Fermentation NAD NADH FAD FADH2 H2O CO2 O2... Fermentation NAD+ NADH FAD FADH2 H2O CO2 O2 Cellular respiration Kreb's cycle Calvin cycle Stroma Thylakoid space Matrix Mitochondrion Electron transport chain Cytosol Electron transport Chemiosmosis Glycolysis Intermembrane space ATP synthase Oxidative phosphorylation Substrate level phosphorylation Proton-motive force ______________, a catabolic process which provides energy to regenerate ATP, occurs in three stages: ____________, ______________, and _____________. _______________, the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, occurs in the ___________. This pathway nets two molecules of ATP (produced by a mechanism known as ______________________) and two molecules of _____________. In the presence of oxygen, pyruvate moves into the _________________, where it is completely oxidized to ______________ by the ________________. In the process, two molecules of ATP are formed (again by ___________________) and electrons are passed to eight molecules of ______________ and two molecules of _____________. Although a total of four ATP molecules per glucose have formed at this point, most of the ATP produced from the energy stored in glucose will be produced by ________________, when ______________ and ______________ donate their electrons to the ___________________. In this stage, a series of increasingly electronegative components embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane pass down electrons while pumping H+ ions from the ___________ to the ________________. The potential energy created by the electrochemical gradient is known as the ______________. As H+ ions diffuse down their concentration gradient through _________________ that is embedded in the inner membrane, ATP is synthesized in the mitochondrial _____________. Electrons are ultimately passed to ___________, reducing it to _____________.