HR Performance Issues and Motivation 
The relationship between the organization and its members can be greatly influenced by what motivates individuals to work. The style of leadership, job design, resources on the job, and environment can all have a significant effect on the satisfaction of employees and their performance. Performance is also influenced by individual motivations (e.g., social, recognition, financial reward, personal growth and development, and/or intrinsic satisfaction) and can equally impact the organization. There are many theories that attempt to explain the nature of motivation. Write a 4-5 page paper (excluding the title and reference pages) evaluating the relationship between motivation, job satisfaction, and work performance. Be sure to address the following:

Describe a performance issue which resulted from a motivational problem (what, why, who).
Use a content theory of motivation (e.g., Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, or McClelland) or a process theory (i.e., Adams, Locke, or Heider and Kelley) to explain how the issue creates a performance problem for the organization.
Use the theory of motivation you selected to describe an intervention/action to change the motivation/behavior and correct the performance problem. 
Paper must use a minimum of three scholarly sources with citations, in addition to the attached document. paper must be formatted according to APA style.

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Chapter Three
What Employees Perceive and How
They Learn
Michael(Rosenfeld
Learning(Objec-ves
A"er%reading%this%chapter%and%studying%the%materials,%you%should%be%able%to:
Explain(the(role(percep/on(plays(in(an(individual's(workplace(experience.
Evaluate(the(ways(in(which(individual(differences(influence(employment(outcomes.
Evaluate(internally(generated(and(externally(generated(learning(processes.
Apply(social(learning(theory(to(the(workplace.
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Associated(Press
When(The%Girls%Next%Door(star(Kendra(Wilkinson((le9)(men-oned(her
affinity(for(Olive(Garden,(the(restaurant(chain(was(compelled(to(deal
with(conflic-ng(percep-ons(of(their(company's(family(atmosphere.
Learning(Objec/ve(#1:
What(role(does(percep-on(play(in(a(person's(workplace(experience?
3.1(Percep/ons(and(Perceptual(Processes
How(would(you(describe(the(world?(Some(might(respond(that(it(is(a(dangerous(or(threatening(place,(where(one(must(constantly(be(on(guard.(Others(may(say(the(world
consists(of(some(good(things(and(some(bad.(Others(s/ll(view(the(world(as(filled(with(riches(and(treasures.(In(essence,(all(three(answers(are(correct.(The(nature(of(percep/on
involves(the(interpreta/on(of(objec/ve(reality.(Percep-on(involves(the(selec/on,(organiza/on,(and(interpreta/on(of(s/muli(or(sensory(impressions(in(order(to(understand(or
give(meaning(to(the(environment((Pomerantz,(2003).
OB(IN(ACTION
The%Girls%Next%Door(and(the(Olive(Garden
What(happens(when(unexpected(outside(forces(change(how(people(view(a(company?
What(types(of(internal(percep/ons(and(employee(aUtudes(become(involved?(The
management(team(at(Olive(Garden(faced(these(challenges(in(a(unique(way.
The(Olive(Garden(restaurant(chain(offers(dis/nc/ve(interiors(featuring(casual(Italian
decor.(The(company(has(long(emphasized(a(wholesome(family(atmosphere,(including(a
longX/me(adver/sing(tagline,("When(you're(here,(you're(family."(The(origin(of(the(idea
"Hospitaliano"(expresses(the(concept(of(a(warm,(comfortable(environment(for(dining
with(close(friends(and(rela/ves.
In(2008,( The(Girls(Next(Door(had(become(a(popular(television(program(on(E!
Entertainment(Television,(with(more(than(1.4(million(viewers.(The(program(featured
three(beau/ful(young(women(residing(in(Playboy(magnate(Hugh(Hefner's(mansion.(At
/mes,(the(women(were(displayed(in(various(stages(of(dress/undress.
The(world(of(Olive(Garden(began(to(change(when(one(of(the(three(girls(next(door,
Kendra(Wilkinson,(said(on(the(show(that(she(was(a(big(fan(of(the(restaurant(chain.(She
men/oned(that(she(loved(the(ar/choke(dip(and(breads/cks.(Her(connec/on(to(the(Olive(Garden(was(sincere.(She(received(no(compensa/on(for(her
comments,(including("I(love(the(Olive(Garden(because(I(grew(up(there.(That(used(to(be(the(place(we(would(go(for(Mother's(Day,(for(birthdays.(My(grandpa
just(died,(and(right(aaer(the(funeral(we(went(to(the(Olive(Garden"((Dana,(2008).
Kendra(Wilkinson(convinced(Hugh(Hefner(to(create(a(contest(in(which(women(could(compete(to(become(the("Sexiest(Girls(of(Olive(Garden."(The(winner
would(receive(a(photo(shoot(for(Playboy(for(an(upcoming(magazine((Miller,(2008).
Olive(Garden(leaders(were(not(sure(how(to(respond.(A(surprising(overlap(existed(between(people,(women(in(par/cular,(who(dined(at(the(restaurants(and
those(that(watched( The(Girls(Next(Door.(Many(of(the(patrons(were(college(educated,(affluent,(and(enjoyed(the(dining(experience.(At(the(other(extreme,
protest(groups(had(formed.(The(Florida(Family(Associa/on(had(encouraged(adver/sers(to(boycod( The(Girls(Next(Door.(For(a(long(/me,(the(company
remained(silent(about(the(controversy.(Was(all(of(this(publicity(a(blessing(or(a(curse?
Ques-ons(for(Students
1.(How(might(Kendra(Wilkinson's(opinions(and(ac/on(affect(customers'(percep/ons(of(the(Olive(Garden?
2.(How(might(Kendra(Wilkinson's(beauty(contest(affect(percep/ons(and(aUtudes(of(employees(seeking(to(provide(a(familyXfriendly(dining(experience?
3.(Are(any(stereotypes(involved(in(this(unusual(situa/on?(Who(holds(them?
S-muli(and(Percep-on
A(s-mulus(is(anything(that(reaches(and(ac/vates(one(or(more(of(the(five(senses(and(is(the(primary(object(of(percep/on.(S/muli(include(any(items(that(are(heard,(seen,(tasted,
touched,(or(smelled.(People(encounter(an(unending(barrage(of(s/muli.(Many(/mes(these(cues(ac/vate(more(than(one(sense.(For(example,(a(person(standing(too(close(to(an
explosion(will(hear,(see,(and(feel(the(blast.(Figure(3.1(iden/fies(s/muli(that(are(part(of(everyday(work.
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Figure(3.1:(Examples(of(s-muli(at(work
Every(day(we(are(subject(to(a(variety(of(s-muli(that(affect(our(percep-ons(of(the
environment(around(us.
Selec-on(Processes
Percep/on(begins(with(s/mulus(selec/on,(when(something(captures(a(person's(aden/on.(As(a(person(encounters(s/muli,(some(recede(while(others(receive(considera/on.(The
process(of(selec/on(explains(how(some(s/muli("get(through"(while(others(do(not.(You(may(no/ce(that(while(reading(these(words(you(also("tune(out"(background(noises.(Some
of(the(s/muli(that(are(aden/onXgeUng (factors(that(lead(to(selec/on(are(displayed(in(Table(3.1.
Table(3.1:(Selec-on((aXen-onYgeZng) (factors(at(work
Factor Example
Intensity Loud(whistle(gives(safety(warning
Brightly(colored(safety(signs(advise
Size Large(machinery(draws(aden/on(over(small(equipment
Tall(people(are(more(readily(no/ced
Contrast Dark(or(light(print(drawing(aden/on(to(specific(words(or(terms
Someone(whispering(in(a(noisy(room
A(loud(machine(abruptly(stops(running
Mo/on Someone(running(through(the(office(will(be(no/ced
Moving(machinery(captures(aden/on
Repe//on Saying(something(over(and(over(draws(aden/on
Novelty A(new(computer(screen(will(be(quickly(no/ced
A(book(lea(in(your(workspace(by(someone(else(will(adract(aden/on
Familiarity You(no/ce(a(company's(logo(while(visi/ng(a(foreign(country
A(powerful(s/mulus,(such(as(a(loud(sound,(a(strong(smell,(a(bright(light,(or(a(powerful(taste,(exhibits(intensity.(Size(suggests(that(large(billboards(are(no/ced(before(smaller
signs(and(that(a(tall(person(tends(to(capture(aden/on.(Contrasts(include(loud–soa, (dark–light, (bider–sweet, (and(other(opposites.(A(loud(room(that(suddenly(becomes(hushed
as(a(person(enters(exhibits(contrast.(Mo/on(oaen(quickly(captures(aden/on.(A(moving(vehicle,(even(one(far(away,(will(be(observed(as(it(travels(across(a(s/ll(horizon.
Repe//on(means(that(a(repeated(s/mulus(will(be(no/ced.(Think(in(terms(of(a(commercial(that(con/nually(repeats(the(company's(phone(number(or(website(address.
Novelty(means(that(a(new(object(in(a(familiar(seUng(captures(aden/on.(If(a(friend(inadvertently(leaves(a(notebook(in(your(office(or(home,(you(will(spot(it(right(away.
