Official work on Frederick herzberg, Tacit Assumptions

official work on frederick herzberg, Tacit Assumptions

Dr. Frederick Herzberg was born in Lynn Massachusetts on 18th April 1923.His parents were Jewish immigrants by the name Lewis Herzberg and Gertrude all from Lithuania. Since his parents were Jewish immigrants, this meant that their family was just a middle level income earning family. He spent most of his childhood in New York City. His parents worked as public servants in New York City and were very religious. At 16 he excelled well in his examination and got a chance to join the prestigious city college of New York for his undergraduate program. He later graduated from the University of Pittsburg. His parents seemed not to be moved by political matters but education was what they highly valued.He however did not finish his studies in CCNY as he joined the army. Where at just 22 he was already a patrol sergeant in World War II. He was among the first rescuers to offer assistance in the Dachau concentration camp. He was allocated the duty of providing health care for the spared Holocaust spared inmates (Chyung, 2010). Due to his high level of expertise he was awarded the Combat infantryman’s Badge and a Bronze star.

In 1944 Herzberg married Shirley Bedell from Holden Massachusetts. In 1948 they had a son and named him Mark. In 1961, Shirley at 40 years old graduated from medical school at the Western Reserve University. Being the first female student who was not traditional to graduate from the University she definitely opened the opportunity for other nontraditional students to take advantage of. She later became an eminent pediatrician in Salt Lake City. Sadly though she passed on in 1997 (Feder, 2008).Mark on the other hand is currently a Psychiatric nurse based in New Jersey .Frederick did not ignore his studies, in 1946 he later graduated from the city college of New York. He later went to the University of Pittsburgh for his masters where he studied science and public health. His determination and ambition also motivated him into completing a Ph.D. on electric shock therapy.

In 1950 he started his research on organizations by working in the University of Utah where the president of the University the late James. C. Fletcher had given him the opportunity to be a lecturer in the institution. He became the professor of management in the college of Business .The department was headed by Dr. George odiorne who was also an eminent author and lecturer of management. The university considered the reputation of Dr.Herzberg to be that of a very eminent figure they considered themselves lucky to have recruited such a renowned person. Even before he moved to Utah he was already a famous professor of management in the Case Western Reserve University (Herzberg, 2009). He had developed the Department of industrial mental health during his period as a lecturer in the institution.

He was code named the inventor of the motivation hygiene theory or the father of job enrichment. He became a legend and an icon among other philosophers and political figures such as Douglas McGregor, Peter Dracker, and Abraham Maslow. In management, scholarly and academic circles the mention of Herzberg was enough to create air waves. Since his name could indicate his knowledge and awareness on contributions and concepts. The international press in 1995 announced that his own book named work and nature of man was among the top ten important books that heavily influenced the management theory in the 20th century (Underwood, 2011).

The University of Utah honored him with the prestigious service award in 1994. In his name a visiting lecture series were established. His late wife also made vital contributions on issues of funding the series. Another achievement was when he was made the professor of management in the Cummins engine in 1995. After retiring he remarkably gave all his documentations and annals to the Marriott library which was still in the University of Utah. The students viewed him as a mentor and enjoyed his unorthodox technique of teaching (Feder, 2008). Fred used autobiography to translate individual experiences into the motivation that offered the perception of human nature.

Astonishingly Frederick was familiar with very many languages such as Italian, French, German and the Yiddish vernacular. His awesome knowledge on languages enabled him to travel worldwide with his family to learn about the Holocaust refugees. He was also well informed about the history of both Christianity and the Jewish religions. This was because at one time he had a family that was Irish Catholic that was staying in New York. He will always be remembered because of the impact he made in the workplace and on humanity. His writings were also published internationally, extensively and nationally (Herzberg, 2007).

His book the motivation to work was what made him very famous out of his many books. Based on survey, research and personal experiences he developed theories in the workplace that would motivate workers. Herzberg did an extensive survey on about two hundred Pittsburgh accountants and engineers which is up to date a sought out reference on matters of motivational study. The data he collected was presumed to be very sophisticated. He was assisted by his research colleagues such as Barbara Bloch and Bernard Mausner. The research used a revolutionary approach based on few assumptions and open questioning to acquire and analyze data known as the critical incidents .The whole theory was known as the motivator hygiene theory (Chyung, 2010).

He used the methodology for the first time when studying in the University of Pittsburgh with another famous scholar known as John Flanagan. Flanagan fascinatingly enough used the method in the World War II to select army corps. Frederick’s unique method of open interviewing gave more expressive results than the normal method of extent based questions. Incidentally these multiple choice type of questionnaire is still very common even today. The style of survey is very popular among people who have a publicity aim or a specific agenda. Frederick had been in the army so he knew that the critical incident survey method was very effective (Underwood, 2011). In simple terms the experience or background history that Herzberg had as a soldier helped him in his theory formulation and the survey method.

Herzberg was able to study the theories of sophisticated work and power. This was as a result of his intensive preparation by keenly scrutinizing and comparing results obtained in all the studies carried out. In total the research studies were about 155 concerning job attitudes done from 1920 to 1954. He was able to finish the project as a result of deep analysis, high level of preparation and use of the critical incident. He later expanded his motivation hygiene theory in his later books. Such as the managerial choice published in 1982 and the Herzberg on motivation published in 1983 .His background experience and history as an employee in the industry week magazine and the universities helped him formulate a theory that was modern on employee and employer relationship .That dealt with mutual alignment and understanding within the psychological contract (Feder, 2008).

The motivator hygiene theory simply generated the idea that hygiene issues might not motivate but if they are not present they may lower the motivation of workers. The factors involve job security, comfortable chairs, clean toilets and appropriate and fair salaries. On the other hand motivational factors may not actually lower motivation but can definitely increase motivation. The factors may involve promotion or job recognition. This was similar to his job enrichment idea that was a method of motivating workers by offering them a variety of responsibilities in their occupation. Frederick also pointed out that an enriched job must contain communication, feedback, encouragement and meaningful tasks (Herzberg, 2007). He also detected that even though money was one method of motivating workers they also needed to be appreciated. Allowing employees to have control over their work meant that they would have a natural ambition to succeed.

There are many criticisms as well positive critics surrounding the two factor theory. In 1968 Frederick defended his theory by indicating how successful it was in many populations and even in the communist nations. Intensive research and study gave similar results with other studies on intrinsic employee motivation thus making the theory by Herzberg to be one of the most famous studies on job attitudes. The most well respected theory however still remains to be the motivator hygiene concept (Underwood, 2011).

The critical incident technique however has faced negative criticism which was a method Frederick used occasionally to record data and information .Where philosophers claim that the technique does not accept individual differences like specific personality traits. The traits would definitely have an impact on a person’s response to hygiene factors or motivation. Behavioral scientists had their say too where they disapproved the suggestion by the theory that satisfied and happy workers were more productive. They claimed that that was not always the case. Another hitch with the theory was that it concentrated on explaining the average behavior .Instead of concentrating on individual differences that may affect an individual’s motivational factors (Chyung, 2010).

In conclusion Frederick Herzberg through his eminent experience in the field of behavioral science, family background, his own personal history and work experience. He was able to formulate theories on increasing performance and job satisfaction .Which basically meant that all dissatisfactions in the work place had to be eliminated. Matters of wages and the working environment had to be treated seriously to ensure maximum productivity by workers. Recognizing the achievement of workers was another detail Herzberg pointed out in order to show workers that their effort was being recognized. The job enrichment approach involved the employer requesting the worker to offer his or her input (Underwood, 2011). This approach might not work for everyone so it is advisable that the employer offers employees enrichment techniques that are bound to be beneficial to both the employer and the employee.

