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Homework 4 

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Question 1 of 34 10.0 Points 

Chapter 4: Discuss differences between biologic indicators and biologic monitors and their required attributes.

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Question 2 of 34 6.0 Points 

Chapter 4/Week 4: Briefly describe the uses of modeling in environmental toxicology.

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Question 3 of 34 8.0 Points 

Chapter 4/Week 4: Briefly describe one field and one laboratory based approach for assessing the biological and ecological effects of toxic substances. Include advantages and limitations.

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Question 4 of 34 10.0 Points 

Paquin et al. (2002): Briefly describe the chronology of major advances in the regulatory approach used in the United States for water-quality criteria.

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Question 5 of 34 4.0 Points 

Week 4: Which is NOT an input parameter to the "Biotic Ligand Model"?
A.Fe 
B.pH 
C.Ca 
D.Na 
E.SO4 

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Question 6 of 34 6.0 Points 

Week 4: Brief describe the "biotic ligand" with respect to copper toxicity to a fathead minnow.

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Question 7 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site EB-1 is micrograms per liter (µg/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 8 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site EB-1 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 9 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site EB-2 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 10 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site EB-2 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 11 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site EB-3 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 12 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site EB-3 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 13 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site EB-4 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 14 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site EB-4 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 15 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site SB-1 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 16 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site SB-1 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 17 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site SB-2 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 18 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site SB-2 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 19 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site SB-3 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 20 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site SB-3 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 21 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site SB-4 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 22 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site SB-4 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 23 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site SB-5 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 24 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site SB-5 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 25 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site OR-1 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 26 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site OR-1 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 27 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site OR-2 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 28 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site OR-2 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 29 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

On the basis of the Biotic Ligand Model, the aquatic ecosystem criterion maximum concentration (CMC) [acute surface-water toxicity limit] for copper at surface water site OR-3 is micrograms per liter (ug/L). Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 30 of 34 1.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

The hazard quotient for the surface-water concentration at site OR-3 relative to the acute surface-water toxicity limit (CMC) for copper at that site is . Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 31 of 34 4.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

Consider how toxicity varies with DOC concentration. Surface-water sample SB-1 has a DOC concentration of 1.2 mg/L and you calculated the corresponding CMC above. The CMC for a DOC concentration of half of this concentration (0.6 mg/L) is ug/L. Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 32 of 34 4.0 Points 

Accepted characters: numbers, decimal point markers (period or comma), sign indicators (-), spaces (e.g., as thousands separator, 5 000), "E" or "e" (used in scientific notation). NOTE: For scientific notation, a period MUST be used as the decimal point marker. 
Complex numbers should be in the form (a + bi) where "a" and "b" need to have explicitly stated values. 
For example: {1+1i} is valid whereas {1+i} is not. {0+9i} is valid whereas {9i} is not. 

Surface-water sample SB-1 has a DOC concentration of 1.2 mg/L and you calculated the corresponding CMC above. The CMC for a DOC that is twice this concentration (2.4 mg/L) is ug/L. Provide your answer to one decimal place (X.X). 


Question 33 of 34 12.0 Points 

Now that you have calculated the variation of copper toxicity with DOC concentration with the Biotic Ligand Model, discuss how important DOC is to determining copper toxicity.

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Question 34 of 34 12.0 Points 

Describe how the hardness-based CMCs and the Biotic Ligand Model (hardness & DOC based) CMCs (or hazard quotients) compare in terms of reaches of streams where the water-quality criteria are exceeded. In other words, which criteria delineate the most restricted area of impairment and which one delineates the most extensive?

Maximum number of characters (including HTML tags added by text editor): 60,000 

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