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Familiarity(occurs(when(a(familiar(object(appears(in(a(novel(seUng.(When(traveling(in(a(foreign(country,(such(as(Japan,(a(U.S.(ci/zen(will(no/ce(familiar(company(symbols,(such
as(the(McDonald's(arches(or(a(Holiday(Inn(sign.(These(elements(have(workplace(implica/ons((see(Table(3.2).
Table(3.2:(AXen-on(at(work
Company(Process Factor Example
Workplace(Safety Intensity Brightly(colored(warning(signs,(backup(noises(on(moving(equipment
Employee(Training Repe//on Repeated(messages(to(assist(aden/on(and(reten/on
Work(Rou/nes Intensity Lunch(whistle(in(a(factory
Discipline(Systems Repe//on Warnings(about(rules;(repe//on(in(teaching(rules
Organizing(Processes
Once(a(s/mulus(has(been(selected,(the(sensory(input(must(be(organized(to(give(it(meaning.(Organizing(proper/es(associated(with(percep/on(include((Kimble(&(Garmezy,(1963;
Leeper,(1935):
figure–ground
grouping
constancy
context
Figure–Ground
Figure–ground(helps(determine(which(s/muli(capture(aden/on(and(which(remain(in(the(background.(What(stands(out,( figure,(captures(aden/on,(and(what(recedes
cons/tutes(ground.(Figure(and(ground(paderns(are(oaen(based(on(past(experiences.(For(example,(print(on(a(page(stands(out(and(the(white(page(recedes,(because(the(mind
has(been(trained(to(encounter(wri/ng(in(that(way(from(an(early(age.(When(watching(a(television(program(or(seeing(a(speaker(in(person,(the(figure(will(be(the(screen(or(the
individual;(ground(consists(of(anything(that(is(tuned(out.
Grouping
A(second(element(of(organizing,( grouping,(is(the(tendency(to(see(groups(as(logical(paderns.(These(tendencies(exist(because(the(human(mind(has(an(innate(disposi/on(to
perceive(paderns(in(s/muli((Banerjee,(1994).
Closure,(or(seeing(a(whole(object(whether(or(not(one(is(actually(present,(occurs(when(a(manager(perceives(consensus(in(a(room(even(though(dissenters(are(present.(Closure
also(takes(place(when(a(person(perceives(a(complete(sentence,(even(though(a(word(is(missing.(Editors(call(this("reading(through"(the(omided(word.(In(Figure(3.2,(your(mind
observes(a(circle(and(a(square,(even(though(the(items(are(incomplete.
Figure(3.2:(Examples(of(closure
Even(though(there(are(pieces(missing(from(each(of(these(figures,(you(may(s-ll(perceive
that(they(represent(the(shapes(of(a(circle(and(a(square.
Con-nuity(indicates(the(tendency(to(perceive(order.(Driving(past(a(cornfield,(a(person(oaen(perceives(rows(of(corn(rather(than(a(large(cluster(of(green(plants.
Proximity,(perceiving(paderns(in(items(that(are(close(to(one(another,(occurs(when(reading(words.(One(set(of(leders(is(observed(together,(followed(by(a(space,(followed(by
another(set(of(leders.(The(leders(grouped(together(form(words.
Similarity(is(grouping(things(together(that(are(alike.(It(includes(seeing(sets(of(things(such(as(the(following:
xxxx
oooo
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Figure(3.3:(Levels(of(interpreta-on
Depending(on(the(person(and(the(surrounding(circumstances,(a
s-mulus(can(go(through(one(or(many(of(the(different(levels(of
interpreta-on.
Why(Do(People(Do(What(They(Do?
Safari Power Saver
Click to Start Flash Plug-in
The(mind("sees"(a(line(consis/ng(of(x(and(another(consis/ng(of(o,(when,(in(reality(there(are(eight(marks(on(the(page.(People(tend(to(find(such(groups,(such(as(by(seeing(three
women(and(two(men(in(a(break(room,(rather(than(five(people.
Constancy
The(third(element(of(organizing,( constancy,(has(visual(and(other(sensory(implica/ons.(Visually,(when(a(cab(drives(past(with(an(adver/sement(printed(on(the(vehicle,(you(can
read(the(copy(even(though(the(car(keeps(moving.(You(can(also(read(fixed(images(on(billboards(while(in(a(car(driving(by(the(sign.(Constancy(helps(explain(hand(and(eye
coordina/on,(which(is(oaen(required(to(complete(jobXrelated(tasks.
Context
Perceptual(context(occurs(when(a(s/mulus(is(assigned(meaning.(The(same(s/mulus(may(have(a(different
meaning,(depending(on(the(context.(For(example,(a(raised(eyebrow(transmided(by(a(supervisor(normally
means(something(substan/ally(different(from(a(raised(eyebrow(transmided(by(a(woman(to(a(man(in(a(pub.
Many(symbols(and(terms(eventually(develop(meaning(and(context,(including(icons(such(as(the(Nike("Swoosh"
and(many(religious(symbols.(Context(combines(with(other(elements(of(organiza/on(to(lead(to(the(final(stage(of
percep/on,(interpreta/on.
Interpreta-on
When(the(meaning(of(a(s/mulus(is(known,(it(can(be(assigned(a(more(complete(meaning.(Four(levels(of
interpreta/on(are(depicted(in(Figure(3.3.
The(outer(level(of(an(individual's(consciousness(contains(understanding,(such(as(when(the(term("ball"(is(heard
or(a(picture(of(a(fork(is(seen.(The(person(understands(the(object.(AUtudes(cons/tute(a(more(inXdepth (level(of
interpreta/on.(Terms(such(as("good"(or("bad"(and("acceptable"(or("unacceptable"(apply(to(aUtudes.(Beliefs
are(more(strongly(held(principles.(One(might(believe(that(a(criminal(jus/ce(system(should(punish(those(who
harm(others.(Values(represent(the(central(core(of(a(person's(being.(Values(include(religious(ideologies(to(some,
poli/cal(philosophies(to(others,(and("family"(to(many(others.(Values(are(the(most(strongly(held(and
unchangeable(elements(of(a(person's(sense(of(self.
The(same(s/mulus(can(penetrate(different(levels(of(interpreta/on.(The(term("cigarede"(will(be(understood(by
most,(with(some(having(no(other(reac/on.(A(former(smoker(oaen(develops(an(aUtude(that(he(or(she(should
not(be(subjected(to(secondhand(smoke.(A(person(who(has(lost(a(family(member(to(lung(cancer(may(believe
that(smoking(should(be(outlawed.
These(levels(should(be(considered(when(companies(and(managers(consider(policies(related(to(subjects(such(as(sameXsex (partnership(rights,(discrimina/on,(affirma/ve(ac/on,
and(union(ac/vi/es(and(rights.(Managers(should(consider(how(deeply(held(employee(interpreta/ons(are(with(regard(to(each(subject,(which(will(help(them(more(effec/vely
respond(to(various(controversies.
AXribu-on(Theory
A(dis/nc/on(can(be(made(between(percep/ons(of(objects(and(percep/ons(of(people.(The(concept(of(person
percep/on(has(led(to(the(development(of(theories(about(how(people(perceive(others.(The(most(notable(is
adribu/on(theory.
At(the(most(general(level,(aXribu-ons(are(percep/ons(of(cause(and(effect(designed(to(help(individuals(understand
the(environment((Heider,(1958).(People(con/nually(make(adribu/ons.(Three(common(adribu/ons(include
explanatory,(predic/ve,(and(interpersonal(versions.
An(explanatory(version(occurs(when(a(cause(is(adached(to(an(effect,(such(as,("The(last(/me(I(tried(to(quit(smoking(I
gained(weight(because(I(was(hungry(all(the(/me."(The(adribu/on(adaches(a(cause((quiUng(smoking)(to(an(effect
(gaining(weight).(A(predic/ve(adribu/on(connects(a(cause(to(a(predic/on(of(the(effect,(such(as,("So,(if(I(try(to(quit
smoking(again,(I(know(I'll(gain(more(weight."
In(organiza/onal(behavior(studies,(the(third(version,(interpersonal(adribu/ons(regarding(the(ways(others(behave,
receives(the(most(aden/on((Kelley,(1972).(In(general,(when(a(person's(behavior(is(observed,(people(adempt(to
explain(whether(that(behavior(was(internally(determined(by(personality(traits(or(externally(determined(by(the
environment.
