Descartes believed that reason is a gift every human being poses and that knowledge cannot be only be attained by books

Descartes believed that reason is a gift every human being poses and that knowledge cannot be only be attained by books

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Philosophy

Question oneDescartes believed that reason is a gift every human being poses and that knowledge cannot be only be attained by books, but through the application of reasoning. His books presented complex scientific and philosophical ideas in a way that only the least sophisticated readers could understand. Due to his believe that every human being possessed the gift of reason, he believed that every human being would understand his arguments in his books. He at sometimes wrote his books in French and not in Latin so that people with formal education could easily understand him. In his evil demon conjecture, he stated that an evil demon is capable of tricking us to believe that the world we all perceive with all our senses is real. However, even in such instances, there is no one point when a human being is not thinking and due to these thinking, then human beings exist (Cogito ergo sum).Question twoSpinoza believed that there existed no dualism between God and the whole world. There is no need of people going beyond the present experience to seek for a being existing outside it. He said that God moves and often lived in nature. The entire universe is god. Nature or God can be interpreted as its own cause and is often self sufficient. Man in his egoistic ways has tried in all ways to imagine that God is like him and that GOD acts in the interest of man at all times. However, according to him, God does not love or hate. The nature of God is different from us and from our dreams and aspirations or interests. Therefore, human beings should stop equating themselves from God because He is infinite and self sufficient. There is no way man can equate themselves to God because God is above everything. He created everything in the universe himself.Question threeIn his theory to be is to be perceived, Berkeley concludes that all that individuals know about an object is only the perception of it. Individuals rarely think or know an object unless it is perceived by the mind. Since individuals are capable of perceiving other human beings in the way that they speak, he can only believe in their existence and in the whole world being identical to every individual. Thus, the assumption is that the world is analyzed with all the five senses and it often impossible to perceive the world without the five senses. We cannot make sense of an object or situation unless we perceive it. This theory was criticized by many due to the fact that he said we can only know an object by perceiving it. Question fourHe did not believe in innate ideas that an individual is born with. He said that our minds are often in a blank state. Experiences through senses and all our reflections filled this slate. He came up with distinction of simple and complex ideas. Simple ideas are those ideas originating from the senses which cannot be broken down. Complex ideas, on the other hand, are a combination of all simple ideas. From these two ideas, one could know the primary and all the secondary qualities of an object. All objects have specific attributes that may fall in either the primary or the secondary qualities. Primary qualities are found in the object and are objective because they are perceived by almost every individual. Secondary qualities are all attributes that the perceiver brings to the object. These are subjective because everyone brings different qualities to the objects. Thus, his theory of representative realism came from all these ideas. The world represents the entire external world but does not necessarily duplicate it. Instead of experiencing the world first hand, we first experience it indirectly via representations.Question fiveLeibniz explained that the world is made of infinity of many simple substances known as the monads which were characteristic of his rationalistic views. Aggregates are built from these simple things which according to him are elements of all true reality. Simple substances were incapable of being created or destroyed. Thus, Leibniz entails that monads are composites which are classified as a collection of simples. These simples cannot be broken down of their constituent parts due to their smaller magnitude thus they are true atoms of nature. This means that they are the main constituents of our universe due to them lacking parts. Due to this, they are the only true identities. These monads must possess certain qualities or they cease to exist. Due to their unique status, they must possess qualities different from other monads.Question sixHume asks us to consider what impression brings about our conception of the self. Human beings tend to perceive themselves as selves- independent and stable entities existing over time. However, no matter how hard we examine our own personal experiences, we do not observe anything that is beyond our feelings, sensations and also our impressions. It is impossible to observe ourselves in a unified way. There is no particular binding that brings our specific impressions together. We can never be aware of ourselves but only aware of our experiences at a certain time. Thus, the self is only a bundle of perceptions. This may be due to our attribution of our existence to a collection of associated parts. This belief is mainly natural with no known logical explanation.Question seven

