Dear Sir , 
i have to write an assay about Ethics in healthcare ,the important of ethics or how to observed actions of others at your work . and provide examples from hospital environment.
i will attached the document of this assignment fro more details.
thank you

Leadership and Ethics
Assignment 4

Assignment 4 task:
Write a short essay (1500-2000 words maximum), which explains how in your own
professional work it is necessary to make ethical judgments or how the observed actions of
others at your work can be analyzed in terms of ethical dimensions. Provide and discuss
one or more specific examples rather than debate in general terms and indicate what kinds
of ethical thinking apply.
Ethical theories (see P.G. Northouse Chapter 14) are of two general types: theories about leaders
behaviour or conduct and theories about leaders character. The behavioural approach is further
divided into theories stressing the consequences of leaders actions and those concerned with the
duty of leaders and the rules governing their actions.
Emphasis on outcomes: Ethical egoism describes how leaders act out of a sense of how they or
their organisation might benefit most. On the other hand, utilitarianism refers to seeking the
greatest good for the greatest number of people. Altruism is closely related and places a positive
ethical value on behaviour that seeks the well being of others.
Emphasis on duty: the deontological approach. Here the judgment on ethics is based not only on
the outcome, but on whether the action is good or bad in itself. For example, telling the truth,
being ‘fair’, respecting others, keeping promises, might all be seen as right/good in themselves,
regardless of the potential outcome.
Now you have a good idea of what kind of events we are thinking about, look at the following
table, which is from Ch. 14 of Yukl 2006 ‘Leadership in Organisations’. It provides a series of 8
criteria by which we might assess leaders, and then describes the behavior of ‘ethical’ and
‘unethical’ leaders in relation to each criterion. The two columns on the right are clearly the
extreme positions of a continuum.
Look carefully at each line in turn and think about whether you agree with what is said. Is the
stated perspective more limited than you would like it to be or can it be expressed in other terms?
Does it help describe aspects of the world of work as you have experienced it?


Ethical Leadership

Unethical Leadership

Use of leader power and

Serves followers and the

Satisfies personal needs and career

Handling diverse interests of
the multiple stakeholders

Attempts to balance and
integrate them

Favors coalition partners who offer the
most benefits

Development of a vision for
the organization

Develops a vision based on
follower input about their

Attempts to sell a personal vision as the
only way for the organization to succeed

needs, values and ideas
Integrity of leader behavior

Acts consistent with
espoused values

Does what is expedient to attain personal

Risk taking in leader
decisions and actions

Is willing to take a personal
risks and make necessary

Avoids necessary decisions or actions
that involve personal risk to the leader

Communication of relevant
information operations

Makes a complete and
timely disclosure of
information about events,
problems and actions

Uses deception and distortion to bias
follower perceptions about problems and

Response to criticism and
dissent by followers

Encourages critical
evaluation to find better

Discourage and suppresses any criticism
or dissent

Development of follower skills
and self confidence.

Uses coaching, mentoring
and training to develop

Deemphasizes development to keep
followers weak and dependent on the

Note that the examples that follow below are simply to help orientate you and provide
ideas. Please do NOT discuss these in your assignment report, but instead provide
examples from your own professional experience. However, you may if you wish use the
tabulated form of analysis used at the end of the page, if you find it helpful for organizing
your own ideas.

Introduction and background
In every area of professional life, decisions and judgments are made by leaders and managers
which have an ethical dimension and none more so than in health care. Why does health care
provide such a complex and challenging ethical environment? Perhaps it is because from its very
nature health care involves the lives of so many others and can affect people in such fundamental
ways. In our course introduction we identified that fact that leadership has much to do with
power. As we now look at leadership ethics, we focus on assessing how such power is used,
towards what ends and how a leaders beliefs and actions are shaped by underlying values. We
ask questions such as: Why do leaders do what they do? Is what they are doing good or bad, right
or wrong? Not the fundamental difference here from asking whether decisions lead to effective
or efficient actions or organisational arrangements. As you think about such issues, focus in turn
on ends, means and outcomes.

