Which of the following refers to the flow of information among persons

Subject: Business / Management

Which of the following refers to the flow of information among persons at different levels, who have no direct reporting relationships?

(a) Horizontal communication (b) Diagonal communication

(c) Upward communication (d) Downward communication

(e) Forward communication.


Every organization structure, even a poor one, can be charted. Which of the following is false with respect to Organization Chart?

(a) It is a vital tool for providing information about organizational relationships

(b) It provides a visual map of the chain of command

(c) Charting an organization structure can show up the complexities and inconsistencies, which can be corrected

(d) It shows authority relationships as well as informal and informational relationships

(e) It helps managers and new personnel to know how and where they fit into the organization structure.


As Arvind Misra is reviewing the progress of his organization in meeting its organizational goals, he is struck by the fact that his organization has an organizational structure that might be causing problems. The current structure diffuses accountability, makes it difficult to respond to changing conditions quickly, and results in situations where someone might have two bosses. Which of the following organization forms best fits these disadvantages being experienced by Mr. Misra?

(a) Geographical structure (b) Matrix structure (c) Divisional structure

(d) Customer structure (e) Functional structure.


The garbage-can model is effective in which of the following situation/s?

I. When managers have no specific goal preferences.

II. When the means of achieving goals are unclear.

III. When there are frequent changes in the participants involved in decision-making.

IV. When the degree to which decision-makers can determine optimal decisions is limited by the individuals’ capacity and intelligence.

(a) Only (IV) above (b) Both (I) and (II) above

(c) Both (III) and (IV) above (d) (I), (II) and (III) above

(e) All (I), (II), (III) and (IV) above.


Which of the following is true about the conclusions drawn from the trait approach to leadership?

(a) The trait approach identifies traits that consistently separate leaders from nonleaders

(b) There are certain traits that guarantee that a leader will be successful

(c) The trait approach is based on early research that assumes that a good leader is born, not made

(d) Leadership is a simple issue of describing the traits of successful leaders

(e) The trait approach is based on early research that assumes that a good leader is made, not born.


Which of the following information systems has low-volume data and analytical models as data inputs?

(a) Management Information System (b) Decision Support System

(c) Executive Support System (d) Transaction Processing System

(e) Office Automation System.


An objective is the object or aim of an action. Management by Objectives (MBO) is a management process that is popular in many organizations. It is the joint setting of goals and objectives by superiors and subordinates. A major difference between traditional objective setting and MBO is

(a) In MBO, there are multiple objectives covering a range of organisational activities

(b) In traditional objective setting the objectives, once formulated, provide direction for management decisions

(c) In traditional objective setting the objectives, once established, form the criteria against which actual accomplishments can be measured

(d) In MBO, organisation members may actually pursue objectives other than the formal organisational objectives

(e) Traditional objective setting is ‘top down’ only, while MBO is both a ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ process.


In the Japanese management style, the controlling function is characteristic of

I. Focus on individual performance.

II. Control by peers.

III. Extensive use of quality control circles.

IV. Fixing blame.

(a) Both (I) and (II) above (b) Both (I) and (III) above

(c) Both (I) and (IV) above (d) Both (II) and (III) above

(e) Both (II) and (IV) above.


The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative become obvious in which step of the decision making-process?

(a) Identifying the problem (b) Identifying the decision criteria

(c) Analyzing the alternatives (d) Implementing the alternative

(e) Obtaining the needed resources.


The recruitment procedure is initiated when a vacancy occurs and is reported to the HR department. Which of the following is usually the first step followed in the recruitment procedure?

(a) Designing job description

(b) Developing a job specification

(c) Performing job analysis

(d) Attracting a pool of applicants

(e) Selecting best recruits.


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