I have a pdf. file cardiac-output, I would like help on please
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Interactive Physiology Worksheet:
Cardiovascular System: Cardiac Output

The volume of blood ejected from the left or right ventricle into the aorta or
1. Define cardiac output (CO). ________________________________________________________ pulmonary

whats the equation for CO CO=HR x SV
2. Write the equation for CO. _________________________________________________________

amount of blood pumped by EACH ventricle with each heartbeat, avarage 70
3. Define stroke volume (SV). _________________________________________________________ 70mL/beat

SV=EDV-ESV
4. Write the equation for SV. _________________________________________________________

5. Write the normal values (include correct units) for the following:
75 beats a min
a. HR (heart rate) = ___________________________
70Ml
b. SV (stroke volume) = ___________________________

120 mL
c. EDV (end diastolic volume) = ___________________________
50 mL
d. ESV (end systolic volume) = ___________________________

6.

Given the normal values for HR and SV (above), calculate cardiac output:
CO = HR × SV = 75 beats/minute x 70 ml/beat = 5250 ml/minute or 5.25 L/minute
CO = __________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Page 1 of 2
BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab
© 2013 South University

7. Explain how the following factors affect HR, SV, and CO by placing arrows (increase, decrease, or
no change) under them.
HR

SV

CO

a. increase SNS

increased
____________

b. increased Venous return

increased
_____________

increased
____________

increased
____________

c. Exercise

increased
_____________

increased
____________

increased
____________

d. increased Calcium

decreased
_____________

increased
____________

no change
____________

e. decreased HR
8.

no change
_____________ increased
____________

no change
_____________

no change
____________

no change
____________

Why would stroke volume increase with an increase in the sympathetic nervous system or an
An increase in contractility leads to an increase in the force of contraction
increase in calcium? ______________________________________________________________

9.

Why would stroke volume increase when heart rate slows down?
An increase in filling time leads to an increase in end diastolic volume
_______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Page 2 of 2
BIO1014 Anatomy and Physiology II Lab
© 2013 South University