Hume made an observation that many people acknowledge a conjunction between two events. However, there is no way to establish a connection. This makes him argue against the concept of cause and effect. People assume that one thing causes another, but there is also the possibility that one event does not cause another. He claims that causation is only a question of association which is unfounded and also a meaningless belief. When we experience two events following each other repeatedly, we tend to associate them with cause and effect and this is only logical. The instinctive belief of causality is rooted in our biological concepts such that it is very difficult to erase. By accepting out limitations, we can deal with this situation by functioning without abandoning all our beliefs about cause and effect.Question eightKant achieves the Copernican revolution by turning all his focus of philosophy from metaphysical speculation of the reality nature to critically examining the nature of the thinking and the perceiving mind. He acknowledges that reality is a joint that creates external reality and the human mind. We can only acquire knowledge by regarding the latter. To solve the problem presented by Hume, he rubbishes the idea that the mind is a blank state. The mind not only receives information but also shapes the acquired information. Knowledge is, therefore, not something that is created externally and then introduced into the mind. Rather, it is created by the mind by filtering various sensations using the faculties of our mind. Thus, individuals only grasp knowledge in its general form informing our experiences.Question nineIf Hume’s arguments are true, then science and knowledge have implications in general. This is because science tends to make us believe that events occur in conjunction. Science makes us tend to believe in causation and effect. This can be detrimental to human beings because even in the events where causation and effect relationship does not exist, people will only believe in their existence because science suggests so. On the other hand, knowledge may inhibit an individual from believing in their perception. An individual with a considerable level of knowledge will tend to believe that they are independent entities. This is not right according to Hume because our personal experiences originate from our senses.Question tenTo exist independently means that one is stable alone without the help of others. Individuals do not have necessarily to depend on any other person’s ideas or perceptions. What other people tend to perceive us or say about us does not bother us. Individuals tend to think of themselves in a certain way and that is how they live for the rest of their lives. What other scholars have written or what other individuals close to us say is not put into much consideration. Every individual can operate on their own with what they perceive as right according to their own ethical beliefs.

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Derive. My companion and I set off in a random direction and walked down the commercial street.

Derive. My companion and I set off in a random direction and walked down the commercial street.

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Derive

My companion and I set off in a random direction and walked down the commercial street. The street was busy and the air smelled stuffy. These activities reminded me of the times when I used to work in the mall. I felt quite uncomfortable especially when I saw a White lady shouting at a young Asian lady to stop staring at the passers by and concentrate on serving the clients. We entered the mall and the smells we encountered were of new clothes. These were being unpacked and put on the shelves. The respective smells reminded me of the days when I was young. My mother used to take me shopping and would buy me almost everything that I wanted. This feeling became better when we passed by a cosmetic shop and smelled my mother’s cologne. For a moment, I felt that I was in company of my mother and relaxed a bit.

We then proceeded to the central park where we met so many people resting on benches. Most of them looked tired because of the hot and humid weather. We spoke to a young African American lady who looked a little bit frustrated. She informed that her mother had just passed on she was feeling a little bit distressed. The park was well kept and had litter bins in almost all places. Landscaping was also well done and the place generally looked beautiful. This heightened our emotions a bit and we proceeded to the next commercial building. The building was filled with the smell of disinfectant. It was already five o’clock and since most of the occupants were leaving, it was being cleaned. This smell reminded me of a hospital environment. Only that in the later, the smell of disinfectant was mixed with that of medicine. The cleaner that we spoke to told us that he was not satisfied with this work because it always made him feel sick.

Reflection

At this point, it is certain that my previous personal experience greatly influenced my perception of space. Notably, when I entered the mal, I assumed that the place is crowded and very busy because previously, I worked in a mall under similar circumstances. This made me to feel very tired and considered the place to be unworthy of exploring further. Notably, the smell of disinfectant made me to remember the hospital because I had smelled the respective disinfectant in the hospital. This made me to make certain presumptions about the cleaner regarding his lack of satisfaction with his profession. This turned out to be true as the cleaner affirmed that his work made him to feel sick.

To a great extent, my racial and gender beliefs influenced the decisions that we made with regards to interviewing certain individuals. In the mall, I only saw an Asian lady being shouted at by her boss and not a White lady. In addition, I only say an African American woman in the park feeling distressed and decided to interview her. This does not imply that there were no White men in the park looking tired or frustrated. My racial and gender beliefs made me to consider the abovementioned individuals to be requiring more attention and to possibly be more troubled than the later. The relief that I felt after smelling my mother’s cologne can also be attributed to the relationship that I share with her. Whenever I think of her or come in contact with anything that reminds me of her, I feel comfortable and safe.

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Describe a variety of assessment tools including interest, abilityintellectual level, achievement level

Describe a variety of assessment tools including interest, abilityintellectual level, achievement level

Assessment Tools

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Describe a variety of assessment tools including interest, ability/intellectual level, achievement level, and personality type assessments. At least 4 assessment tools must be chosen for each category in the previous sentence. Include a short description of each tool.

Personality type assessments- are tools used to determine the characteristics of a person, one of the tools is the aptitude test that measures how efficiently one can perform in their particular area (Hensen, 2004).