Frederick Herzberg was presumed to be one of greatest and most original thinkers in the motivational and management theory and the pioneer of the job enrichment. His work is still a marvel to many. Sadly though he died on 18 January, 2000 at Salt Lake City but still no one will forget that his article on ‘ how you motivate your workers ‘ was the most requested from the Harvard business review. The article had sold about 1.2 million copies by 1987. He was definitely among the most influential and most powerful management consultants of the postwar era (Feder, 2008) .The implementation of his theories transformed the tedium and drudge of the workplace and created another workplace where participation and self-esteem was evident.

References

Chyung, S.Y. (2010). Foundations of Instructional and Performance Technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.

Feder, B.J. (2008). “F.I. Herzberg, 76, Professor and Management Consultant”, Amsterdam: Academic press.

Herzberg, F.I. (2007). “One more time: How do you motivate employees?” Chicago: University of Chicago press.

Herzberg, F. (2009). The Motivation to Work, New York: John Wiley and Sons press.

Underwood, G.(2011). The Managerial Choice: To be efficient and to be human. New York: Business Expert press.

The Effect of Covid-19 on Emerging Market Economies

The Affect of Covid-19 on Emerging Market Economies

The Effect of Covid-19 on Emerging Market Economies

This essay responds to the article written on 24th September 2020 by Deloitte Insights article concerning the subject of The Effect of the Covid-19 pandemic in the emerging markets as a whole. It is evident that most emerging markets and developing economies have so far weathered the Covid-19 pandemic well than projected, but all the same, they face daunting long-run economic challenges. The emerging market economies are going through many challenges, a lot of which are past their control (Ahmed et al., 2020). The economic costs and health of the crisis have been severe in many nations. Even for nations that have evaded the nastiest pandemics domestically, trades have debilitated as a result of the fall in global demand.

Most emerging markets are having difficulty in a way that they struggle to stimulate their economies. Central banks and governments have been inevitably wary when offering monetary and fiscal stimulus to avert fiscal disruptions (Ahmed et al., 2020). Despite relatively low fiscal stimulus, most emerging markets face much higher debt burdens due to the loss of revenue, which is adding to risks. As the crisis struck and the lockdown preventive measure was put in place, economic activities came to a stop. In particular nations, the fall in actual GDP was severe. India lost more than 25%, while the Colombia, Philippines, Morocco, Mexico, and Malaysia each lost more than 15% economically. On the other hand, Peru lost more than 30% of its productivity between Q4 2019 and Q2 2020. The economic impacts of the crisis on emerging markets economies far exceed that of the international financial crisis. Developing countries and emerging markets have approximately $3.9 trillion in debt service and around $11 trillion in external debt due in 2020. Debt impends to generate a universal growth emergency similarly that the crisis is causing a universal wellbeing emergency.

Reference

Ahmed, S., Hoek, J., Kamin, S. B., Smith, B., & Yoldas, E. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Emerging Markets Economies’ Financial Conditions. FEDS Notes, (2020-10), 07-1.

The Effect of Covid-19 on Emerging Market Economies

The Affect of Covid-19 on Emerging Market Economies

The Effect of Covid-19 on Emerging Market Economies

This essay responds to the article written on 24th September 2020 by Deloitte Insights article concerning the subject of The effect of the Covid-19 pandemic in the emerging markets as a whole. It is evident that most emerging markets and developing economies have so far weathered the Covid-19 pandemic well than projected, but all the same, they face daunting long-run economic challenges. The emerging market economies are going through many challenges, a lot of which are past their control (Ahmed et al., 2020). The economic costs and health of the crisis have been severe in many nations. Even for nations that have evaded the nastiest pandemics domestically, trades have debilitated as a result of the fall in global demand.

Most emerging markets are having difficulty in a way that they struggle to stimulate their economies. Central banks and governments have been inevitably wary when offering monetary and fiscal stimulus to avert fiscal disruptions (Ahmed et al., 2020). Despite relatively low fiscal stimulus, most emerging markets face much higher debt burdens due to the loss of revenue, which is adding to risks. As the crisis struck and the lockdown preventive measure was put in place, economic activities came to a stop. In particular nations, the fall in actual GDP was severe. India lost more than 25%, while the Colombia, Philippines, Morocco, Mexico, and Malaysia each lost more than 15% economically. On the other hand, Peru lost more than 30% of its productivity between Q4 2019 and Q2 2020. The economic impacts of the crisis on emerging markets economies far exceed that of the international financial crisis. Developing countries and emerging markets have approximately $3.9 trillion in debt service and around $11 trillion in external debt due in 2020. Debt impends to generate a universal growth emergency similarly that the crisis is causing a universal wellbeing emergency.

Reference

Ahmed, S., Hoek, J., Kamin, S. B., Smith, B., & Yoldas, E. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Emerging Markets Economies’ Financial Conditions. FEDS Notes, (2020-10), 07-1.

The psychiatric effects of a severe cardio-respiratory failure treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

Critical Analysis

This paper presents a critical analysis of the results of a study conducted by Risnes at al. (2013, p. 420). The study was carried out to determine the psychiatric effects of a severe cardio-respiratory failure treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The results of the study are presented in a journal article published in psychosomatic journal. Risnes at al. (2013, p. 421) conducted a quantitative research and thus, the results of the study were analyzed using statistical tools. The results were analyzed using SPSS v. 15.0 and were also subjected to test and the Mann–Whitney U-test. The researchers used tables to present the results.

The results of the study presented in the article are reliable. Before commencing, the researchers conducted numerous pilot studies to check the consistency and stability of data collection instruments. The process of checking the reliability of the scales that were applied in data collection took 9 months. The instruments were found to be produce consistent and stable results in different contexts. Thus, the results produced by the instruments can be said to be reliable. The researchers did not report any examination of validity of their research. However, it is clear that the results of the study provide answers to the key question of the study. In other words, the researchers did not deviate from the key objective of the study. Furthermore, the results of the study mainly correspond to the results of previous studies conducted on the same topic.

However, results on the impact of ECMO on neuropsychiatric morbidity produced mixed results. While strong positive link was found between the two variables in some cases, no association was reported in others. This makes it difficult to make a general conclusion from the results of the study. Despite the fact that the researchers acknowledge the issue, they make a general conclusion from the results of the study.

References

Risnes, I. et al. (2013). “Psychiatric Outcome after Severe Cardio-Respiratory Failure Treated

with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case-Series.” Psychosomatics 2013; 54:418–427)

SAP Appeal Explanation Statement

SAP Appeal Explanation Statement

Writing a perfect SAP appeal explanation statement is the gateway to having your appeal approved when faced with a possibility of missing out on financial aid. Various circumstances can lead to a student not meeting the SAP policy. Therefore, detailing the circumstances of what happened, what has changed and even attaching documents for proof in an explanation statement can lead to SAP appeal getting approved. Below is an example of successful SAP appeal.

RE: SAP Appeal Explanation Statement.

