1. Two important approaches to studying motivation have been the needs-based theories of motivation and the process theories of motivation. Explain the differences between these two approaches.

2. In recent years, many U.S. companies have “downsized,” resulting in employee layoffs at both the managerial and non-managerial levels. If an employee felt that his or her job was in jeopardy due to the possibility of a layoff, which of Maslow’s needs would this affect? How does this affect employee motivation in the workplace?

3. Expectancy theory is rather complex. Think of an example in which expectancy theory would apply, and explain expectancy theory in the context of your example.

4. Review acquired-needs theory. Would you say that you are more driven by the need for achievement, the need for power, the need for affiliation, or a combination of the three? Can an understanding of your needs help you select a career? Explain your answer.

5. Equity theory focuses on an individual’s feeling about how he or she is treated in comparison with others. Describe a situation in which you compared your contribution and rewards with others. Were you treated fairly? Why or why not? Did the outcome of this incident affect your level of motivation in regard to that situation or organization? Explain your answer.