A@ribuAon%Determinants
Adribu/on(theory(explains(why(individuals(make(internal(or(external(adribu/ons.(An(internal(adribu/on(occurs
when(an(individual(believes(that(another(person's(ac/ons(were(under(his(or(her(control.(An(external(adribu/on(occurs(when(an(individual(believes(that(a(person's(ac/ons
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iStockphoto
If(this(manager(is(normally(calm(and(collected(amid(crisis,(this(angry(behavior
would(be(considered(dis-nc-ve.
were(the(result(of(outside,(uncontrollable(forces.(Three(elements(contribute(to(determina/ons(made((Ross,(1977):
dis/nc/veness((if(a(behavior(is(unusual(for(the(individual)
consensus((if(other(people(would(have(behaved(the(same(way(in(the(same(situa/on)
consistency((if(the(behavior(is(part(of(a(larger(padern(of(behavior)
Dis-nc-veness(refers(to(when(an(individual(displays(unusual(behaviors(in(a(specific(situa/on.(In
essence,(does(the(person(always(behave(in(a(certain(way,(or(was(the(behavior(unexpected?(For
example,(a(manager(who(throws(down(a(coffee(cup(in(disgust(following(a(nega/ve(report(about
his(department(would(lack(dis/nc/veness(if(the(behavior(were(common.(People(would(adribute
the(behavior(to(the(manager's(bad(temper.(If(employees(were(shocked(and(made(comments(such
as,("I've(never(seen(him(get(mad(before,"(then(it(was(a(dis/nc/ve(behavior.(A(highly(dis/nc/ve
behavior(would(be(adributed(to(the(external(cause(that(the(report(was(unfair.(A(behavior(with
low(dis/nc/veness(will(probably(be(assigned(the(internal(cause(that(the(manager(is(a(hothead.
The(paths(of(these(two(conclusions(are(as(follows:
Behavior
High(Dis/nc/veness External(Cause
( ( (
Low(Dis/nc/veness Internal(Cause
The(manager(with(a(bad(temper(has(previously(displayed(angry(behavior,(so(the(group(assumes(it(is(part(of(his(personality.(The(manager(who(never("loses(it"(will(be(viewed
differently,(and(the(behavior(will(be(adributed(to(an(external(cause,(because(such(an(outburst(is(not(part(of(his(personality.
Consensus(reflects(a(circumstance(in(which(everyone(responds(in(the(same(way(to(a(situa/on.(If(a(massive(rainstorm(resulted(in(numerous(employees(arriving(late(for(work,
the(adribu/on(would(be(that(an(external(cause((the(storm)(resulted(in(tardiness,(and(high(consensus(exists.(On(the(other(hand,(if(during(the(same(rainstorm(only(one
employee(was(late,(the(adribu/on(would(be(that(an(internal(cause(related(to(the(specific(employee(was(present,(such(as,("He(used(the(storm(as(an(excuse(to(run(an(errand
before(coming(to(work;(he(always(uses(excuses."
Behavior
High(Consensus External(Cause
( ( (
Low(Consensus Internal(Cause
Consistency(is(similar(to(dis/nc/veness.(The(difference(is(that(consistency(reflects(a(padern(of(behavior(over(/me(rather(than(a(unique(incident.(Someone(who(always(arrives
late,(not(only(to(work(in(the(morning(but(also(to(mee/ngs(and(when(coming(back(from(lunch,(displays(high(consistency,(and(an(internal(adribu/on(that(the(person(is
"irresponsible"(would(be(made.(If(the(tardiness(is(unusual(for(the(person,(a(viola/on(of(consistency(would(lead(to(an(external(adribu/on(that(something(must(have(happened
to(make(the(person(late,(as(follows:
Behavior
High(Consistency Internal(Cause
( ( (
Low(Consistency External(Cause
Individuals(make(adribu/ons(about(their(own(behaviors(as(well.(When(another(person(has(erred,(an(observer(tends(to(make(an(internal(adribu/on,(saying(it(is(due(to(internal
personality(factors.(When(someone(causes(a(car(accident,(the(tendency(is(to(adribute(the(crash(to(the(person's("not(paying(aden/on,"(or("driving(like(an(idiot."(When(we(have
erred,(we(will(more(likely(employ(an(external(adribu/on,(adribu/ng(causes(to(situa/onal(factors(rather(than(blaming(ourselves.(Even(when(I(cause(the(wreck,(it(will(be
because("the(sun(was(in(my(eyes,"(or("the(intersec/on(was(blocked(so(I(couldn't(see."
When(judging(the(behaviors(of(others,(people(tend(to(underes/mate(the(importance(of(external(factors(and(overes/mate(the(importance(of(internal(factors(as(influences(on
those(behaviors,(which(is(known(as(a( fundamental(aXribu-on(error.(When(judging(personal(behaviors,(a(similar(type(of(reasoning(occurs(when(someone(adributes(his(or(her
own(success(to(internal(personal(factors(but(adributes(personal(failures(to(external(sources,(which(reflects(a( selfYserving(bias((Miller(&(Lawson,(1989).(In(other(words,("I
succeeded(because(I'm(smart(and(try(hard,"(versus,("I(failed(because(management(is(out(to(ruin(my(career."
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AXribu-on(theory(discusses(the(way(employees(perceive(the(behavior(of(others.
Adribu/on(theory(offers(insights(regarding(the(ways(employees(perceive(others.(It(also(explains(how
a(person(might(cope(with(success(or(failure.(Adribu/on(models(have(been(used(to(help(train
individuals(to(become(more(empathe/c(towards(others.(They(have(also(been(employed(to(help
persons(more(realis/cally(cope(with(their(own(behaviors(and(the(outcomes(that(result.
Perceptual(Errors
When(a(s/mulus(is(not(received(correctly,(not(processed(correctly,(or(not(interpreted(correctly,(an
error(has(taken(place.(Perceptual(errors(occur(in(two(primary(areas:(physical(perceptual(errors
related(to(objects,(and(person(percep/on(errors(related(to(individuals.(Both(have(implica/ons(for
management(and(the(workplace.
Physical%Perceptual%Errors
Physical(errors(take(two(forms.(The(first(results(from(a(confusing(s/mulus.(Various(versions(of
confusing(s/muli(have(been(developed(to(explain(the(problem.(This(type(of(physical(error(applies(to
safety(issues,(when(visual(cues(are(misunderstood.(Examples(include(truck(drivers(seeing("water(on
the(road"(on(hot(days,(and,(more(importantly,(airline(pilots(becoming(confused(about(the
rela/onship(of(the(plane(to(the(ground(and(horizon.(The(lader(error(has(been(iden/fied(as(having(caused(the(crash(that(took(the(life(of(John(F.(Kennedy,(Jr.(More(recently,(a
woman(drowned(in(a(swimming(pool(in(Massachuseds,(and(the(body(was(not(discovered(at(the(bodom(of(the(pool(for(three(days,(because(cloudy(water(and(sunlight(on(the
surface(prevented(her(from(being(clearly(seen,(even(by(experts((ABC(News,(U.S.,(2011).
The(second(type(of(physical(error(results(from(a(physical(disability.(A(notable(example,(dyslexia,(results(from(perceiving(visual(cues(in(a(manner(different(from(the(general
popula/on.(The(disability(hinders(learning.(Workplace(accommoda/on(efforts(can(assist(individuals(with(such(challenges.
Person%PercepAon%Errors
In(addi/on(to(fundamental(adribu/on(errors(and(the(selfXserving (bias,(other(person(percep/on(errors(rou/nely(occur.(These(faulty(percep/ons(and(judgments(regarding(other
people(affect(a(series(of(businessXrelated(outcomes.(The(most(notable(are
selec/ve(percep/on
halo/horn
stereotyping
contrast(effects
projec/on
Selec/ve(percep/on(represents(a(perceptual(shortcut(in(which(people(interpret(what(they(observe(based(on(their(own(interests,(experiences,(background,(and(personal
aUtudes.(As(an(example,(if(you(present(a(moral(dilemma(to(an(adorney,(a(member(of(the(clergy,(and(a(medical(prac//oner,(the(adorney(will(likely(see(the(problem(as(a(legal
issue,(the(member(of(the(clergy(as(a(religious(problem,(and(the(medical(prac//oner(as(a(mader(of(health((Dearborn(&(Simon,(1958).
Halo/horn(occurs(when(a(general(impression(or(conclusion(has(been(drawn(about(an(individual(based(on(a(single(characteris/c.(The(halo(effect(links(one(posi/ve(characteris/c
with(other(posi/ve(characteris/cs.(Physical(adrac/veness(creates(a(halo(effect(in(which(people(are(likely(to(perceive(a(beau/ful(person(as(also(intelligent(and(kind.(Horn(effects
are(the(opposite;(one(nega/ve(characteris/c(becomes(associated(with(other(nega/ve(characteris/cs.(Arriving(late(to(a(job(interview(oaen(links(to(percep/ons(that(the(person
will(be(unreliable(and(not(trustworthy.
Stereotyping(assigns(a(set(of(characteris/cs(to(a(group(of(people.(Such(judgments(are(made(based(on(age,(race,(gender,(na/onal(origin,(sexual(iden/ty(and(orienta/on,(and
occupa/ons.(Stereotyping(influences(how(people(immediately(judge(others,(based(on(readily(observable(common(features.
Contrast(effects(occur(when(a(person(is(perceived(based(on(contacts(with(other(persons.(For(instance,(if(you(are(in(a(speech(contest(and(the(person(before(you(stumbles
through(an(incoherent(presenta/on,(your(speech(will(likely(recieve(much(more(favorable(ra/ngs.(If,(however,(the(speaker(before(you(makes(a(powerful(and(compelling
argument,(your(ra/ngs(will(undoubtedly(be(lower,(simply(because(of(the(contrast.
Projec/on(involves(adribu/ng(one's(own(characteris/cs(to(others.(Greedy(people(see(everyone(around(them(as(greedy.(People(who(are(honest(and(trustworthy(oaen(assume
those(around(them(are(equally(honest.