What happened:

I am writing to explain the circumstances that hindered my performance during the spring semester. I had a baby in September 2019 and I had to go on a maternity break for three months to nurse and to take care of the baby. My first semester at school, found me overwhelmed juggling between motherhood, school and work as well. Having an infant made me miss class time most of the time and due to the circumstances my grades suffered and I could not meet the conditions outlined in the SAP appeal and also I was unable to complete my spring 2019 term.

What has changed:

As my past record demonstrates, I am certain that I shall attain excellent grades in the new school term. I have a well-designed work plan, which will assist me in managing my work along with my duties as a new mother. I plan on working on the incompletes during the coming school break, with a goal of having them done as soon as possible. I know without a doubt that I am better equipped now to juggle parenting, work and school and I can now focus on school better than during the 2019 spring semester. I also sought the help of the college adviser to discuss the classes I need to take to get my academic journey in a successful progress and also to seek insight on how I will approach the work load. I will also make good use of the school resources such as the assignments planner in the library to keep me on track and to achieve the set academic goals in the coming school semester.

Attached is the documentation verifying

A note from the doctor indicating that I had a child in September.

A copy of the hospital bill demonstrating the dates of my stay in the hospital.

A letter from my place of work indicating the dates of the maternity leave.

Applewriters is a professional essay writing service with vast experience in writing successful Satisfactory Academic Progress Appeals for college students in the USA. Order your SAP appeal letter so as not to miss out on Financial Aid.

Kidnapping of Children

Kidnapping of Children

Kidnapping of Children

Kidnapping is among the most common organized crimes that happen and children are the most targeted. Kidnapping can be defined as unauthorized removal of a child often at an underage from the custody of their legal guardians or from their parents. Kidnapping is also known as child abduction or child theft. It is approximated that every 40 seconds in the United States, one child gets kidnapped or rather goes missing. According to the Bureaus National Crime Information Center Missing Person Files, by the end of 2017 there were 32000 cases of missing children. Parental kidnapping involves a parent taking a child away from the legal parent without permission. The other form is abduction whereby the kidnapper is a stranger for purposes of extortion, human trafficking or illegal adoption. This paper will look at the issues surrounding kidnapping from its historical background to measures being taken to deal with the issue.

Over the past twenty-five years, kidnapping cases have increased from 150,000 to 900,000. The most prevalent cases of kidnapping are parental kidnapping and as of 2010 according to the US Department of Justice, there were 200,000 cases of parental kidnapping. According to State Department, between the year 2008-2017 an average of 1100 children were abducted from the U.S and taken to a foreign country (Dabbagh, 2011). Men were found to be the highest perpetrators when it came to kidnapping as compared to women. There are several reasons as to why people kidnap children. For parental abduction, most do so probably because they have been denied legal guardianship of their children and they cannot see their children. For most, they feel that the only way they can get access to their children is to kidnap them. Another reason for parental kidnapping is to exert revenge on the legal guardian. For certain parents who are denied access to their children, they often may feel the need to punish the parents by taking the children away from them just as it was done to them. For some parents especially if the spouses are completely estranged or they had a really hard divorce battle, some see abduction of their children as the only way they can get to spend the rest of their lives with their children. Largely most parental abductions do not have malicious intent or no harm is often caused to the child although in some cases harm may be inflicted on the child including injuries or even in worse scenarios sexual assault.

Child abduction by strangers has often been seen to be more of economic reasons. There are several reasons strangers kidnap children and in most cases for extortion of money from the parents. Often you will find at times these strangers are not really strangers in the life of a child they may be nannies, butlers, family friends among other people who want to extort a family especially if the family is rich (Detotto, 2014). Abduction for extortion often involves making calls to the child’s parent on the demands that need to be met before the child is released including sending out money. Another reason for abduction is for illegal adoption. There are notorious illegal adoption rings that run by giving parents who would love to adopt children. In Kenya for example, there have been cases of children kidnapping who are then sold to parents at times in the United States under the guise that these children are being adopted. Lastly, human trafficking is another reason for children kidnapping. It is a sad situation that young children as little as 12 years old are trafficked and sold to prostitution rigs where they get to work (Waltes, 2011).

The first case of kidnapping can be traced back to the year 1758 whereby Mary Jemison a 12-year-old Caucasian child was taken from her family. The perpetrators of the act were Seneca Falls warriors and she was the only one who had not been massacred, she lived with the Seneca tribe for the rest of her years. Charley Ross who was four years old was the first child to be kidnapped in exchange for ransom. This was one case that received a lot of public attention this was because the individuals that had been suspected to be the kidnappers were killed and Ross was never found. Most people though that by the law enforcers killing the kidnappers, they had also been responsible because they had killed the only people that may have known where he was.

June 13 1932, Congress passed The Federal Kidnapping Act. This was a law also referred to as Lindbergh Law because of the kidnapping case that resulted in this law. Charles Augustus Lindbergh Junior was kidnapped on 1st March, 1932 when he was just 20 months old. The negotiations with the kidnapper failed and the remains of the child were found a few days later. The Lindbergh Law gave power to the federal law enforcers to pursue the kidnappers immediately they had information that they may have crossed state lines with their victims (Cushman, 2010). This law was dimmed to be necessary because local as well as state law enforcers may be unable to pursue kidnappers effectively especially if they get to cross into states that they did not have jurisdiction in. Federal law enforcers who include the FBI have national authority and thus congress thought they would be more effective and better equipped in tracking kidnappings. The exception to this law is whereby parents abduct their children (parental abduction). Different states have tried implementing their law often referred to as “Little Lindbergh” laws which covers kidnapping that do not cross to other states.

Several cases brought to the supreme court have also had an effect on the Federal Kidnapping Act. In 1968, the United States v. Jackson, 390 U.S. 570 (1968) ruled that certain parts of the Federal Kidnapping law were unconstitutional. The act had a provision that if a kidnapped person is not liberated unharmed, then the kidnapper shall be punished by death. The court felt that only the jury would recommend the punishment they deemed fit to the kidnapper. The decision of the court was that kidnapping alone should not be seen as a capital punishment. There have been convictions that have been obtained from this law including Luis Jones who was found guilty of kidnapping Tracie McBride which resulted in her death.

AMBER Alert (American Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response) may be one of the greatest invention in trying to deal with missing children and kidnapping. An amber alert is an alert that is sent out by the child abduction system when law enforcers have reasonable information to determine if a child has been abducted or is in danger. This alert helps other people including the community to be on high alert and report incase they have any information that may lead to information of the missing child. These alerts are broadcasted on data-enabled devices, radio, TV, cell phones as well as road signs (Griffin, 2008). This alert was created after the abduction of Amber Hagerman who was a 9-year-old girl who was abducted and murdered in 1996 in Arlington, Texas. Different states have stipulated down different reasons on when to issue an alert. The vital step is to determine if the child has been really abducted. In some missing child cases, a parents often decide to take a child and if they have custody or are legal parents this is not case of abduction.

Amber alerts are a great way of helping rescue babies who have been kidnapped. Once an alert is made, calls will keep streaming in on people giving useful information or leads. More states thus need to use amber alerts to help them search for missing children. However, at times issuing of amber alert is not always immediate as investigators often have to establish that the children have been kidnapped. Time is always of the essence in an abduction case and even a single minute could make a difference. This is one of the reasons why investigators need to conduct speedy investigation then issue an Amber alert. When there is delayed issue of the Amber alert, harm may at times come on the child for example being killed or a kidnapper getting enough time to escape with the child or cross States making it even harder to track the kidnapper.