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MMTIC) assessment can assist children to comprehend themselves better, and give parents and teachers better ways and methods to reach children with different learning styles.

Insight Inventory is another tool that can evaluate personality; it provides a common sense format of balanced view of behavior. Self-scored within minutes, Participants adopt important behavior skills, including how to adjust their style to manage conflict, and improve on team work (Hensen, 2004).

Human metrics Jung Typology Test- uses methods, questionnaires, scores and software appropriate to Human metrics. This is based on Carl Jung’s and Isabel Briggs Myers’ typological research on personality coupled with strengths of preferences and the description of one’s personality.

The Personality Questionnaire for Kids- helps to evaluate how a child views the world. This can be used to determine how they will respond to external stimuli and change in environment for instance change in school (Aiken, 2002).

Interest can be assessed by

The 16PF interest test- measures the interest of an individual based on self reporting, it is usually conducted without the knowledge of the person so as to be able to tell their exact interest without pretext

Smart interest test- this measures how far one is will to allow changes and how well they can adapt to these changes simply because they fall within their interest brackets.

CAT tests are administered to determine the maximum performance and interest of an individual and assess whether they are currently living them in their lives.

Vocational interest measures the development of interest, how long it takes for an individual to develop interest in something that is meant to be for their benefit.

Tools for assessing intellectual level are;

The Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales- is administered individually and is based on the measure of intelligence based on the memory. It is suitable for individuals between ages of 3-90 years and includes both verbal and non verbal interpretations of answers. Different have different questions (Aiken, 2002).

Formative assessments- It is also referred to as diagnostics testing. It is mostly used in the education system by teachers to evaluate the improvement on students. It is based on qualitative feedback and is often conducted periodically in an effort to make proper comparisons (Hensen, 2004).

The Stanford-Binet-5- it is used to measure intelligence. It focuses on the areas of verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short term memory. It is used to determine how well and clear memory can be and is most appropriate for people aged between 6-70 years.

Wechsler tests- it is an adult and children intelligent scale that focuses on individual ability to adopt to changes in the environment and at the same time to look for solutions to problems.

Achievement can be assessed by

Broad- spectrum tests can be used to measure achievement and include Woodcock-Johnson Achievement Tests; – It measures fundamental skills, ease in a subject and capability to use skills. For instance reading, tests will measure ability to decode words, knowledge of phonics, ease in reading fast and accuracy in understanding.

Wide Range Achievement- it measure how well an individual is able to read statements, understand phrases and calculate mathematics with ease. It allows for testing within a short period of time and has no effects on the individual being tested. It is appropriate for individuals between the ages of 5-94 years.

Product -Gray reading tests- it is based on oral reading and shows the development and improvements that take place in children as they become more and more efficient in their reading. Achievement testing shows a child’s levels of academic performance compared to a standard peer group (Aiken, 2002). Children can be compared to age or grade peers or to children of lower or higher ages

Test of Reading Comprehension and Test of Written Language. It depends on the subject depth to be evaluated but mostly focuses on the ability to understand the written language and to translate it into the written words without assistance from any one. It is mostly conducted on children in order to determine the strides ad improvements that they are making (Hensen, 2004).

Criterion-referenced tests (CRT) – measures what the person is able to do and indicate what skills have been mastered. This is appropriate to work stations as it can be able to help to pick out the best individual suited for a promotion due to increase in competency.

Cognition Assessment

Cognitive assessment can be vital especially in detecting dementia in older adults and ADD in younger children

Mini Mental state Examination (MMSE), – this mostly evaluates the memory of a person and how well and clear it is. Especially in older adults when the memory is not good and they easily forget things it is usually a sign of clinical schizophrenia.

Attention analysis test – this analyzes how easy it is to capture and loose the attention of an individual. This is especially so in younger children whose attention is expected to be easily captured by new things and experiences. If these things do not capture the attention of a child they may be suffering from acute to severe case of retard.

The MGF planning test – this is a test that is used to determine if an individual can be able to plan something and execute the very way it was planned. In children it is determined by use of toys that are stacked up and crumbled and the child is asked to make it to appear the way it was before.

PEPP assessment – this deals with comprehension of language and how it is translated and put down on paper (Hensen, 2004). It measures the ability and capability of a person to understand his environment and come up with a structured way in which it operates and how it should operate.

References

Hensen Michel, (2004), Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment, Springer Publishers, Washington D.C

Aiken R. Lewis, (2002), personality Assessment: Methods and Practices, Prentice Hall Press, New Jersey.