Person(percep/on(errors(affect(many(prac/cal(maders(on(the(job.(Table(3.3(displays(examples.(Managers(should(seek(to(understand(and(limit(the(impact(of(these(factors(in
order(to(achieve(a(more(ethical(and(fair(business(environment.
Table(3.3:(Business(decisions(affected(by(person(percep-on(errors
Hiring(decisions
Performance(appraisal(ra/ngs
Pay(raises
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Task(assignments
Group(composi/on(and(roles
Layoff(decisions
Promo/ons
Termina/ons
In(summary,(percep/on(consists(of(the(selec/on,(organiza/on,(and(interpreta/on(of(s/muli.(These(factors(affect(the(conduct(of(work.(Adribu/ons(are(percep/ons(of(cause(and
effect(that(influence(worker(views(of(other(employees.(Perceptual(errors(take(place(when(s/muli(are(not(correctly(received(or(are(misinterpreted,(or(individual(ac/ons(or
characteris/cs(are(incorrectly(judged,(which(in(turn(affects(numerous(key(business(decisions(made(with(regard(to(applicants(and(employees.
Comprehension(Exercise
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George(Doyle
SelfYesteem(measures(how(a(person(evaluates(his
or(her(own(selfYworth.(Those(with(higher(selfY
esteem(are(more(willing(to(take(risks(and(typically
do(not(require(the(approval(of(others.
Learning(Objec/ve(#2:
How(do(individual(differences(influence(employment(outcomes?
3.2(Individual(Differences(in(the(Workplace
Just(as(percep/ons(influence(the(workplace(experience,(individual(differences(shape(the(ways(in(which(a(person(views(himself(or(herself(as(well(as(the(job.(These(evalua/ons
affect(the(individual's(ability(to(succeed(and(how(the(person(responds(emo/onally(to(tasks,(coworkers,(and(other(organiza/onal(elements.(Five(personality(traits(have(been
associated(with(workplace(outcomes:
selfXconcept
selfXesteem
selfXefficacy
selfXmonitoring
emo/onal(intelligence
SelfYConcept
Personality(theorists(have(used(the(term("self"(to(describe(the(core(of(a(person's(conscious(existence.(The(self(determines("psychological(reality,"(or(how(one(sees(the(world.
Awareness(of(the(self(cons/tutes(the(essence(of(a( selfYconcept,(or(the(view(a(person(has(of(himself(or(herself(as(a(physical,(social,(spiritual,(or(moral(being((Gecas,(1982).(A
wellXdeveloped(selfXconcept (is(present(when(a(person(has(a(strong(sense(of(his(or(her(own(uniqueness.(Someone(who(is(not("selfXaware," (or(who(has(a(less(developed(selfX
concept,(spends(less(/me(thinking(about(personal(characteris/cs(and(how(he(or(she(differs(from(others.(SelfXconcept (connects(to(the(other(elements(of(an(individual's(persona
and(methods(of(adap/ng(and(adjus/ng(to(the(world((Johnson,(Rosen(&(Levy,(2008).
SelfYEsteem
Do(you(like(yourself?( SelfYesteem(cons/tutes(a(belief(about(how(a(person(evaluates(his(or(her(selfXworth (as(part(of(an
overall(selfevalua/on((Branden,(1998;(Gecas,(1982).(People(with(high(levels(of(selfXesteem(make(posi/ve(statements(about
themselves(and(disagree(with(nega/ve(statements.(Low(selfXesteem(connects(to(selfXdoubt (and(nega/ve(thoughts(about
oneself.
At(work,(a(person(with(higher(selfXesteem(may(be(more(willing(to(take(risks(based(on(percep/ons(of(personal(talents(and
abili/es.(A(stronger(sense(of(selfXesteem(means(the(approval(of(peers(has(a(lower(value.(A(person(with(lower(selfXesteem
will(be(more(likely(to(desire(the(approval(of(peers,(leading(to(conformity(and(seeking(to(please(others.(Oaen(this(means(a
manager(with(lower(selfXesteem(is(less(likely(to(take(an(unpopular(but(necessary(posi/on(on(a(workplace(issue((Branden,
1998;(Brockner,(1998).(SelfXesteem(is(associated(closely(with(selfXefficacy.
SelfYEfficacy
Do(you(believe(you(will(earn(a(grade(of("A"(in(this(course?(How(confident(are(you(in(that(belief?( SelfYefficacy(reflects(a
person's(belief(about(his(or(her(ability(to(successfully(complete(a(task,(assignment,(or(challenge((Gist,(1987).(The
expecta/on(that(you(will(succeed(evolves(over(a(series(of(years,(oaen(helped(along(by(the(encouragement(of(parents,(role
models,(and(even(friends.(Successive(achievements(are(greeted(with(stronger(percep/ons(that("I(can(do(that."(At(work,(four
factors(influence(a(person's(degree(of(selfXefficacy: (prior(experiences,(behavior(models,(persuasion(or(encouragement(from(others,(and(one's(personal(assessment(of(his(or(her
emo/onal(and(physical(state(at(any(given(moment((Bandura,(1989).
Prior(experiences,(in(essence,(suggest("success(breeds(success."(Knowing(this,(managers(can(make(sure(that(new(employees(and(manager(trainees(enjoy(small(victories,
thereby(building(selfXefficacy. (A(new(college(student(who(makes(a(good(grade(on(a(quiz(gains(confidence(that(he(or(she(can(succeed.
Behavior(models(are(those(who(demonstrate(how(to(succeed.(These(individuals(can(provide(coaching(and(help(with(seUng(reasonable(and(achievable(goals.(They(offer
construc/ve(cri/cism(about(how(to(reach(those(goals.
Persuasion(and(encouragement(comes(from(a(variety(of(sources.(At(work,(peers,(supervisors,(and(subordinates(can(offer(comments(sugges/ng,("You(can(do(this!"(Even(persons
away(from(the(employment(site,(such(as(parents,(friends,(and(roman/c(partners,(can(offer(similar(words(of(support.
One's(personal(assessment(of(his(or(her(physical(and(emo/onal(state(can(strengthen(or(inhibit(a(person's(sense(of(selfXefficacy (at(any(given(moment.(A(singer(who(develops(a
sore(throat(may(suddenly(lose(confidence(on(the(night(of(a(performance((Wood(&(Bandura,(1989).(At(the(other(extreme,(a(person(with(a(powerful(sense(of(selfXefficacy (finds
ways(to(overcome(even(these(obstacles.(Basketball(stars(Michael(Jordan(and(Dirk(Nowitzki(famously(overcame(high
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Dirk(Nowitzki(famously(overcame(flu(symptoms(in
the(2011(NBA(Finals(in(order(to(defeat(the(Miami
Heat.(Individuals(such(as(Nowitzki(with(elevated
levels(of(selfYefficacy(o9en(succeed(because(they
believe(they(can(overcome(challenges.
What(is(Emo-onal(Intelligence?
© Films Media Group. All Rights Reserved. Length: 4:17
What is Emotional Intelligence?
From Title: Emotional Intelligence in the Classroom
Safari Power Saver
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temperatures(and(flu(symptoms(during(NBA(championship(games,(leading(their(teams(to(victory.
Behavioral%Pa@erns%and%SelfHEfficacy
SelfXefficacy(has(been(used(to(explain(how(people(succeed(and(how(they(fail((Bandura,(1989).(Success(results(from(a
combina/on(of(higher(selfXefficacy (and(a(set(of(behaviors.(AchievementXoriented(behaviors(include:
looking(for(the(best(opportuni/es
overcoming(obstacles
seUng(challenging(goals
planning(and(prepara/on
using(crea/vity(in(solving(problems
learning(from(setbacks
visualizing(success
At(the(other(extreme,( learned(helplessness(results(from(a(selfXfulfilling (prophecy(of(expec/ng(to(fail(and(then(failing.(Low(selfX
efficacy(combines(with(being(passive,(avoiding(difficult(tasks,(having(weak(performance(expecta/ons,(not(making(an(effort,
quiUng(easily,(blaming(problems(on(outside(sources,(and(making(other(excuses(to(create(learned(helplessness.(Fortunately,
some(evidence(indicates(that(selfXefficacy (can(be(strengthened,(even(in(those(with(low(levels((Campbell(&(Mar/nko,(1998).(By
using(the(four(influences(of(experiences,(behavior(models,(persuasion/encouragement,(and(personal(assessments,(an
individual(can(achieve(selfXefficacy (through(successive(achievements(over(/me.
SelfYMonitoring
SelfYmonitoring(involves(observa/ons(of(personal(behaviors(leading(to(the(ability(to(adjust(to(changing(situa/ons(and(environments.(A(person(with(a(high(degree(of(selfX
monitoring(quickly(adapts(to(new(environments(by(paying(aden/on(to(the(behaviors(of(others(and(conforming(to(them.(Someone(with(a(lower(degree(of(selfXmonitoring (may
appear(to(be(more(rigid(in(thinking(paderns(and(behaviors(and(will(be(less(likely(to(change(in(order(to(mesh(with(the(situa/on.