One of the ethical issue you have raised is gathering of accurate information. There will be a lot of calls coming in and it is important to decipher between true and false information. At times Amber alerts have been raised only later to realize that the child is not missing. The vital step is to determine if the child has been really abducted. In some missing child cases, a parents often decide to take a child and if they have custody or are legal parents this is not case of abduction. Often investigators will conduct investigations first and determine if a child is really abducted. Other measures that have helped in ensuring rescue of kidnapped children including having sanctions on states that do not cooperate in helping returned children who were kidnapped from America and found in other nations.

In conclusion, it is for a fact that kidnapping is quite a huge issue in the organized crimes. There has been several increase in kidnapping cases although with improvement in technology, recovery of kidnapped victims has become easier. In the 21st century CCTV surveillance, cell phone tracking, use of trackers, AMBER alerts are some of the technological advancements that have been put in place to ensure that missing children are recued.

References

Cushman, B. (2010). Headline Kidnappings and the Origins of the Lindbergh Law. . Louis ULJ, 55, 1293.

Dabbagh, M. (2011). Parental kidnapping in America: An historical and cultural analysis. McFarland.

Detotto, C., McCannon, B. C., & Vannini, M. (2014). Understanding ransom kidnappings and their duration. The BE Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 14(3), 849-871.

Griffin, T., & Miller, M. K. (2008). Child abduction, AMBER alert, and crime control theater. Criminal Justice Review, 33(2), 159-176.

Walters, J., & Davis, P. H. (2011). Human trafficking, sex tourism, and child exploitation on the southern border. Journal of Applied Research on Children, 2(1), 6.

NURSING AND DENTISTRY CAREERS FORMAL REPORT

NURSING AND DENTISTRY CAREERS FORMAL REPORT

NURSING AND DENTISTRY CAREERS FORMAL REPORT

WRITTEN TO EXPOUND ON THE BACKGROUND AND INFORMATION PERTAINING TO THE TWO CAREERS

ABSTRACT

Career choices are crucial for the success of any individual. They virtually outline the course of one’s life, which in turn influences his or her quality of life. This report aims at examining two careers namely, dentistry and nursing. For each of the careers, background information is given, as well as the varied areas of specialization in individual careers. In addition, it outlines the specific things that are incorporated by the careers, as well the educational and training requirements for both careers. To allow for complete comparison of the two careers, the report provides data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics on salaries, as well as employment opportunities and outlook. At the end of the paper, the author has provided a conclusion, as well as recommendations on the career that would be most appropriate in line with the available data, while holding all factors constant.

Introduction

The importance of choosing the right career for any student cannot be gainsaid. In fact, an individual’s choice of career marks the epitome of one’s academic journey and may be directly related to their quality of life. Unfortunately, many are times when an individual does not have a clear idea as to the career choice that they should choose. This is because every career comes with its challenges and unique opportunities or advantages. In essence, it is imperative that one evaluates the opportunities and challenges that career comes with, and align them with his goals. The healthcare sector provides some of the most enviable professions or career. This paper examines two careers in the healthcare sector namely dentistry and nursing. In essence, it examines the backgrounds of the two careers, as well as all aspects that pertain to the careers.

PURPOSE

This completed report has been composed by ABC who has vast experience in the industry. It aims at examining all aspects pertaining to the career, weighing them and giving a recommendation as to the best career from the two choices examined. These aspects include what the careers involve, the employment opportunities and outlook of the examined careers, the categories that both careers incorporate and the typical salaries that specialists in these professions earn, as well as where they work.

SCOPE

This formal report examines the background of the two careers and the responsibilities incorporated by both careers incorporate. In addition, it examines the various areas of specialization incorporated by the two careers as well as the educational and training requirements encompassed by both careers. Moreover, the paper looks at the employment opportunities presented by the two careers and the outlook or rather the growth that is envisaged in both careers, in the coming years. This is done so as to develop a clear picture as to the careers and what they involve so as to compare them meaningfully. In addition, the report examines the salary ranges for both careers, in line with the areas of specialization. This information will form a firm foundation for recommendations and conclusions that have been presented at the end of the paper.

LIMITATIONS

As much as utmost care and effort was put in when compiling the report, it is noteworthy that the author faced some limitations that led to the incorporation of certain assumptions. First, there was limited time to gather data pertaining to certain aspects of these careers in individual states. It is noteworthy that there is no uniformity in the salary or remuneration scales between as well as within individual healthcare institutions, even when the job level is equal. In addition, there was limited data on certain aspects of these careers in certain healthcare institutions. These factors led to the incorporation of certain assumptions, or rather holding all factors constant. In examining these careers, the author used secondary sources of data.

ASSUMPTIONS

Given the limitations that the author faced when compiling this report, it became imperative that certain assumptions be made. Two assumptions were made in this case.

1). The salary scales across similar job levels in the same career are the same irrespective of the institution in which the professionals work or even the state.

2). The educational requirements for individuals in the same areas of specialization are the same irrespective of the state and the institution where one works.

METHODS

In gathering this information, secondary sources of data were examined. These included journals of the healthcare sector and books. These proved to be exceedingly useful in providing an insight as to all the salient aspects pertaining to the careers examined.

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

XYZ

First Hawaiian Centre Suite 567

234 Bishop Street

Honolulu, P16 456576

6th April 2012

ABS, Advisor

Hawaiian College of Management

54656 Dole Street, Honolulu, P1 45656565

Dear Mr. ABS,

As requested on 29th of March 2012, I have enclosed a report containing information pertaining to dentistry and nursing, as well as recommendations on the same.

This formal report examines the various aspects of the two professions including the varied areas of specialisation in an individual career, background and what the careers involve. In addition, it examines the educational and training requirements of the individual careers, especially on the areas of specialisation. For both careers, the report looks at the employment areas and outlook or projections of the employment opportunities in the future and comes up with a typical salary for both careers.

As much as I drew primarily on individual expertise in preparing this report, the opportunity came in handy as it allowed me to examine and review certain aspects of the two careers. Testament to this is the incorporation of some of the best and up-to-date references at the end of this paper. In essence, you can be sure that the information presented is not only the latest but also the best anyone can get.

Utmost care has been taken to ensure completeness in the preparation of this report. However, it is noteworthy that there were certain constraints especially pertaining to time and availability of data required for its preparation. Nevertheless, sufficient information has been provided to safeguard your needs as far as making comparisons and the right judgment on the best career among the two are concerned. In case you need any extra information on the same, please contact me on the phone number provided. It was an honor and pleasure to prepare the report for you. I look forwards to working on a similar or another project with you in the future.

Sincerely,

XYZ,

Director.

DENTISTRY AS A CAREER

Background

Dentistry refers to a health profession where an individual takes care of the gums, teeth, as well as the mouth’s supporting bones. A dentist helps his patients to enhance the well-being and health of their gums and teeth. As much as their main work is the treatment of diseased gums and teeth, they sometimes engage in the detection of the general body diseases that have an impact on the patient’s mouth condition. Currently, there are over 161,000 dentists in the United States, most of whom practice general dentistry. This gives them the capacity to provide all-inclusive care to a wide range of patients.

AREAS OF SPECIALISATION IN THE DENTISTRY PROFESSION

A career in dentistry may involve practicing in one of the 8 specialization areas. There are orthodontists, who engage in straightening of teeth using braces and wires. Endodontists take care of diseases that affect the soft pulp of the teeth, while oral surgeons carry out surgical operations on the jaw and mouth (Bonnie, 2000). Oral pathologists mainly diagnose and treat diseases affecting the mouth while prosthodontists use artificial teeth to replace missing teeth. Periodontists treat gum problems while pedodontists mainly specialize in dentistry for teenagers and children. Lastly, there are public health dentists who are involved in the development of care programs (Bonnie, 2000).

While most dentists provide general dentistry services, which allow them to operate under most of these specialties, there are some dentists who restrict their practice to only one of the eight recognised specialties in the profession.

WHAT DOES DENTISTRY AS A CAREER INVOLVE?

In most cases, dentistry is summarized as involving taking care of dental health of one’s patients. While this may largely be the case, it is noteworthy that dentistry goes beyond involves much more than examining patient’s mouths for sores, swellings, and cavities (Loulou 2000). Dentistry involves the following duties.

Detection of ailments – It is noteworthy that dentists detect ailments that involve the patients’ dental health, as well as that of other body parts. Many are times when they have been the first healthcare professionals to identify and detect oral cancer and even hypertension.

Esthetic improvement- these healthcare professionals improve the appearance of patients by carrying out varied cosmetic dental procedures.

Diagnosis- dentists are involved in the diagnosis and treatment of problems that affect patients’ teeth, tongue, jaws, lips, and gingival tissue. Dentists use varied technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging and scanners to carry out these diagnostic procedures.

Public education on prevention of diseases – this is one of the most unrecognized areas as far as dentistry is concerned. Dentists teach their patients healthy habits that would enhance their dental, as well as general health. This education is aimed at enhancing prevention of oral diseases.

Surgical restoration procedures- dentists are involved in the repair, restoration and maintenance of their patients’ oral tissues, gums and teeth that have been damaged or lost to diseases or accidents. In essence, they perform laser surgery, dental implants and tissue grants.

It is noteworthy that dentists may work in their own offices as general practitioners or a group. More often than not, they have dental hygienists and dental assistants working under them. Their duties may involve the use of power or hand tools (Bonnie, 2000).

EDUCATIONAL AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS FOR DENTISTRY

With the complexity of dentistry career, it is not surprising that one would require between six and eight years of in a dental school after high school prior to working as a dentist. An individual has to complete between two and four years in a dental college before they are admitted into a dental school, depending on one’s area of specialization. In most cases, students will have a bachelor’s degree at the minimum before they enter a dental college. At the dental college, the dental program takes four years, which leads or results to Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD) or a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) degree (Loulou 2000). Any dentist who wishes to specialize in certain areas of dentistry would have to undergo further training for between two and four years.

In all states, dentists are required to be licensed before working as dentists. This involves graduating from approved dental colleges before passing state board examination, after which they become fully licensed (Loulou 2000).

DENTISTRY EMPLOYMENT AND OUTLOOK

Most dentists in the United States work as general dental practitioners. Of the 161,000 dentists who are employed nationwide, 136,000 work as general dental practitioners. The remainder of the dentists specializes as prosthodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, as well as orthodontists among other specialties. A third of all the dentists in the U. S are self employed, while almost all dentists work in private practice. There are projections that the employment of dentists will increase by about 21% from 2010 to 2020. It is noteworthy that complicated dental work will be needed by many baby boomers. There are predictions that the employment of dentists will fall way behind the demand for their services. This is because some areas in the country which still have little or no access to dental services. As much as the number of people seeking dental services is highly dependent on the insurance coverage, it is noteworthy that cosmetic dental services have gained popularity in which case the demand for dental services will still be high (http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Dentists.htm#tab-5).

TYPICAL SALARY OF A DENTIST

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, dentists earn between $71,210 and $166,400 or more per year, depending on the area of specialization. General dental practitioners earn about $118,400 while orthodontists are at the top of the earning ladder with $166,400. Prosthodontists earn approximately $118,400 while maxillofacial and oral surgeons make about $166,400.

NURSING AS A CAREER

CAREER BACKGROUND

The largest part of healthcare provision workforce in the United States is comprised of nurses. They play a tremendously crucial role in clinics, private practices and hospital. Their duties include caring for the patients, communicating between doctors and patients, supervising nurse aids and administering medicine. They mainly work to assist their patients to cope with ailments, promote health, as well as prevent ailments. In the provision of direct patient care, nurses observe, evaluate and make a record of the patient’s reactions, symptoms and progress. Nurses and physicians collaborate to perform examinations and treatments, administer medications, as well as provide direct patient care in rehabilitation and recuperation. It is noteworthy that their working environment is undergoing constant change, in an effort to enhance or improve the quality of health care services, provided to patients (Patricia 2000).

SPECIALTIES IN NURSING AND THEIR REQUISITE EDUCATION AND TRAINING

There are varied specialties in the nursing career including Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs), Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) and Registered Nurses (RNs). Advanced practice nurses have varied titles including Nurse Practitioner (NP), and Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS).

Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs) and Licensed Vocational Nurses (LVNs) are essentially entry-level nurses. Both of them are supervised by Registered Nurses (RNs) since their job duties are comparable. To be an LPN or LVN, one must complete a one-year nursing course in technical schools, hospitals and community colleges, then obtain a license after passing National Council Licensing Examination for Practical Nurses (David et. al 2009).

Registered Nurses must have a bachelor’s degree, associate degree or a diploma in nursing and obtain a license after passing the National Council Licensing Examination for Registered Nurses. As for Advanced Practice Nurses, they must complete a registered nursing course, obtain RN licensure, and then gain some experience while operating as Registered Nurses. They would then enrol for a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) or Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) program (David et. al 2009).

Registered nurses may enrol in RN-to-BSN program if they do not have a Bachelor of Science Nursing (BSN) degree or even earn a bachelor’s degree in any other subject. This is because they would be required to have a bachelor’s degree to enrol for a graduate degree program (David et. al 2009).

CAREER OUTLOOK & OPPORTUNITIES FOR NURSES

As the largest occupation in the healthcare sector, nursing is projected to incorporate one of the largest employment opportunities in the coming years. It is noteworthy that most of the states in the United States have reported, as well as projected a shortage of nurses mainly due to the recent decrease in enrolments, in nursing schools and an aging workforce (David et. al 2009).

Nurses work in varied setting such as hospitals, nursing homes, clinics or offices, public health, home-health, leadership positions as well as occupational nursing. Other types of nurses include travel or agency nurses, who may be found in cruise ships or trains, as well as in military service (Patricia 2000).

In some cases, they may venture on their own and act as consultants and advisors to insurance and healthcare agencies. For individuals who have membership for American Association of Nurse Attorneys, they may practice as defence attorneys and litigators, in academia, private law practice, in healthcare and as legal counsel in healthcare entities. They may also work in research institutions, universities and laboratories as researchers. According to the Bureau of Labour Statistics, there will be an increase in the need for post acute care. In this case, nurses with experience in a wide range of patient care will be in high demand.