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Depression in children

Depression in children

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Depression in children

Introduction

Like in teenagers and adults, depression is the most prevalent psychological disorder in children. This is certainly surprising since many people hold the notion that children have nothing stressing them enough to fall into depression. However, children stand a higher risk of falling into depression than elders. This is mainly due to their inability to fight back, lack of understanding, lack of power to tolerate harsh times, homesickness and a relatively easy inclination to what is wrong. These factors underline not only the reality but also the possibility of depression in children. According to studies, depression in children is a grave issue that mainly affects children between the age of 4 and 12. Being at relatively young ages, these children find it difficult to comprehend what is happening or even talk with somebody about it. Unfortunately, their inability to express themselves in case of depression is considered also normal for children in this age group. This brings to the fore two critical issues; difficulty in diagnosing the problem and suicidal thoughts or tendencies. The suicidal thoughts emanate from their inability to have a clear judgment for their thinking, in which case they hold the notion that they had rather die than live a strangely difficult and alien life. While this analysis places an overwhelming responsibility on the parents to be on the lookout for the varied signs of depression in their children, evaluating the causes of the problem is crucial (Goodyear et al. 96). It has always been thought that depression in children results from variations in hormones, traumatic situations and even low self esteem or confidence. While these may trigger the depression, it is necessary to acknowledge that some children are more predisposed or vulnerable to becoming depressed than others, thanks to their genetic make-up. This underlines the fact that hereditary factors play a key role in the occurrence of depression in children.

Supporting arguments for depression in children as a hereditary problem

Studies on twins- the larger part of what is known of genetic influence on depression is based on research done on twins, both fraternal and identical. Identical twins have particularly been extremely helpful in this research since their genetic code is exactly the same. Studies show that in cases where one of the identical twins falls into depression, the other one also develops depression about 76 percent of the times. In cases where the identical twins are brought up apart from each other, both fall into depression in about 67 percent of the times. While there is a ten percentage variation, one would acknowledge that genetic influence on depression in children is quite strong (Scott and Joughin 57). The fact that the rate is not a 100 percent underlines the fact that other factors influence an individual’s vulnerability to depression. However, these other factors only serve as the trigger for depression (Rutter and Taylor 77).

This notion is cemented by studies done on fraternal twins. Fraternal twins do not have similar genetic code but only share approximately 50 percent of the genetic makeup. Research on fraternal twins shows that when one of the fraternal twins falls into depression, the other twin also falls into depression in approximately 19 percent of the time. This is quite low compared to the high rates in the case of identical twins, which points at the strong influence of the genes. In addition, it is noteworthy that the rate is still way higher in comparison to the rates in the general public (Goodyear 59). This points at the influence of genetic makeup given that the high rates can be attributed to the shared 50 percent genetic makeup.

Genes for depression- numerous researches have been done in an attempt to identify the genes that lead individuals to develop depressive illnesses. While there is no consistency in the studies as to the specific genes that are responsible for the condition, results of a number of researches have suggested that specific genes cause depression in children to occur in certain families and mot in others. Much is not known about the predisposition or vulnerability imposed by genes to depressive illnesses. However, studies indicate the presence of a high likelihood that a combination of genes increases the vulnerability of an individual to depression (Scott and Joughin 49).

Legacy- while it was believed that the environment that a child is living in remains the main culprit for the depression, research show that there is inherited vulnerability and susceptibility to depression. Studies show that individuals with close relatives who at one time fell into depression stand a relatively higher likelihood of developing the condition (Scott and Joughin 37). The genes that individuals inherit from their parents determine numerous things about them such as their complexion, color of their hair and eyes, as well as their gender. In essence, the genes determine the illnesses that one may be more vulnerable to contract at one point in his or her life. Except in cases of identical twins, no two persons have a similar genetic makeup (Rutter and Taylor 76). Research shows that individuals with siblings or parents who have undergone considerable depression, are 2 to 3 times more likely to fall into depression compared to those who may not have relatives with the illness. In addition, such individuals stand higher chances of having bipolar disorder, a form of mental illness. In addition, it is noteworthy that the condition has been linked with changes in chemical composition in the part of one’s brain that is responsible for controlling moods. The variations hinder the brain from functioning normally thereby resulting to depression. It has always been acknowledged that the brain and its functioning or reaction to particular situations is determined by an individual’s genes (Goodyear 49). In addition, bipolar disorder is strongly influenced by the genetic makeup of the individual. Studies show that about fifty percent of individuals with bipolar disorders have a parent or parents who at one time suffered from depression. Children born of a mother or father with bipolar disorder stand a 25 percent chance of having clinical depression at one time in their lives. In cases where both parents have had bipolar disorders, the child stands a 50 to 80 percent chance of developing depression. Individuals whose siblings have bipolar disorder are 2-10 times more likely to have a serious depressive disorder compared to those that have no such siblings.

