32) _____
A) emotional intelligence
B) deviant behavior
C) emotional labor
D) positive affect
E) negative affect
33) Which of the following is an example of deep acting? 33) _____
A) David invites a co-worker that he doesn’t like to lunch, in the hope of getting to know him better.
B) Javier is angry at his boss so he calls in sick on Friday, the day the project is due, to get back at him.
C) Sonora smiles at her cubicle neighbor when she walks by even though his behavior annoys her.
D) Andy tells his employee that he isn’t doing a good job and that he needs to shape up.
E) Liz is worried about her sick dog, but makes her morning sales calls with a smile.
34) Which of the following statements is true regarding surface acting? 34) _____
A) Surface acting is hiding inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.
B) Surface acting deals with felt emotions as opposed to deep acting which deals with displayed emotions.
C) Surface acting is trying to modify our true inner feelings based on display rules.
D) Research shows surface acting is less stressful to employees than deep acting.
E) A health care provider trying to genuinely feel more empathy for her patients is surface acting.
35) Henry is upset because his boss recently reprimanded him for missing a deadline. The boss put Henry on a probation period, causing him to lose his two days a week telecommuting privilege. Henry now has to work at the office five days a week. Which of the following is most likely to result from Henry’s negative attitude due to the reprimand? 35) _____
A) emotional contagion
B) deviant workplace behavior
C) positivity offset
D) distinction bias
E) cognitive dissonance
36) ________ indicates a person’s ability to be self-aware, detect emotions in others, and manage emotional cues and information. 36) _____
A) Confirmation bias
B) Emotional intelligence
C) Cognitive dissonance
D) Emotional dissonance
E) Cognitive distortion
37) ________ is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others. 37) _____
A) Knowledge
B) Intelligence
C) Personality
D) Talent
E) Skill
38) According to research, which of the following factors is most likely to influence personality? 38) _____
A) friends
B) economic background
C) education
D) moods
E) heredity
39) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) classification, people belonging to the “________” type are practical and prefer routine and order. 39) _____
A) introverted
B) perceiving
C) sensing
D) feeling
E) extraverted
40) What is the major problem with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator as a measure of personality? 40) _____
A) It is very difficult to administer.
B) It forces a person to be categorized as either one type or another.
C) It does not clearly classify a person into any single type.
D) It tends to overemphasize intuitive personality traits over analytical personality traits.
E) It does not include enough dimensions to differentiate all the variety of human personality.
41) Marylyn is a very driven person who seeks to push ideas forward to keep people on their toes; however, she also has a problem with stepping on peoples toes and being overly critical of others. Marylyn probably has high ________ and low ________. 41) _____
A) conscientiousness; openness to experience
B) emotional stability; agreeableness
C) conscientiousness; emotional stability
D) agreeableness; emotional stability
E) openness to experience; agreeableness
42) Which dimension of the Big Five Model refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others? 42) _____
A) openness to experience
B) emotional stability
C) agreeableness
D) conscientiousness
E) extraversion
43) When we rank an individual’s values in order of their ________, we obtain the person’s value system. 43) _____
A) content
B) intensity
C) social needs
D) social acceptance
E) context
44) Jane Simpson rates low on conscientiousness. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true about Jane? 44) _____
A) She will be easily distracted.
B) She will be positive and optimistic.
C) She will perform better in jobs that require significant interpersonal interaction.
D) She will be nervous, depressed, and insecure.
E) She will be creative.
45) ________ is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. 45) _____
A) Environmental analysis
B) Cognitive dissonance
C) Emotional labor
D) Perception
E) Social verification
46) Two people see the same thing at the same time yet interpret it differently. In this situation, factors that operate to shape their dissimilar perceptions reside in the ________. 46) _____
A) situation
B) perceivers
C) context
D) timing
E) target
47) ________ theory tries to explain the ways in which we judge people differently, depending on the meaning we attribute to a given behavior. 47) _____
B) Hierarchy of needs
C) Two factor
D) Acquired needs
E) Attribution
48) Which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior? 48) _____
A) An employee is late because of a flat tire.
B) An employee was promoted because he was hard working.
C) An employee is late to work because he was partying late and overslept.
D) An employee was fired because he violated a company policy.
E) An employee died from lung cancer after excessive tobacco use.