TYPICAL SALARY OF A NURSE

On average, nurses earn $31.10 per hour. According to a study carried out in hospitals and healthcare institutions in the United States, a full-time, registered nurse who is hospital-based earns a median annual salary of $44,190 as a basic salary with additional compensation coming from shift differentials. A clinical nurse specialist earns a median basic salary of $95,130 dollars (http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Registered-nurses.htm#tab-5). In most cases, nurses have flexible work schedules, bonuses, child care and educational benefits.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

From the information presented above, it is noteworthy that both careers come with unique opportunities. For example, nursing is applicable in more fields than dentistry, whereas dentistry comes with higher remuneration packages. In essence, it may be difficult to determine the career that would be most appropriate for an individual. However, in all respects, dentistry is more recommendable than nursing. Both careers come with a lot of flexibility as to the work schedule, in which case a professional can choose when to work. However, it is noteworthy that as much as nurses may venture out in their own businesses as consultants they cannot follow their nursing careers on their own. This is unlike dentists, who may venture out in their own businesses as dentists and still maintain their identity as dentists.

In addition, the main reason for following any career is to enhance one’s living standards. When comparing nursing and dentistry, it is evident that dentistry offers the best chance for enhancing the standards of living of an individual when compared with nursing. This is due to the high remuneration packages. As much as one would have to invest more years in education, the time spent is all worth it as far as the difference in remuneration is concerned. It is noteworthy that the fact that there are fewer dentists than nurses does not imply that there is no demand for dentist’s services. In any case, the Bureau for Labor Statistics has projected an increase in demand of dentistry services.

References

Bonnie L. K, 2000. Opportunities in Dental Care Careers. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional

Loulou B, 2000. Careers in Medicine, Dentistry and Mental Health. New York: Kogan Page

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011. Registered Nurses. Pay. Web 6th April 2012. Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Registered-nurses.htm#tab-5Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011. Dentists: pay. Web 6th April 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/ooh/Healthcare/Dentists.htm#tab-5Patricia S. Y, 2003. Leading and managing in nursing. New York: Mosby

David S, Mary S, & Janice F, 2009. Community Health Care Nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons

China’s Internet Censorship

Paper-C2-Individual-Research-Paper

China’s Internet Censorship

China’s internet censorship is not new as it has been in existence since the year 1998. At this time the regulations were not defined as to what was allowed and not allowed to be viewed on the internet. Since then China spent a lot of time, money and man power blocking the free flow of communications and information to its citizens via the World Wide Web. September 2002 gave  birth to the Golden shield projects also known as the great firewall of China. This was a firewall that was built to directly censor and block certain websites and key search words from China citizens. For years the concern for China’s citizens has grown, some state that China’s government is unethical for censoring the internet and the country is robbing the people of their Universal human rights.

Dictionary.com defines unethical as “Lacking moral principles: unwilling to adhere to proper rules of conduct CITATION une14 l 1033 (unethicial , 2014)” On December 10, 1948 The United Nations General Assembly adopted a set of rules that could be looked upon as a set of Universal rules of conduct. These rules are called The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This was composed by a 9 person United Nations Committee. They had drafters from all parts of the world including a drafter from China named Dr. Peng-Chun Chang. Clearly in article number 19 from The Universal Declaration of Human Right states “ Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers (The universal Declaration of Human rights, 2014)” If The Universal Declaration of Human Right is used as proper rules of conduct then by china censoring the internet is clearly unethical by definition. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference. China is taking away the right to have freedom of opinion and expression. They are also interfering with their citizen’s freedom of expression by blocking or filtering the world’s largest information outlet from their citizens.

China’s reasoning for censoring the internet from their citizens comes from a saying that a politician by the name of Deng Xiaoping stated “If you open the window for fresh air, you have to expect some flies to blow in (Fighting China’s Golden Shield: Cisco sued over jailing and torture of dissidents [The Age], 2011)” This statement means that even if you open the doors for good opportunity that there still will be some bad that comes in with the good opportunity. But other sources say that the reason Chinese government started censoring the flow of information to and from the internet was to appease the Communist Party of China which feared the China Democracy Party would breed a powerful new network that the party elites might not be able to control. Some say that the censorship of the internet helps the country oppress its citizens because if they see how jobs and money flows in the western countries they might riot and not give outsourcing factories cheap labor.

The technology that truly changed the internet for all China’s citizens is the Golden shield projects also known as the great firewall of China. It was stated that China has the most sophisticated content-filtering Internet regime in the world. Some methods that the Golden shield projects uses are to block sites are IP blocking, DNS filtering, URL filtering, Packet filtering and connection resets. There is a long list of censored content that ranges from world news websites to pornographic websites. To test out sites that are able to be reached http://www.greatfirewallofchina.org/.

With the thought of the Chinese government censoring the internet from its citizens, the citizens still keep a positive outlook on things. How can they miss what they don’t know is there but many citizens have acquired the knowledge to find their way around the great firewall of china. They use VPN networks that cost them about $100. This tricks the firewall from knowing that the IP address is coming from China so many of the China internet surfers use that as a work-around.

To summarize things censorship of China’s internet started because the Communist Party of China was the superpower and they were scared that by letting the people of China see how the world is really ran that they would riot and the government would have a hard time controlling the citizens. That is when they built the Great firewall of China which includes the devices that China uses to filter what goes in or what can be viewed via the internet. The common internet users in China don’t really mind that they don’t get to see the internet in its full form because they never really had the chance to see what they are really missing. But my personal feeling is that yes it is unethical for the Chinese government to intervene with the flow of information via the internet. All humans should have the right to express their opinion.

Works Cited

BIBLIOGRAPHY (n.d.).

Fighting China’s Golden Shield: Cisco sued over jailing and torture of dissidents [The Age]. (2011, Aug. 17). Retrieved from Wandering China: fighting-chinas-golden-shield-cisco-sued-over-jailing-and-torture-of-dissidents-the-age

The universal Declaration of Human rights. (2014, 02 20). Retrieved from UN.ORG: http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

unethicial . (2014, 02 20). Retrieved from Dictionary.com: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/unethical

UMUC LIB CITED

BEAM, C. (2013). BEHIND CHINA’S CYBER CURTAIN. New Republic, 244(20), 5-8.

Guo, S., & Feng, G. (2012). Understanding Support for Internet Censorship in China: An Elaboration of the Theory of Reasoned Action. Journal of Chinese Political Science, 17(1), 33-52. Doi: 10.1007/s11366-011-9177-8

REVIEW OF MENDEL’S LAW OF INHERITANCE, HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM, AND DNA FORENSICS

REVIEW OF MENDEL’S LAW OF INHERITANCE, HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM, AND DNA FORENSICS

Biology 332 BIOINFORMATICS

EXERCISE 6. STR, AND DNA FORENSICS (CODIS)

REVIEW OF MENDEL’S LAW OF INHERITANCE, HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM, AND DNA FORENSICS

DNA forensics has become an important tool to solve social problems in modern times. Part of the power of this technology lies in providing robust statistical values to refute or support statements of guilt, paternity, ancestry, and identity. To fully understand the technology, it is imperative to understand the ideas and principles that form the biological basis of its power. The first two ideas came from Gregor Mendel (1865): the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment. It describes how you inherit your genes and how genetic diversity is generated. The second idea is the Hardy –Weinberg Equilibrium which describes how genetic materials as genotypes and alleles are structured in a population. Your instructor will give a brief discussion on these ideas.

To determine whether evolution has occurred, the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium is utilized by population geneticist. This formula is based on Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance and could allow us to track the pattern of allelic and genotypic frequency changes over time. This is also the theoretical foundation of modern DNA forensic analysis. A short lecture by the instuctor will allow to understand how this is done.