Conclusion

Depression in children has been remarkably prevalent in the recent times. However, it has been extremely difficult to diagnose it since its chief symptom is also a key characteristic of children between 4 and 12 years of age. However, given the seriousness of the condition, especially as far as having fatal results is concerned, it is crucial that the main causes be examined and remedied (Rutter and Taylor 46). Nevertheless, it is vital to acknowledge that genetics play a significant role in influencing its occurrence. In essence, twin brothers stand a higher chance of contracting the illness in comparison to the general public. In addition, individuals whose siblings or parents have had depression at one time or the other stand a higher chance of contracting the ailment (Rutter and Taylor 57). Studies also show that some genes or a combination of genes influence the occurrence of depression.

Works Cited

Rutter, Morris. and Taylor, Elly. ‘Child and Adolescent Psychiatry’ (4th edn). London: Blackwell. 2002. Print.

Goodyear, Alexander. The Depressed Child and Adolescent, second edition. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2001. Print.

Scott, Antony and Joughin, Collins. Finding the Evidence’ – A Gateway to the Literature in Child and Adolescent Mental Health (2nd edn). London: Gaskell. 2001. Print.

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Depression in Dementia

Depression in Dimentia

Depression in Dementia

Depression is a usual disorder that bedevils many people in the world. Research indicates that women are twice likely hit by the problem than men during their lifetime. The problem can occur at any stage of a person’s life regardless of their ethnicity, income, race, and education. Depression is a significant public health issue that brings about suffering, diminishes functioning and health and may lead to economic burden to the society, personal, and third-party payers. When proper treatment is not sought, the disorder may have a disabling influence that results in poor self-care, personal suffering, impaired personal relationships, and lack of follow-up of medical treatments, substance-use, and physical illness, loss of income, self harm, and even suicide (Storandt, 2003).

The subject under study is an elderly woman suffering from dementia. The woman was a client at Compcare. The reason for her choice is because assessment and follow-up gets easier and cheaper. Pharmacological medication is the form of treatment used for the patient. After she got diagnosed with dementia, depression set into her life. The study took a period of one month. It started on May 23rd, 2013 and ended on June 23rd, 2013. Most studies on dementia focuses on clinical recognition, prevalence, assessment, and treatment. The above study focuses on dementia and the effectiveness of various intervention methods. The client was under the supervision of a therapist and the agreement made was for her to cut down on screaming, cursing, and wandering. Counting the number of times the client defaulted those agreements formed the basis for asssessment. The subject signed an Informed Consent Form (Appendix).

Dementia is a group of symptoms brought about by disorders and diseases that affect the brain, including (AD) Alzheimer’s disease, strokes, (PD) Parkinson’s disease, and much more. It involves continuous loss of memory and other cognitive senses such as emotional control and problem solving. Research shows that the earliest stage that one gets diagnosed with the problem is commonly called MCI (mild cognitive impairment). As the problem advances, the victim’s ability to conduct instrumental and daily activities gets impaired.

In the year 2005, nearly 24.3 million people in the world had dementia and 4.6 million new cases crop-up annually. This number, according to some scholars will double after every 20 years. WHO (world health organization) report (2003) shows AD and other dementias ranked as the fourth course of problems and burden in adults 60 years old. The other diseases that outranked dementia include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart disease. AD is the most prevalent type of dementia, followed by VaD (vascular dementia), FTD (frontotemporal dementia), PD associated dementia, and DLB (dementia with Lewy bodies (Thompson, 2006).

Psychological and behavioral signs of dementia (BPSD), also called neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, affect almost all with dementia during illness and often manifest during the first stages. Developed classifications on dementia indicate that BPSD falls into two groups. One is behavioral and the other is psychological. Behavioral gets identified through observation of the patient, and include wandering, screaming, restlessness, sexual disinhibition, cursing, physical aggression, hoarding, shadowing, and culturally unexpected behaviors. Caregivers and patients give psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depressive moods, delusions, and hallucinations.

BPSD have adverse effects in older adults. They cut their quality of life of a patient, increase functional and cognitive decline, and get linked with increased mortality. