Briefly answer each question 1 - 5 sentences 

Define the term acclimatization and give examples.

List the three substances involved in the mechanisms that alter skin pigmentation.

State the major world region whose indiginous populations have a skin pigmentation ranking of (1-12).

What generalization can be made about geographic pigment distributions among indiginous populations of the world across latitudes from the equator northward?

List three aspects that must be considered regarding the harmful effects of UV radiation from sunlight when viewed from the perspective of human evolution.

State and explain two hypotheses about the evolution of lightly pigmented peoples indigenous to more northerly latitudes.

Provide two possible explanations for the evolution of darkly pigmented skin in tropical regions.

List the physiological responses of humans to cold stress.

Name the universal and most efficient human physiological response to heat stress

Explain how this response aids in maintaining body temperature.

Name two dangerous limitations of this response for humans

Provide a definition and an explanation for Bergman's rule and Allen's rule.

List the more individually permanent acclimatizations that develop in human populations in response to low oxygen pressure in high altitude environments. List at least four (4) mechanisms in your answer.

Provide a definition for each of the following words used in connection with the phenomenon of disease: zoonotic; vectors; endemic; and pathogens.

Distinguish each of the following regarding their impact on human variation and adaptation: Part (A) tuberculosis; Part (B) smallpox; Part (C) the disease known as AIDS; and Part (D) malaria.

What does recent genetic research indicate regarding selective forces and HIV?

What is the most probable explanation for the transmission of HIV to humans?