Any changes in the gene frequencies in the population over time can be detected. The law states that if no evolution is occurring, then an equilibrium of allele frequencies will remain in effect in each succeeding generation of sexually reproducing individuals. In order for equilibrium to remain in effect (i.e. that no evolution is occurring) then the following five conditions must be met:

No mutations must occur so that new alleles do not enter the population.

No gene flow can occur (i.e. no migration of individuals into, or out of, the population).

Random mating must occur (i.e. individuals must pair by chance)

The population must be large so that no genetic drift (random chance) can cause the allele frequencies to change.

No selection can occur so that certain alleles are not selected for, or against.

Obviously, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium cannot exist in real life. Some or all of these types of forces all act on living populations at various times and evolution at some level occurs in all living organisms. The Hardy-Weinberg formulas allow us to detect some allele frequencies that change from generation to generation, thus allowing a simplified method of determining that evolution is occurring. There are two formulas that must be memorized:

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 and p + q = 1

p = frequency of the dominant allele in the population
q = frequency of the recessive allele in the population

p2 = percentage of homozygous dominant individuals
q2 = percentage of homozygous recessive individuals
2pq = percentage of heterozygous individuals

For a multiple allele system, or a gene with three (3) alleles in a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium., the allelic frequency is

P + q + r =1

And the genotypic frequency equation would be:

P2 + 2pq + q2 + 2pr + 2qr + r2 = 1.0

INTRODUCTION TO STR

DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us. In fact, the study of forensics, commonly used by police departments and prosecutors around the world, frequently relies upon these small bits of shed DNA to link criminals to the crimes they commit. This fascinating science is often portrayed on popular television shows as a simple, exact, and infallible method of finding a perpetrator and bringing him or her to justice. In truth, however, teasing out a DNA fingerprint and determining the likelihood of a match between a suspect and a crime scene is a complicated process that relies upon probability to a greater extent than most people realize. Government-administered DNA databases, such as the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), do help speed the process, but they also bring to light complex ethical issues involving the rights of victims and suspects alike. Thus, understanding the ways in which DNA evidence is obtained and analyzed, what this evidence can tell investigators, and how this evidence is used within the legal system is critical to appreciating the true ethical and legal impact of forensic genetics.

How Does DNA Identification Work?

Although the overwhelming majority of the human genome is identical across all individuals, there are regions of variation. This variation can occur anywhere in the genome, including areas that are not known to code for proteins. Investigation into these noncoding regions reveals repeated units of DNA that vary in length among individuals. Scientists have found that one particular type of repeat, known as a short tandem repeat (STR), is relatively easily measured and compared between different individuals. In fact, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has identified 13 core STR loci that are now routinely used in the identification of individuals in the United States, and Interpol has identified 10 standard loci for the United Kingdom and Europe. Nine STR loci have also been identified for Indian populations.

As its name implies, an STR contains repeating units of a short (typically three- to four-nucleotide) DNA sequence. The number of repeats within an STR is referred to as an allele. For instance, the STR known as D7S820, found on chromosome 7, contains between 5 and 16 repeats of GATA. Therefore, there are 12 different alleles possible for the D7S820 STR. An individual with D7S820 alleles 10 and 15, for example, would have inherited a copy of D7S820 with 10 GATA repeats from one parent, and a copy of D7S820 with 15 GATA repeats from his or her other parent. Because there 12 different alleles for this STR, there are therefore 78 different possible genotypes, or pairs of alleles. Specifically, there are 12 homozygotes, in which the same allele is received from each parent, as well as 66 heterozygotes, in which the two alleles are different.

The Statistical Strength of a 13-STR Profile

Within the U.S., the 13-STR profile is a widely used means of identification, and this technology is now routinely employed to identify human remains, to establish or exclude paternity, or to match a suspect to a crime scene sample.

In order to utilize STR information as a means of human identification, the FBI established the frequency with which each allele of each of the 13 core STRs naturally occurs in people of different ethnic backgrounds. To this end, the FBI analyzed DNA samples from hundreds of unrelated Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian individuals. Assuming that all 13 STRs follow the principle of independent assortment (and they should, as they are scattered widely across the genome) and that the population randomly mates, a statistical calculation based upon the FBI-determined STR allele frequencies reveals that the probability of two unrelated Caucasians having identical STR profiles, or so-called “DNA fingerprints,” is approximately 1 in 575 trillion (Reilly, 2001).

This very small number needs to be put into perspective. Note that this figure refers to pairs of people, and there are many pairs of people in the world. Indeed, for the 100 million Caucasians in the world, there are 5,000 trillion pairs of people, so roughly eight or nine pairs would be expected to match at the 13 STR loci. This predicted matching does not specify which profile is shared by two people, and the chance that anyone matches the particular profile associated with a crime is still very small. The distinction between two people sharing a profile and one person having a particular profile is an example of the so-called “birthday problem.” Here, the probability that a person has a particular birthday is 1 in 365, ignoring February 29, but there is a 50% chance that two people in a random group of 23 people have the same unspecified birthday (Weir, 2007).

Location of the 13 STR sequences on human chromosomes. DNA sequence of one of the STRs used by CODIS

The number of repeats determines the allele identity. This STR has 12 repeats of the sequence AGAT and is named allele 12. The allele for this STR having 13 repeats is named allele 13.

Does the DNA Databank System Help Solve Crimes?

The current DNA database maintained by the FBI, known as the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), contains case samples (DNA samples from crime scenes or “rape kits”) and individuals’ samples (collected from convicted felons or arrestees) that are compared automatically by the system’s software as new samples are entered. As of February 2007, CODIS had produced over 45,400 “hits,” which assisted in more than 46,300 investigations (Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.). However, contrary to how DNA analysis is portrayed on popular television shows, DNA samples are not analyzed within the course of an hour. Rather, the U.S. currently has an enormous backlog of samples waiting to be typed and entered into the database. Some of these samples are from cases that have outlasted their statutes of limitation, so even if these samples could help solve a crime, the crime can no longer be tried.

This delay brings up the dilemma of the validity of statutes of limitation. These statutes were established at a time when large quantities of physical evidence were required to match a suspect to a sample and when extended time periods significantly decreased law enforcement’s ability to find a match, as well as the likelihood of successful prosecution. With the advent of DNA databanks and the possibility of storing samples indefinitely, the very notion of a statute of limitation now seems extremely outdated.

Of course, there are many other debatable issues concerning DNA banking. For instance, should the original tissue sample be stored indefinitely after the DNA profile has been entered into the database? Detractors note threats to genetic privacy, but proponents argue that future DNA typing methods will undoubtedly be developed and that old samples might have to be reanalyzed using new techniques. Also at issue is the reopening of old cases on the basis of new (DNA-based) evidence. Which cases should be eligible for reanalysis in light of this new evidence? Can equitable rules be established to allow reexamination of cases that were analyzed with less powerful lab techniques? Further public awareness of the power of DNA forensic technology will help lawmakers decide these issues in a way that seeks to strike a balance between protecting individuals’ genetic privacy and protecting innocent citizens from crime.

METHOD

SOLVING POPULATION GENETICS PROBLEMS

PROBLEM #1. You have sampled a population in which you know that the percentage of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa) is 36%. Using that 36%, calculate the following:

The frequency of the “aa” genotype.

The frequency of the “a” allele.

The frequency of the “A” allele.