At(work,(higher(levels(of(selfXmonitoring (have(been(associated(with(the(term("chameleon,"(which(might(imply(a(degree(of(manipula/on(or(phoniness.(Conversely,(high(selfX
monitoring(has(also(been(associated(with(more(posi/ve(characteris/cs(such(as(situa/on(sensi/vity(and(flexibility(in(dealing(with(others.(Research(suggests(that(those(with
higher(levels(of(selfXmonitoring (achieve(beder(performance(ra/ngs,(are(more(likely(to(become(managers(or(leaders,(and(report(higher(levels(of(commitment(to(their
organiza/ons((Day(et(al.,(2002).(SelfXmonitoring (links(with(concepts(regarding(emo/onal(intelligence.
Emo-onal(Intelligence
Emo-onal(intelligence(reflects(a(person's(ability(to(detect(and(manage(emo/onal(cues(and(informa/on.(The(five
dimensions(of(emo/onal(intelligence(are:
selfXawareness—being(aware(of(personal(feelings(and(emo/ons
selfXmanagement—the(ability(to(manage(personal(emo/ons(and(impulses
selfXmo/va/on(or(persistence—the(ability(to(con/nue(giving(effort(even(aaer(setbacks(or(failures
empathy—the(ability(to(sense(the(feelings(of(others
social(skills—the(ability(to(cope(with(the(emo/ons(of(others
Emo/onal(intelligence(plays(a(role(in(success(at(work.(It(may(predict(the(ability(to(lead,(and(cons/tutes(a(major
asset(when(working(in(jobs(with(high(levels(of(social(interac/on((Goleman,(1995;(Mayer,(Salovey,(&(Sluyter,(1997).
These(five(personality(traits(have(implica/ons(for(more(general(outcomes(as(well,(such(as(life(sa/sfac/on.(An
unexamined(selfXconcept, (poor(selfXesteem,(low(selfXefficacy, (the(lack(of(selfXmonitoring, (and(lesser(degrees(of
emo/onal(intelligence(reduce(life(coping(skills,(or(the(ability(to(func/on(effec/vely(in(social(seUngs.(Managers(oaen
spend(addi/onal(/me(working(with(employees(that(exhibit(such(characteris/cs(to(help(them(succeed.
Individual(Differences:(AZtudes
An(aZtude(is(a(predisposi/on(toward(a(person,(object,(concept,(or(event.(AUtudes(can(be(favorable(or(unfavorable.(People(form(aUtudes(about(famous(people(and
poli/cians.(Consider(the(wide(varia/on(in(aUtudes(toward(President(Obama.(AUtudes(also(summarize(feelings(about(concepts,(such(as(affirma/ve(ac/on(in(the(workplace(or
cell(phone(use(in(public(spaces.(AUtudes(vary(with(regard(to(events,(such(as(Christmas(or(Independence(Day.
AUtudes(contain(three(components:(cogni/ve,(affec/ve,(and(behavioral.(The( cogni-ve(component(of(an(aUtude(represents(the(thoughvul(reasoning(part(of(an(aUtude.(One
can(reason(that(discrimina/on(is(wrong(because(it(violates(the(law(and(ethical(premises.
The(affec-ve(component(of(an(aUtude(contains(the(feelings(and(emo/ons(about(the(object(being(considered.(One(person(may(become(angry(at(the(thought(of(affirma/ve
ac/on(because(his(reasoning(process(considers(it(to(be(a(form(of(reverse(discrimina/on.(A(second(person(may(become(equally(angry,(because(she(believes(that(people
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iStockphoto
AZtude(describes(an(individual's(feelings(toward(a(person,(object,(concept,(or
event,(and(can(be(broken(down(into(three(components:(cogni-ve,(affec-ve,(and
behavioral.
misunderstand(affirma/ve(ac/on(and(use(it(as(an(excuse(to(con/nue(to(discriminate.(Affec/ve
elements(can(also(be(posi/ve(emo/ons,(such(as(affec/on.
The(behavioral(component(of(an(aUtude(refers(to(how(a(person(intends(to(act(or(respond
toward(an(objec/ve(or(event.(If(someone(has(lost(a(parent(to(lung(cancer(and(sees(someone
smoking(in(a(nonsmoking(zone,(the(cogni/ve(component(reasons(that(the(person(is(doing
something(wrong(and(possibly(is(in(viola/on(of(a(local(ordinance.(The(affec/ve(component(likely
would(be(feeling(annoyed(or(angry.(The(behavioral(component(would(be(either(asking(the(person
to(stop(or(finding(someone(in(authority(to(handle(the(situa/on.(People(hold(many(aUtudes(and
may(have(several(key(values.(In(organiza/onal(behavior,(three(key(aUtudes(are(job(sa/sfac/on,
job(involvement,(and(organiza/onal(commitment.
Job%SaAsfacAon
Job(sa/sfac/on(includes(a(set(of(personal(feelings(about(a(job.(Table(3.4(shows(some(of(the
elements(of(job(sa/sfac/on.(Further,(job(sa/sfac/on(has(been(linked(to(a(series(of(outcomes,(or
indicators,(that(are(also(displayed(in(the(table.(It(is(of(note(that(sa/sfac/on(may(or(may(not(be
linked(to(produc/vity.(Some(research(indicates(that(produc/vity(leads(to(sa/sfac/on.(In(essence,
if(you(are(a(higher(performer,(you(receive(a(greater(number(of(organiza/onal(rewards(and(are
sa/sfied(as(a(result.(At(the(organiza/onXwide (level,(however,(the(possibility(exists(that(higher(overall(levels(of(sa/sfac/on(in(the(en/re(workforce(are(connected(to(company
performance((Ostroff,(1992).
No(mader(whether(sa/sfac/on(causes(produc/vity(or(vice(versa,(many(companies(create(policies(and(ac/vi/es(designed(to(improve(worker(sa/sfac/on.(These(efforts(may(be,
in(part,(the(byXproducts (of(a(sa/sfied(workforce:(fewer(people(calling(in(sick(or(arriving(late(and(lower(turnover((Hom(&(Griffeth,(1995;(McShane,(1984).(Also,(while(no(causeX
andXeffect(rela/onship(can(be(established(between(substance(abuse(and(low(job(sa/sfac/on,(the(two(oaen(appear(together.(In(prac/cal(terms,(it(once(again(makes(sense(to
try(to(develop(a(sa/sfied(workforce.
Table(3.4:(Components(of(job(sa-sfac-on
Indicators(of(Sa-sfac-on
Sa-sfac-on(with(.(.(. Rates(of(.(.(.
Pay absenteeism
Supervision tardiness
Chances(for(advancement(or(promo/on turnover
Coworkers accidents
Job(du/es(and(responsibili/es grievances
vandalism
selfXdestruc/on((alcohol,(substance(abuse)
Job(sa/sfac/on(also(impacts(perceived(levels(of(onXtheXjob(stress(and(the(desire(to(get(away(through(withdrawal(cogni/ons,(or(thinking(about(quiUng((Hom(&(Kinicki,(2001).
Job(sa/sfac/on(correlates(with( organiza-onal(ci-zenship(behaviors,(or(ac/ons(associated(with(the(desire(to(be(a(good(organiza/onal(ci/zen,(such(as(providing(construc/ve
statements(to(others,(making(sugges/ons(for(improvement,(training(new(employees,(and(showing(respect(for(company(property.(Ci/zenship(behaviors(are(related(to(customer
sa/sfac/on(and(other(performance(ra/ngs.(Sa/sfied(employees(make(good(organiza/onal(ci/zens(who(are(commided(to(seeing(the(company(do(well(and(who(say(posi/ve
things(about(the(company((Koys,(2001;(Organ,(1990).(In(general,(by(seeking(to(build(levels(of(job(sa/sfac/on(throughout(the(organiza/on,(managers(can(influence(several
outcomes,(including(overall(company(performance((Harter,(Schmidt(&(Hayes,(2002).
Job%Involvement
When(a(person(psychologically(iden/fies(with(his(or(her(job,(the(individual(expresses(job(involvement.(Employees(who(report(higher(levels(of(job(involvement(relate(onXtheXjob
performance(to(a(personal(sense(of(selfXworth (because(they(care(about(the(work(they(do((Blau(&(Boal,(1987).(People(involved(in(their(jobs(are(less(likely(to(be(absent(from
work(and(are(less(likely(to(quit(or(resign.(General(agreement(exists(that(a(workforce(featuring(numerous(employees(with(high(levels(of(job(involvement(likely(will(succeed(at
higher(levels(than(organiza/ons(without(such(an(advantage.
Individual(Differences:(Values
Values(are(strongly(held(convic/ons(regarding(objects(and(ideas.(As(was(depicted(in(Figure(3.2,(they(represent(the(central(core(of(a(person's(personality(or(selfXconcept. (Values
are(more(permanently(held(and(are(unlikely(to(be(changed(without(the(occurrence(of(something(fairly(drama/c.(Values(normally(apply(to(more(general(categories(of(thought,
such(as(religious(beliefs,(poli/cal(affilia/ons,(and(views(of(the(importance(of(jus/ce(and(equality.
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Thomas(Barwick
Job(involvement(leads(to(higher(selfYworth(and(greater(job(sa-sfac-on,(and
contributes(to(the(overall(success(of(an(organiza-on.
