Biology -Which statement best describes epigenetics

Subject: Biology    / General Biology
Question
EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING EXAM QUESTIONS
1) 2017 – 31 Questions Which statement best describes epigenetics?

A) Altering DNA polymerase activity by addition of
methyl groups to glycine residues
B) Altering RNA polymerase activity
by DNA methylation
C) Altering translational activity, especially of highly methylated tRNAs
D) Changes in DNA-DNA hydrogen binding by DNA
methylation

2)
Markerassisted breeding (selection) is different from conventional selection
breeding in that….
Select all that apply
A) Markerassisted is slower than conventional selection due to the genetic manipulation and
genetic testing technologies
B) Markerassisted selection is not limited to the genes already available to the plant
like
conventional breeding selection
C) Markerassisted allows the selection of the target plant earlier in its development
without waiting for the selected phenotype to appear as in conventional selective
breeding
D) Markerassisted selection reduces the time to produce a new plant line as compared
to
conventional selective breeding

3) What factors influence the epigenome? Select all that apply.
A) Environmental toxins
B) Stress
C) Motherly nurturing
D) Diet
E) Parental inheritance

4)
A) That
B) That
C) That
D) That In the photo 51 made by Rosalind Franklin, what does the “X” patterndescribe? the sugar phosphate backbone lies on the outside of the nitrogenous
the adjacent nucleotides lie 3.4nm apart
the molecule is helical
there are 10 nucleotide pairs to each turn bases EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING

5) 2017 Identical twin girls are NOT identical because of… Select all that apply A) Genomic imprinting
B) Epigenetics
C) X inactivation
D) None of the above –they are identical
6) Which of the following is NOT true of DNA methylation?
A) It is
associated with transcription repression
B) It occurs on cytosines adjacent to guanines
C) Cytosines on both strands
are usually methylated
D) It is carried out by DNA methyltransferases
E) Methylation is permanent and cannot be reversed
7) Based upon Frederick Griffith’s 1928 experiment, which statement would be a valid
conclusion
A) When an organism dies, the DNA changes; it no longer provides the same genetic
information
B) When the DNA from one
organism is transferred to another organism, the DNA no longer
functions
C) DNA in different types of bacteria carry exactly the same type of information
D)When DNA from one organism is transferred to another organism, it can give new traits
to the second organism 8) Which of the following observations can be supported by the data in the table.
Select all that apply. EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING 2017 A) The total length of
DNA molecules in all organisms is about the same
B) Larger organisms have greater amounts of each nitrogenous base than smaller
organisms have
C) In each organism, the proportion of adenine is the same as the proportion of thymine in
the DNA
D) The proportions of adenine + thymine and guanine + cytosine is the same in all
organisms.
9) Based upon the Genetic Conflict Hypothesis, maternally imprinted genes would… A) Tend to increase fetal growth
B) Have effect only in female fetal growth
C) Have no effect on fetal growth
D) Tend to decrease fetal growth
10)
Restriction endonucleases that produce “sticky” ends are the best for recombinant
DNA technologies. What makes an end sticky?
A) Poly A sequences
B) 5’ cap
C) double stranded blunt tails
D) single stranded complementary tails
11) Royal jelly creates queen bees by… EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING 2017 A) Inhibiting Dnmt3 by increasing its DNA methylation
B) Inhibiting Dnmt3 by decreasing its DNA methylation
C) Activating Dnmt3 by increasing its DNA methylation
D) Activating Dnmt3 by decreasing its DNA methylation
12)
The human insulin gene contains a number of sequences (introns) that are
removed (excised) in the processing of the mRNA transcript. In the recombinant
plasmid with the human insulin geneinsert, these sequences (introns) have been
removed. Why would a genetic engineer do this?
A) They don’t
have to, it just makes it easier for the bacteria to produce the protein
B) Bacteria cells used
in biotechnology have been genetically engineered so that they are
able to excise introns
C) Bacterial cells cannot remove introns and would produce a mutant insulin protein
containing the introns
D) They don’t
have to, plasmids containing insulin genes from genomic DNA are void
of introns
13)
What about the DNA molecule allows for
daughter cells? methylation patterns to be passed onto A) Semiconservative replication
B) Recombination and repair
C) The absence of uracil
D) Hydrogen bonding
E) Histone wrapping
14)
A) To
B) To
C) To
D) To
E) To The role of the primers in PCR is…. Select all that apply define the target region
denature the template
DNA
provide a 3’ end for the polymerase
provide a 5’ end for the polymerase
maintain the annealing temperature until the polymerase is finished 15)
What role does DNA ligase perform in DNA biotechnology? How does the action
of DNA ligase differ from the function of restriction enzymes?
Select all that apply EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING 2017 A)
DNA ligase has a specific DNA recognition sequence, while restriction enzymes
do not B) DNAligase generates recombinant DNA by joining two different DNA
molecules, while restriction enzymes convert long stretches of double stranded DNA
into shorter pieces of double stranded DNA
C) DNA ligase generates hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs, while restriction
enzymes breaks those bonds
D) DNA ligase generates the covalent bonds of the phosphodiester backbone, while restriction
enzymes break those bonds
16)
In the Mystery Solved by Coble et al., what genetic information was used
finalize the mystery of the Romanovs?
Select all that apply. to A) mtDNA
B) Autosomal
STRs
C) Hemoglobin gene sequencing
D) Y
chromosome STRs
E) Sex
typing markers
17)
An earth quake rocked Italy in 2016. A mother in the US lost
contact
with
her son who had been traveling in Italy with a friend. Two bodies were recovered from the
hotel that collapsed and the mother submitted a blood sample for DNA analysis. Partial DNA
profiles were generated for all three. Is there a likelihood that one of these unknown victims is
her son? Use the DNA Fingerprints images below.
A) Yes, it is victim 1
B) Yes, it is victim 2
C) Neither victim is her son
D) No,
you cannot tell from this information EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING 2017 18)
What element(s) were instrumental in the production of domesticated maize from
its progenitor teosinte?
A) The
B) The
C) The
D) The selection of 100’s of genes through selective breeding
generation and selection of polyploid
teosinte
crossing of teosinte with another maize progenitor
selection of a few regulatory genes EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING 19) 2017 What was the first commercial variety of banana wiped out by Panama Disease? A) Cavendish
B) Goldfinger
C) French Green
D) Gros Michel
20)
A) Are
B) Are
C) Are
D) A
E) A
F) A
21) Imprinted genes:
an example of epigenetic inheritance
near differentially methylated regions
only transmitted by one parent
and B
and C
and B and C
What is the disadvantage of non-viral vectors in gene therapy? A) No
limit to the size of the gene insert
B) Doesn’t illicit an immune
response
C) Low efficiency of gene transfer
D) Integrates
into genome consistently
22) What is a Round Up Ready crop? A) Plants that have been genetically engineered to be resistance to grain loss during
harvesting increasing the yield by decreasing harvest loss in the field
B) Plants that have been genetically engineered to express a protein that kills
caterpillars
increasing
yield through reduction of herbivory
C) Plants that have been genetically engineered to be resistant to freezing temperatures
expanding their geographic range and increasing yield
D) Plants that have been genetically engineered to be herbicide resistant increasing
yield
through reduction of weed competition
23)
The production of knock-out mice is via homologous recombination. How can you
identify cells that have been generated via non-homologous recombination? EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING 2017 A) You cannot tell homologous and non-homologous recombination cells apart until after
the pups are tested with PCR or Southern Blot Hybridization
B) Non-homologous recombination results in the insert of
a positive and negative
selection marker
C) Non-homologous recombination results in the insert of
only the
positive
selection marker
D) Only homologous
recombination can occur because the DNA is site directed
24)
Which of the following is considered an advantage to using Herpes Simplex Virus
for human gene therapy?
Select all that apply
A) They do not integrate into the host genome which could possibly cause cancer
B) They can carry large pieces of DNA
C) They can produce a strong immune response
D) They do not integrate into host genome so the effects are temporal and not long lasting
25)
In Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated gene transfer, the cloned gene
interest is inserted where in the Ti plasmid? of A) Anywhere in the plasmid
B) Cloned genes are not inserted into the plasmid
C) Within the
T-DNA
D) Within the virulence genes
26) What are challenges of gene therapy? Select all A) Delivery of
target gene to
B) Maintenance of
target gene
C) Immune response
to
viral
D) Genome site integration of target 27) that apply cell
activity
vector
gene How can the bacterial CRISPR system be utilized to modify DNA in the nucleus? A) Use a virus to inject DNA into cell and expose to
bacterium
B) Change the guide RNA to match target DNA in the nucleus with CRISPR EXAM BIOL 8430
NAME ___________________________________ SPRING
2017
C) Use restriction endonucleases modified in the bacterium
D) Change the clustered repeats in bacterium
28)
cell?
A) The
B) The
C) The
D) The When Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a plant cell what is transferred to the plant Ti plasmid
entire bacterium enters the plant cell
virulence genes
T-DNA

29)
Which are equally related in terms of human mtDNA sequence? Select all that
apply
A) Mother and son
B) Nephew and maternal aunt
C) Niece and
maternal uncle
D) Grandchild
and maternal grandmother
E) Father and
daughter

30)
In the production of knock-out mouse lines, how can researchers identify F0 mouse
pups that have cells containing the modified gene insert?
A) Use of PCR to identify the gene of interest in the pup
B) Multicolored fur from two different cell lines
C) Protein translational analysis to identify the mutant gene
D) mRNA transcription analysis to identify the knock-out gene

31) Why is gene editing technology more controversial than gene therapy technology? A) Gene editing can produce
heritable genetic change whereas gene therapy cannot
B) Gene therapy can
produce heritable genetic change where gene editing cannot
C) Gene editing can produce
enhanced modification whereas gene therapy cannot
D) Gene therapy can produce enhanced modification whereas gene editing cannot EXAM BIOL 8430