The frequencies of the genotypes “AA” and “Aa.”

The frequencies of the two possible phenotypes if “A” is completely dominant over “a.”

PROBLEM #2. Sickle-cell anemia is an interesting genetic disease. Normal homozygous individials (SS) have normal blood cells that are easily infected with the malarial parasite. Thus, many of these individuals become very ill from the parasite and many die. Individuals homozygous for the sickle-cell trait (ss) have red blood cells that readily collapse when deoxygenated. Although malaria cannot grow in these red blood cells, individuals often die because of the genetic defect. However, individuals with the heterozygous condition (Ss) have some sickling of red blood cells, but generally not enough to cause mortality. In addition, malaria cannot survive well within these “partially defective” red blood cells. Thus, heterozygotes tend to survive better than either of the homozygous conditions. If 9% of an African population is born with a severe form of sickle-cell anemia (ss), what percentage of the population will be more resistant to malaria because they are heterozygous (Ss) for the sickle-cell gene?

PROBLEM #3. There are 100 students in a class. Ninety-six did well in the course whereas four blew it totally and received a grade of F. Sorry. In the highly unlikely event that these traits are genetic rather than environmental, if these traits involve dominant and recessive alleles, and if the four (4%) represent the frequency of the homozygous recessive condition, please calculate the following:

The frequency of the recessive allele.

The frequency of the dominant allele.

The frequency of heterozygous individuals.

PPROBLEM # 4. In a population of 1000 under Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium, if p2 = AA and has 100 individuals, q2 = BB and has an unknown number of individuals, and r2 = CC and has 16 individuals, estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of that population. How many individuals would be heterozygote AB? How many would be BC?

PART B

GIVEN THE FBI STR ALLELIC FREQUENCY DATABASE ASSIGNED TO YOU, CALCULATE THE MATCH PROBABILTY BASED ON THREE STR LOCI ASSIGNED TO YOU AND DESCRIBE WHAT IT MEANS IN THE COURT OF LAW (in terms of the perfect match between the DNA evidence found and the suspect’s DNA).

REFERENCES

Mendel, G. 1865. Versuche über Plflanzenhybriden. (Experiments in Hybridization). Verhandlungen des naturforschenden Vereines in Brünn, Bd. IV für das Jahr 1865, Abhandlungen, 3–47.

Norrgard, K. 2008. Forensics, DNA fingerprinting, and CODIS. Nature EdUcaiton 1:35.

CHOICE 1. Name : __________________________________

Calculate match probability value P for each of the following locus and the total match probability.

Locus TH01 alleles 6, 7 SE Hispanics

Locus D22S1045 alleles 10, 11 SE Hispanics

Locus D2S441 alleles 13 , 14 SE Hispanics

CHOICE 2

Calculate match probability value P for each of the following locus and the total match probability.

Locus D3S1358 alleles 13, 13 Caucasian

Locus D8S1179 alleles 12, 15 Caucasian

Locus DYS391 alleles 9, 10 Caucasian

Bottle feeding Vs Breastfeeding

Part 1 Bottle feeding Vs Breastfeeding

Bottle feeding Vs Breastfeeding

Bottle Feeding

Bottle feeding is the substitute method for the breastfeeding. Most mothers who are not able to breastfeed or would want to provide formula milk together with breastfeeding choose the bottle feeding method for their babies (Arora, 2019). This method has some its pros and cons. One of the pros of bottle feeding is that either of the parents can feed the baby. Feeding is known to be an essential bonding moment and breastfeeding does not provide the mother to the baby the opportunity of bonding with the baby. Bottle feeding thus provides the father, siblings, or even other family members to spend time with the newborns (Arora, 2019). Secondly, bottle feeding provides an easy way of tracking the intake of the newborn. It is never an easy task to know how much milk the baby should drink while breastfeeding. Bottle feeding, however, makes it possible to find out the quantity of milk the newborn takes daily (Arora, 2019). Furthermore, when using bottle feeding, the mother does not have to worry about a low supply of breast milk. Notably, most mothers worry that the baby would be underfed due to insufficient milk supply. This results in most women resorting to bottle feeding. This makes sure that the newborn gets enough milk that is required I growth and development (Arora, 2019).

Despite the pros of bottle feeding, this method of feeding also has its disadvantages. Firstly, formula milk is less nutritious compared to breast milk. Breast milk contains all the nutrients required by a newborn to develop and grow. It is also light for their stomach. Bottle feeding, therefore, increases the risk of obesity in newborns (Arora, 2019). Secondly, bottle feeding equipment is an additional expense. It requires the purchase of feeding bottles, sterilizers, and cleaning brushes if a bottle-feeding formula is chosen. These are forms of added expenses (Arora, 2019). Furthermore, bottle-feeding affects the bond between the mother and the baby. The skin-to-skin contact lacks in bottle feeding therefore the bonding between the newborn and the mother is hampered (Arora, 2019).

Breastfeeding

This is the act of feeding a newborn with milk directly from the breast (Murray, 2020). This method has its pro and cons. One of the pros of breastfeeding is that the method is convenient. Breastfeeding is the perfect way of supplying the newborn with optimal nutrition at perfect temperatures. There are no worries about the bottle cleaning up before and after feedings or heating formula or even preparing (Murray, 2020). Secondly, breastfeeding is economical. The method saves a lot of money as self-nursing the newborn eradicates the need of buying bottles or milk supplies. It keeps the children healthier thus reducing medical costs for the sick infant (Murray, 2020). Furthermore, breastfeeding is benefits breastfeeding mothers, where breastfeeding women recover faster from childbirth compared to those who bottle feed. This method also reduces breast and ovarian cancer risks (Murray, 2020).

One disadvantage of breastfeeding is that it can be painful. Breastfeeding mothers sometimes encounter painful and uncomfortable problems associated with breastfeeding. These include blisters, mastitis, or sore nipples (Murray, 2020). Secondly, breastfeeding requires healthy lifestyle choices. Breastfeeding mothers have to think about their lifestyle or diet while breastfeeding. Babies have different reactions to different foods in the mother’s diet. Breastfeeding moms would therefore stop consuming dairy foods or other items that they enjoy (Murray, 2020). The third con of breastfeeding is that not everyone can feed the baby. The rest of the family, siblings, or the father cannot be involved in feeding the newborn. This may make more so the partner feels like missing out on the breastfeeding connection (Murray, 2020).

References

Arora, M. (2019). 14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Bottle Feeding. FirstCry Parenting. Retrieved 5 October 2022, from https://parenting.firstcry.com/articles/bottle-feeding-advantages-and-disadvantages/.

Harris, N. (2022). A New Parent’s Guide to Estimating How Many Diapers You Need and What They’ll Cost. Parents. Retrieved 5 October 2022, from https://www.parents.com/parenting/money/saving/save-money-and-build-a-diaper-stockpile/.

Murray, D. (2020). The Pros and Cons of Breastfeeding. Verywell Family. Retrieved 5 October 2022, from https://www.verywellfamily.com/what-are-the-pros-and-cons-of-breastfeeding-431895#:~:text=Women%20who%20breastfeed%20tend%20to,cardiovascular%20disease%20as%20you%20age.

Simpn, J. (2022). The Cost of Baby Formula – SmartAsset. SmartAsset. Retrieved 5 October 2022, from https://smartasset.com/financial-advisor/the-cost-of-baby-formula.