Values(may(be(expressed(by(working(or(refusing(to(work(in(certain(voca/ons(and(companies.(One
person(might(refuse(to(work(in(the(adult(entertainment(industry(due(to(values.(Another(may(stay
away(from(employment(in(the(petroleum(industry,(because(the(person's(values(favor(environmental
protec/on,(lower(levels(of(pollu/on,(and(sustainability.(Another(might(stay(away(from(a(financial
giant(such(as(Goldman(Sachs(due(to(the(ques/onable(business(prac/ces(iden/fied(in(2008.(Values
may(also(lead(people(to(seek(employment(in(companies(they(believe(are(ethical.(Others(might(try(to
work(in(an(organiza/on(such(as(ChickXfilXA, (because(of(the(company(policy(to(close(all(stores(on
Sundays.
At(/mes(aUtudes(and(values(intertwine(seamlessly.(In(others,(disconnects(might(occur.(An(individual
may(take(a(job(with(a(company(he(or(she(believes(is(not(highly(ethical(due(to(high(levels(of
unemployment(and(the(prospect(of(not(having(a(job.(The(ideal(will(be(to(find(congruence(between(a
person's(values,(his(or(her(aUtudes,(and(the(company's(environment.
In(summary,(individual(differences(shape(the(ways(in(which(a(person(views(himself(or(herself(as(well
as(the(job.(These(evalua/ons(affect(the(individual's(ability(to(succeed(and(how(the(person(responds
emo/onally(to(tasks,(coworkers,(and(other(elements(of(the(organiza/on.
Comprehension(Exercise
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Figure(3.4:(Pavlov's(classical(condi-oning(model
Learning(Objec/ve(#3:
How(do(internally(generated(and(externally(generated(learning(processes(take(place?
3.3(Learning(Processes
Learning(represents(one(of(the(key(components(of(the(adjustment(to(a(workplace.(Individuals(learn(prior(to(joining(an(organiza/on(and(con/nue(to(do(so(throughout(an(en/re
career(and(into(re/rement.(The(concept(of("lifelong(learning"(should(not(be(considered(merely(an(explana/on(of(the(amount(of(training(needed(to(succeed(on(the(job:(We
learn(throughout(our(lives(in(order(to(beder(cope(with(the(world.
Learning(may(be(defined(as(the(process(of(acquiring(new(knowledge(or(a(new(skill.(At(/mes,(learning(results(in(changes(in(behavior(that(occur(as(the(result(of(experience
(Weiss,(1990).(In(others,(it(is(possible(to(learn(something(without(any(detectable(change(in(behavior.(For(example,(by(watching(an(informa/ve(program(about(popular
celebri/es,(you(may(learn(that(Whoopi(Goldberg,(Tom(Cruise,(Winston(Churchill,(Walt(Disney,(and(Richard(Branson(all(had(dyslexia.(The(informa/on(is(interes/ng(and(is
retained(without(any(resultant(change(in(behavior.
At(work,(organiza/onal(behavior(tends(to(focus(on(learning(that(impacts(behaviors.(A(sweeping(number(of(jobXrelated(ac/vi/es(are(affected(by(learning(processes.(Table(3.5
provides(examples.
Table(3.5:(Work(ac-vi-es(affected(by(learning(processes
Recrui/ng(and(selec/on Applicant(learns(about(the(company;(company(learns(about(the(applicant.
Orienta/on New(employee(learns(about(company(basics.
Employee(training(programs Employee(learns(how(to(do(the(job.
Employee(discipline(systems Employee(learns(company(rules(and(consequences(of(breaking(them.
Workplace(safety Employee(learns(how(to(work(safely,(safety(rules,(consequences(of(breaking(safety(rules.
Performance(appraisal Company(teaches(employee(about(performance(criteria;(employee(learns(how(to(improve(onXtheXjob(performance.
Management(training Candidate(learns(new(technical(and(managerial(skills.
Re/rement(planning Employee(learns(how(to(cope(with(leaving(the(company(and(their(voca/on.
Three(primary(explana/ons(regarding(how(people(learn(and(what(they(learn(may(be(found(in(the(literature.(They(are(internally(generated(learning(processes,(externally
generated(learning(processes,(and(social(learning(theory.
Internally(Generated(Learning(Processes
Internally(generated(learning(processes(explain(how(and(what(a(person(learns(based(on(internal(mental(func/oning.(The(key(factors(that(shape(learning(include(percep/ons,
adribu/ons,(and(individual(differences(such(as(selfXconcept (and(selfXefficacy, (as(were(described(in(the(previous(sec/on.
Research(in(the(area(of(internally(generated(learning(processes(examines(how(the(mind(captures,(stores,(and(retrieves(learned(informa/on.(Addi/onal(studies(examine
physiological(influences(on(learning,(including(the(ways(in(which(malnutri/on(and(the(lack(of(sleep(inhibit(learning.(Also,(mind–body (connec/ons(are(examined(in(the(adempt
to(explain(how(neural(transmissions(take(learned(behaviors,(such(as(playing(the(piano,(and(translate(those(into(repeated(ac/ons,(such(as(playing(a(song(by(memory.
Another(primary(area(of(focus(for(those(interested(in(internally(generated(learning(is(the(nature(and(impact(of(physical(disabili/es.(A(range(of(mental(abnormali/es(can(inhibit
or(enhance(learning.(A(savant,(for(example,(displays(extraordinary(memory(yet(has(difficulty(with(more(rou/ne(social(interac/ons.(In(organiza/onal(behavior,(internally
generated(learning(processes(largely(concentrate(on(the(items(displayed(in(Table(3.5(with(regard(to(percep/on.
Externally(Generated(Learning(Processes:(Early(Theories
Externally(generated(learning(processes(explain(how(and(what(people(learn,(based(on(factors(in(the(environment.(The(basic(principles(developed(from(these(ideas(have
implica/ons(for(the(workplace.(Among(the(earliest(works(were(the(research(of(Ivan(Pavlov,(John(B.(Watson,(and(Edwin(Thorndike.
Pavlov%and%Classical%CondiAoning
As(you(may(have(already(learned,(Pavlov's(research(involved(a(dog's(saliva/on(responses((Hjelle(&
Ziegler,(1981).(The(two(sets(of(elements(present(in(Pavlov's(works(were((1)(s/muli(and((2)(responses.
Figure(3.4(displays(the(basic(classical(condi/oning(model.
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Pavlov(demonstrated(the(process(of(classical(condi-oning(by(establishing(the
connec-on(between(a(bell(ringing(and(a(dog(saliva-ng(as(though(there(were(meat
present.
The(uncondi-oned(s-mulus(in(the(model(was(food((meat).(The(dog(did(not(need(to(be(condi/oned
(didn't(need(to(learn)(to(salivate(when(meat(appeared.(In(that(case,(the(uncondi/oned(response(was
saliva/on.(The( condi-oned(s-mulus(was(the(bell((actually(a(piano(tuning(fork).(When(the
condi/oned(s/mulus(was(paired(with(the(uncondi/oned(s/mulus,(a(condi/oned(response
eventually(developed.(In(essence,
Food(+(Bell(=(Saliva/on
Then,(without(the(presence(of(the(food,(the(bell(by(itself(also(was(connected(to(saliva/on.(The(term
connecDonist(theory(has(been(associated(with(classical(condi/oning,(because(an(environmental
event(was(connected(to(subsequent(responses.
Classical(condi/oning(explains(reflexive(behaviors(in(which(people(automa/cally(react.(As(an
example,(when(you(approach(an(intersec/on(and(the(light(turns(yellow,(what(is(your(response?((If
you're(telling(the(truth,("speed(up"(is(the(answer.)(At(work,(people(respond(to(the(presence(of(a
supervisor(in(the(room((by(working(harder),(to(any(kind(of(signal(bell(or(whistle((responding(to(what
it(signals),(and(to(warning(lights(and(sounds((by(looking(out(for(the(danger).
Psychology:(Behavioral(Processes(and
Classical(Condi-oning
© Films Media Group. All Rights Reserved. Length: 2:91
Psychology: Behavioral Processes and Classical Cond...
From Title: Perspectives on Psychology
Safari Power Saver
Click to Start Flash Plug-in
John%B.%Watson%and%Behaviorism
In(the(United(States,(John(B.(Watson(studied(the(role(of(the(environment(in(learning(during(the(early(1900s.(He(was(among(the(first(to(use(the(term("behaviorism,"(which
suggests(that(only(observable(behaviors(should(be(considered(in(order(to(scien/fically(understand(the(nature(of(learning(and(other(human(phenomena((Watson,(1919).
Watson(strongly(believed(learning(was(determined(by(environmental(cues.
Both(Watson(and(Pavlov(examined(the(impact(of(the(environment(from(the(perspec/ve(of(s/muli(and(their(connec/ons(to(responses:
S/mulus Response
Then,(however,(Watson(added(a(new(component,(that(being(the(outcome(of(the(response:
S/mulus Response Consequence
In(the(next(genera/on(of(externally(generated(learning(theories,(greater(aden/on(was(paid(to(responses(and(consequences(of(those(responses,(and(less(to(the(s/muli(prior(to
the(behavior.