49) With reference to the attribution theory, which of the following terms indicates the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different situations? 49) _____
A) flexibility
B) stability
C) distinctiveness
D) continuity
E) integrity
50) Randy always turns in reports with punctuation errors. The reports of the three other employees on the QA report writing team always produce grammatically clean reports. Randy is about to turn in another report, and his manager has already noticed errors. Randy demonstrates ________. His sloppy reports can be attributed to an ________ cause. 50) _____
A) low distinctiveness, high consensus, and high consistency; internal
B) high distinctiveness, low consensus, and high consistency; external
C) high distinctiveness, high consensus, and high consistency; internal
D) low distinctiveness, low consensus, and high consistency; internal
E) low distinctiveness, low consensus, and high consistency; external
51) Which of the following terms best describes the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others? 51) _____
A) selective perception
B) randomness error
C) halo effect
D) fundamental attribution error
E) overconfidence
52) ________ indicates the tendency of an individual to attribute his own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. 52) _____
A) Stereotyping
B) Fundamental attribution error
C) Self-serving bias
D) Distinction bias
E) Selective perception
53) William believes Ronnie is a hardworking individual because Ronnie always dresses nicely and wears well-tailored suits. Which short-cut is William using to judge Ronnie? 53) _____
A) halo effect
B) impact bias
C) contrast effect
D) framing effect
E) self-serving bias
54) ________ is defined as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. 54) _____
A) Emotional labor
B) Management
C) Selective perception
D) Leadership
E) Motivation
55) Which of the following theories proposes that people prefer to feel they have control over their actions, so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation? 55) _____
A) goal setting theory
B) theory of needs
C) motivation-hygiene theory
D) self-determination theory
E) two-factor theory
56) Which of the following statements is true regarding the cognitive evaluation theory? 56) _____
A) This theory is also called motivation-hygiene theory.
B) This theory proposes that employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it.
C) This theory is based on three needs: need for achievement, need for power, and need for affiliation.
D) This theory states that the factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction.
E) This theory hypothesizes that extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in a task.
57) The concept of self-concordance proposes that ________. 57) _____
A) the factors that lead to job satisfaction are separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction
B) employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or even coerced into performing it
C) people with high achievement need tend to be the best general managers
D) extrinsic rewards will reduce intrinsic interest in a task
E) individuals who pursue goals because of an intrinsic interest are more likely to attain their goals
58) ________ indicates how strongly peoples’ reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values. 58) _____
A) Selective perception
B) Positivity offset
C) Emotional contagion
D) Self-concordance
E) Cognitive dissonance
59) Which of the following is not an ingredient common to all MBO programs? 59) _____
A) interdependence of tasks
B) specification of the goal
C) participative decision making
D) performance feedback
E) an explicit time period
60) ________ refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. 60) _____
A) Cognitive dissonance
B) Need for power
C) Affect intensity
D) Self-efficacy
E) Emotional contagion
61) Which of the following is true regarding job engagement? 61) _____
A) Practicing managers believe that job engagement cannot improve performance.
B) Academic studies have found negative outcomes of job engagement.
C) Organizations that have less engaged employees are more successful.
D) Critics note that higher levels of engagement may result in work-family conflict.
E) Groups with more engaged employees have lower levels of productivity.
62) In equity theory, individuals assess the ________. 62) _____
A) quality of outcome
B) quantity-quality trade-off
C) outcome-input ratio
D) cost-benefit ratio
E) efficiency-effectiveness trade-off
63) With reference to the job characteristics model, which of the following defines skill variety? 63) _____
A) the degree to which work activities generates direct and clear information about performance
B) the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
C) the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities
D) the degree to which a job provides the worker freedom in scheduling and procedure
E) the degree to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people
64) With reference to the job characteristics model, which of the following defines task identity? 64) _____
A) the degree to which work activities generates direct and clear information about performance
B) the degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
C) the degree to which a job provides the worker freedom in scheduling and procedure
D) the degree to which a job has an impact on the lives or work of other people
E) the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities
65) Which of the following is not one of the core job dimensions in the job characteristics model (JCM)? 65) _____
A) task significance
B) reward
C) autonomy
D) feedback
E) skill variety
66) According to the job characteristics model, task significance is the degree to which ________. 66) _____
A) a job affects the lives or work of other people
B) work activities generates direct and clear information about performance
C) a job provides the worker freedom in scheduling and procedure
D) a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work
E) a job requires a variety of different activities
67) Samantha is an emergency medical technician. Yesterday, due to an emergency, she was called to a house where a man suffered a heart attack. She was able to resuscitate the man, and while her colleagues were transporting him to the ambulance she spent 10 minutes calming the 12-year-old daughter, who was home alone with the father at that time. Based on this description, it’s safe to say that Samantha’s job is high in ________. 67) _____
A) task identity
B) feedback
C) task significance
D) reward
E) skill variety
68) In the job characteristics model (JCM), which three core job dimensions combine to create meaningful work? 68) _____
A) skill variety, autonomy, and task significance
B) skill variety, task identity, and task significance
C) autonomy, task identity, and feedback
D) skill variety, autonomy, and feedback
E) feedback, task identity, and task significance
69) John is a design manager for a production company. He independently assigns teams, chooses projects, researches trends, and is able to work from home two to three days a week. He provides a status report to the design director once a month. Based on this description and as per the job characteristics model, it’s safe to say that John’s job is high in ________. 69) _____
A) autonomy
B) skill variety
C) task identity
D) feedback
E) task significance
70) You notice that members of the janitorial staff are low skilled and are suffering from overroutinization of their work. They are most likely to be motivated by ________. 70) _____
A) gainsharing
B) employee stock options
C) merit-based pay plans
D) skill-based pay plan
E) job rotation
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