Ethical leadership is inevitably tied up with your particular notion of personal integrity:
remember the prominence of ‘honesty’ in the traits expected of leaders? We can also relate this
topic to other models or perspectives of leadership, for example see Burns’ theory of
transformational leadership which moves both leaders and followers to a higher moral and
motivational level but changes their beliefs, attitudes and even their values.
It is not easy to assess the ethics of leader behaviour when there is no consistency between the
interests of the leader, the followers, the organisation and other affected people (e.g. in the
community). For example, how do we assess the behavior of leaders who create enthusiasm for a
basically risky strategy or project? Would it become a more acceptable path if the leader
provides full information about the risk to her/his employees. How many leaders dwell on the
negatives though, rather than taking a positive attitude, conveying it to all and pushing ahead?
Isn’t that what leadership is supposed to be all about?

Examples of specific situations demanding ethical thinking from leaders
Note these are just a few examples and the list of situations is actually almost endless!
1. You are to select a new front line staff member (receptionist) for your private clinic from
a short list of candidates. Two candidates are moderately well qualified and are of a
similar ethnic and cultural background to most of your patients. One is from an ethnic
minority group and you are concerned about how patients might react. You worry that by
appointing this candidate you will lose some business and that will reduce profits and
bonuses for you and your staff. However, this candidate has more experience and higher
qualifications than the other two and you do not want to be seen to discriminate on ethnic
grounds. What decision do you take and why?
2. A new highly effective drug treatment is made available that will benefit many people in
your city. However, you have read that it can have serious side effects in small number of
cases. Do you support prescription of the drug by your health authority on the basis of a
clear benefit to many or resist approval because of the potential for harm to a small
3. A new health care financing system is introduced that will provide resources for very
high quality care to those who can afford the premiums but it provides very limited
access to people on low incomes. Supporting a new system that will clearly benefit many
people is a temptation. Do you support the new system or resist on the grounds that it is
better to retain lower quality that is accessible to all?
4. A new borne baby is severely deformed and the immediate medical prognosis is a short
life and considerable discomfort. Does the medical unit devote valuable time and
resources to the baby’s survival, maybe at expense of others cases, or….?
5. You discover that an otherwise high-performing employee in your unit regularly takes
materials home from work for personal use, for example printer cartridges or other office
materials. He is a temperamental character however and would react very badly to being
confronted directly with this issue. There is a critically important departmental deadline

to meet that requires everyone’s full attention and commitment. Do you ‘turn a blind eye’
or do you raise the issue as a matter of principle, thereby risking missing the deadline
which would reflect badly on all in the unit.
6. A specialist unit with the latest scanning equipment just opened in your hospital but
demand from a variety of patients with different illnesses far outstrips available time.
How do you decide on priorities in the waiting list?
7. You manage a unit that has functioned well for many years with long-serving and loyal
staff who have learned the job over the years but who don’t possess formal technical
qualifications. However, new technology is now available that requires only half as many
staff to provide the same outcome. You know that buying the new equipment will lead to
redundancy and unemployment for many in the unit as new staff with higher technical
qualifications will be needed to run the new equipment. Do you remain loyal to the
existing employees or do you focus on the economic benefit to the organisation of
reducing staffing levels?
8. A cancer patient has been diagnosed with a terminal condition and they also have a weak
heart. They ask your staff for information about the prognosis and they refer to you. Your
instinct tells you that the truth must prevail but, on the other hand, if the patient panics on
hearing the news or even worries then stress will be created and their condition might
worsen as a result. What considerations apply here and how will you advise your staff?

P G Northouse textbook, Chapter 16
G Yukl 2006 Leadership in Organisations Chapter 14
Singer P.A. et al 2001 Clinical Ethics Revisited BMC medical Ethics 2:1 (found at the following