Edwin%Thorndike%and%the%Law%of%Effect
Edwin(Thorndike(studied(the(effects(that(consequences(have(on(behaviors.(He(examined(the(strength(and(frequency(of(reinforcers((consequences).(Thus,(if(standing(close(to(a
fire(warms(a(person(on(a(cold(night,(he(or(she(would(be(more(willing(to(move(next(to(a(fire(the(next(/me(it(was(cold.(The(colder(it(becomes,(the(closer(the(person(might(get
the(flames.(Further,(other(kinds(of(consequences(may(inhibit(or(stop(behaviors.(Therefore,(actually(touching(the(fire(and(geUng(burned(would(cause(a(person(to(avoid(contact
with(it(in(the(future.(These(outcomes(are(summarized(as(Thorndike's((1913/1982)( Law(of(Effect,(which(is(a(wellXestablished(concept(in(the(social(sciences:( Behavior(is(a
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Associated(Press
B.(F.(Skinner(created(the(operant(condi-oning
model,(which(is(used(to(explain(how(individuals
operate(within(the(environment.
funcDon(of(its(consequences.
Externally(Generated(Learning(Processes:(Operant(Condi-oning
B.(F.(Skinner((1953)(frowned(on(the(use(of(the(term("learning,"(because(he(believed(the(word(was(a(construct,(or("convenient
fic/on"(used(to(describe(an(unobservable(process.(You(cannot(observe("learning";(you(can(only(observe(changes(in(behavior.
Managers(should(concentrate(on(the(behaviors(rather(than(the(words(used(to(describe(them((Skinner,(1977).
Skinner(developed(his(model(of(learning(based(on(the(previous(research(and(theoryXbuilding (of(Watson,(Thorndike,(and
others.(Figure(3.5(presents(a(simplified(version(of(the(operant(condi/oning(process.(The(concept(of("operant"(is(derived(from
the(concept(that(individuals(operate(on(the(environment.(They(do(not(simply(respond(to(s/muli(or(even(to(reinforcers(in(a
kneeXjerk(fashion.(They(will,(however,(over(/me(change(behaviors(based(on(consequences.(Some(consequences(strengthen
behaviors(or(increase(the(likelihood(that(a(behavior(will(be(repeated,(while(others(weaken(behaviors(or(decrease(the(likelihood
that(they(will(reappear.
Figure(3.5:(Operant(condi-oning(model
When(an(agreeable(consequence(results(from(a(specific(behavior,(it(acts(as(a
reinforcement(of(that(behavior,(which(in(turn(strengthens(the(behavior.
Consequences%that%Increase%Behaviors
The(first(consequence(that(increases(or(strengthens(behaviors,( posi-ve(reinforcement,(occurs(when(a(pleasant(or(pleasing(consequence(becomes(associated(with(a(behavior.
Every(person(encounters(numerous(posi/ve(reinforcements,(such(as(pleasant(conversa/ons,(praise(from(a(supervisor,(a(paycheck,(a(hug,(and(others.(The(determining(factor(in
designa/ng(something(as(a(posi/ve(reinforcement(is(the(connec/on(with(a(behavioral(change.
The(second(consequence(that(increases(or(strengthens(behaviors,(nega-ve(reinforcement,(may(be(the(most(misunderstood(concept(in(organiza/onal(behavior.(Nega/ve
reinforcement(can(only(occur(when(an(aversive(or(nega/ve(event(is(taking(place.(A(behavior(must(occur(in(order(to(terminate(the(aversive(or(nega/ve(event(that(is(occurring.
To(demonstrate(this(reinforcer,(consider(a(lab(rat(that(has(been(wired(so(that(the(animal(can(be(con/nuously(shocked.(The(only(way(to(stop(the(shock(is(for(the(rat(to(touch(a
small(metal(bar(in(one(corner(of(the(cage.(Doing(so(breaks(the(circuit(and(the(pain(stops.(Aaer(a(few(episodes,(you(will(have(a(paranoid(rat(standing(beside(the(bar,(wai/ng(for
the(next(shock(to(begin.(The(behavior((bar(hiUng)(has(been(strengthened(and(increased.
Nega/ve(reinforcement(occurs(when(someone(takes(medicine(to(reduce(ongoing(discomfort,(such(as(an(antacid(for(a(stomachache(or(an(aspirin(for(a(headache.(On(the(job,
joking(to(break(up(the(tension(of(an(overly(serious(mee/ng,(if(it(works,(may(become(a(more(regular(behavior.
Consequences%that%Decrease%Behaviors
Punishment(represents(an(unpleasant(consequence(linked(to(a(behavior.(Such(a(behavior(will(quickly(disappear.(If(a(different(rat(in(the(same(cage(touches(an(electrified(metal
bar(and(receives(a(shock,(the(rat(will(soon(cut(a(wide(path(away(from(the(bar.(The(behavior((bar(hiUng)(has(decreased.
Punishment(is(oaen(confused(with(nega/ve(reinforcement.(Two(key(differences(exist.(First,(punishment(is(an(unpleasant(consequence(that( follows(the(performance(of(a
behavior;(nega/ve(reinforcement(is(an(unpleasant(event(that( precedes(the(performance(of(a(behavior.(In(the(simplest(of(terms,(spanking(a(child(for(drawing(on(the(wall(is(a
punishment.(A(manager(who(says,("You(can't(leave(work(un/l(this(report(is(finished"(is(applying(nega/ve(reinforcement.
Ex-nc-on(is(the(absence(of(a(reinforcer.(It(can(take(place(in(two(ways.(The(first(occurs(when(a(behavior(has(been(emided(with(no(consequence,(posi/ve(or(nega/ve.(Over
/me,(such(a(behavior(likely(will(disappear.(Someone(who(uses(a(word(or(makes(a(gesture(that(others(do(not(understand(and(receives(no(reac/on(as(a(consequence(will
eventually(abandon(the(word(or(gesture.
The(second(form(of(ex/nc/on(involves(removing(consequences(that(appeared(previously,(either(by(stopping(the(use(of(posi/ve(reinforcement(or(by(punishment.(For(example,
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consider(an(employee(who(has(consistently(been(praised(for(being(customer(friendly(and(helpful(but(then(stops(receiving(that(posi/ve(aden/on.(Over(/me,(the(employee(may
become(more(complacent(about(helping(customers.(A(second(employee(is(punished(for(chewing(gum(on(the(job(by(being(sent(home(early,(losing(most(of(a(night's(pay.(At(first,
gum(chewing(will(disappear.(If(the(employee(forgets(and(chews(gum(on(the(job,(but(does(not(receive(punishment,(over(/me(gum(chewing(likely(will(begin(again((Skinner,
1974).
Table(3.6(provides(examples(of(operant(consequences(in(the(workplace.(These(consequences(can(be(delivered(in(a(variety(of(ways(to(shape(employee(behaviors.(In(essence,
they(can(help(guide(or(teach(the(employee(to(achieve(at(higher(levels((Skinner,(1978).
Table(3.6:(Operant(consequences(at(work
Posi/ve(Reinforcement pay,(praise,(promo/on,(benefits,(inclusion(in(highXstatus (groups(or(teams,(prizes(in(contests
Nega/ve(Reinforcement mee/ng(deadlines((e.g.,(filing(tax(forms(on(/me)
Punishment discipline,(termina/on,(unwanted(transfer,(unpleasant(task(assignment,(demo/on
Ex/nc/on ignoring(an(unwanted(behavior;(removing(a(previously(granted(reward(such(as(praise(or(bonuses;(ceasing(punishment(for
behaviors,(such(as(not(wearing(proper(aUre
Schedules%of%Reinforcement
The(various(forms(of(reinforcement(can(be(delivered(in(several(ways.( Shaping(programs(seek(to(increase(certain(target(behaviors,(on(the(job(or(elsewhere.(To(achieve(these
goals,(reinforcements(are(delivered(using(different(schedules.(Con-nuous(reinforcement(means(the(reinforcer(will(be(delivered(every(/me(a(behavior(occurs.(The(approach(is
difficult(to(administer(because(it(requires(constant(monitoring,(watching(for(the(desired(or(target(behavior.
IntermiXent(reinforcement(involves(delivering(reinforcements(for(some,(but(not(every,(instance(of(a(desired(or(target(behavior(being(exhibited.(Intermident(reinforcement
programs(rou/nely(take(place(on(worksites(such(as(those(displayed(in(Table(3.7.
The(first(two(programs(involve(maintaining(a(behavior(over(/me.(FixedXinterval (reinforcements(are(distributed(at(uniform(/me(periods,(so(long(as(the(behavior(con/nues.
VariableXinterval(reinforcements(are(distributed(over(random(/me(periods,(again(as(long(as(the(behavior(con/nues.
The(second(two(programs(grant(reinforcements(based(on(behavioral(occurrences.(FixedXra/o(reinforcement(will(be(granted(on(a(fixed(number(of(behaviors,(such(as(every(third
instance(or(every(fiah(occurrence.(VariableXra/o(reinforcement(varies(the(number(of(behavioral(occurrences.
Table(3.7:(Reinforcement(schedules
Behavior(Maintenance Example(at(Work
Fixed(Interval weekly(or(monthly(paycheck
Variable(Interval promo/on(for(con/nuous(high(performance;(pay(raises(for(high(performance(granted(on(random(/metables
Fixed(Ra/o commission(per(sale;(pieceXrate (pay(per(item(produced;(prize(for(coming(to(work(on(/me(five(days(in(a(row
Variable(Ra/o praise(and(compliments(randomly(delivered(for(good(work;(prize(for(coming(to(work(on(/me(more(regularly(than(all(others((prize
delivered(to(the(employee(with(the(most(onX/me (arrivals);(contests(with(elements(of(gaming(in(them
Skinner(noted(an(addi/onal(element(of(the(connec/on(between(reinforcement(and(the(acquisi/on(of(behaviors.(The( principle(of(immediate(reinforcement(suggests(that(the
closer(in(/me(a(reinforcer(appears(following(a(behavior,(the(more(powerful(the(reinforcer(becomes.(Immediately(delivered(rewards(and(punishments(are(more(powerful(than
those(delivered(following(a(delay.
Overuse%of%Punishment
Skinner(believed(that(overreliance(on(punishment(creates(a(trap(for(parents,(teachers,(managers,(and(governmental(officials.(Punishment(has(several(disadvantages.(For(one,(it
focuses(aden/on(on(unwanted(behaviors(rather(than(desired(behaviors.(In(prac/cally(any(situa/on,(it(makes(sense(to(point(out(the(behaviors(you(hope(to(encourage((trying
hard,(staying(on(task)(rather(than(the(ones(you(do(not((goofing(around,(wandering(away).
Punishment(is(subject(to(ex/nc/on,(which(means(that(when(punishment(stops(for(an(unwanted(behavior((e.g.,(chewing(gum(on(the(sales(floor),(the(behavior(eventually
returns(if(it(has(rewarding(elements(in(it.
At(work,(managers(tend(to(punish(for(three(reasons:((a)(it(is(a(display(of(personal(power;((b)(it(was(what(they(observed(while(training(to(become(managers;(and((c)(it(is(quick
and(easy.(Most(modern(management(experts(recommend(saving(punishment(for(extreme(circumstances,(such(as(safety(rules(viola/ons(and(clearly(inappropriate(behaviors.
The(rest(of(the(/me,(posi/ve(reinforcement(offers(the(beder(alterna/ve.(To(paraphrase(the(popular(1980s(book( The(OneHMinute (Manager,("Help(people(reach(their(poten/al:
Catch(someone(doing(something(right"(rather(than(looking(for(someone(doing(something(wrong(to(punish((Blanchard(&(Johnson,(1981).
In(summary,(learning(is(the(process(of(acquiring(new(knowledge(or(a(new(skill.(Numerous(workplace(ac/vi/es(are(affected(by(learning(processes.(Internally(generated(learning
processes(explain(how(a(person(learns(based(on(internal(mental(func/oning.(The(key(factors(that(shape(learning(include(percep/ons,(adribu/ons,(and(individual(differences
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such(as(selfXconcept (and(selfXefficacy. (Externally(generated(learning(process(theories(examine(factors(in(the(environment(that(lead(to(the(acquisi/on(of(behaviors.
Comprehension(Exercise
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Figure(3.6:(BehaviorYpersonY
environment(combina-ons
According(to(Bandura,(learning(is(achieved
through(the(interac-on(of(behaviors((B),
individual(characteris-cs((or("person")((P),(and
one's(environment((E).
Learning(Objec/ve(#4:
How(does(social(learning(theory(apply(to(the(workplace?
3.4(Social(Learning(Theory
Albert(Bandura((1977)(created(a(theory(of(learning(that(integrates(cogni/ve,(behavioral,(and(environmental(elements(into(a(single(perspec/ve.(The(social(learning(theory
approach(emphasizes(a(variety(of(sources(of(learning.(Bandura(suggested(that(behaviors,(human(thought,(and(the(consequences(of(ac/vi/es(all(interact(to(create(learning,(as
displayed(in(Figure(3.6.
Social(learning(theory(explains(a(series(of(stages(involved(in(the(learning(process.(Figure(3.7(summarizes(what(must(take(place
in(order(for(learning(to(occur.(Aden/on,(reten/on,(motoric(reproduc/on,(and(reinforcement(all(shape(the(learning(process.
AIenDon(means(a(s/mulus(captures(aden/on(and(is(selected.(As(noted(earlier(in(this(chapter,(factors(such(as(intensity,(size,
contrast,(and(novelty(adract(aden/on.( RetenDon(processes(refers(to(the(ways(one(keeps(or(stores(informa/on.(It(includes
physical(and(mental(elements.(Informa/on(that(has(been(coded(and(rehearsed(becomes(retained(in(a(person's(mind.
Physically(memory(includes("muscle(memory"(associated(with(prac/ced(movements,(such(as(scales(on(a(musical(instrument,
shoo/ng(a(basketball,(or(replica/ng(a(tae(kwon(do(sequence.
Motoric(reproduc/on(processes(are(essen/ally(tests(that(a(behavior(or(concept(has(been(correctly(acquired(or(learned.(The
individual(must(be(convinced,(either(by(selfXobserva/on(or(the(feedback(provided(by(others.(Motoric(reproduc/on(includes
both(internally(generated(and(externally(generated(learning(components.(A(person(can(observe(his(or(her(behaviors(and(their
outcomes,(or(an(outside(person(can(provide(informa/on.(A(figure(skater(can(watch(a(video(of(her(performance(and(make
adjustments((selfXobserva/on) (or(receive(counsel(from(a(coach((feedback(by(others).
Reinforcements(also(play(an(important(role(in(social(learning.(Reinforcements(take(the(forms(described(by(Skinner(from(the
operant(process(approach,(with(one(difference.(Instead(of(only(one(source(of(reinforcement,(the(environment((external
forces),(three(forms(exist:(external,(vicarious,(and(selfXreinforcement. (External(reinforcement(is(the(type(proposed(by(Skinner;
it(is(present(in(the(external(environment(or(given(by(others.
Figure(3.7:(Social(learning(theory(model
Social(learning(theory(suggests(that(aXen-onal(processes,(reten-on(processes,(motoric(reproduc-on
processes,(and(reinforcement(must(take(place(in(order(for(learning(to(occur.
Adapted(from(A.(Bandura((1977).(Social'learning'theory.(Englewood(Cliffs,(NJ:(PrenDceHHall,(p.(23.
Vicarious(reinforcement(results(from(observing(the(impact(of(consequences(on(others.(Individuals(can(watch(as(something(happens(to(another(person(and(learn(from(the
process.(An(employee(who(violates(a(company(rule(and(receives(discipline(instructs(others(at(the(same(/me(as(they(observe(what(happens.(Many(employee(behaviors,(both
desired(and(undesired,(are(acquired(by(viewing(the(experiences(of(coworkers.
SelfYreinforcement(involves(a(person(administering(his(or(her(own(consequences.(SelfXadministered(reinforcements(include(feeling(of(pride,(accomplishment,(selfXesteem,(and
closure,(on(the(posi/ve(side,(and(guilt,(frustra/on,(and(embarrassment(as(punishments.(Nega/ve(selfXreinforcement (involves(crea/ng(feelings(of(pressure(or(tension(un/l(a
task(is(complete(or(a(goal(has(been(accomplished.(For(example,(feeling(guilty(un/l(you(have(wriden(a(sa/sfactory(term(paper(can(become(a(form(of(nega/ve(selfX
reinforcement.
Bandura's(Conclusions
Based(on(this(model(of(learning,(Bandura(developed(a(series(of(conclusions(that(apply(to(individuals(at(work(and(in(other(places.(The(conclusions(add(value(to(the(social
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Thomas(Barwick
Employees(can(learn(by(observa-on(and(may(become(successful(role(models(as
well.
learning(theory(model.(Four(of(the(most(noted(conclusions(are(the(following:
1.(Incorporate(all(three(types(of(reinforcement(to(achieve(desired(behavior(and(learning.
2.(Understand(the(influences(of(role(models(and(coaches(in(learning.
3.(Become(wary(of(the(impact(of(television(programming(on(children.
4.(Recognize(that(it(is(possible(to("learn(by(thinking."
Regarding(the(first(point,(Bandura(notes(the(power(of(vicarious(and(selfXreinforcement. (He(provides
evidence(of(the(impact(of(selfXreinforcement (on(alcoholism,(for(example.(An(alcoholic(may("reward"
himself(or(herself(for(comple/ng(a(task(by(taking(a(drink.
Vicarious(reinforcement(combines(with(concepts(of(motoric(reproduc/on(to(explain(the(influences
of(role(models(and(coaches.(These(processes(begin(early(in(life,(with(parents(and(teachers(as(our
earliest(role(models(and(coaches.(Later,(popular(peers(assume(those(roles(in(the(classroom(and(on
the(playground.(Employees(also(learn(by(observa/on.(Key(figures(in(an(organiza/on(exhibit
behaviors(that(are(rewarded(or(punished.(Successful(employees(become(role(models.(Coaches(and
mentors(guide(workers(to(perform(in(ways(most(suited(to(the(organiza/on's(needs.(Also,
unfortunately,(unwanted(behaviors(such(as(discrimina/on(t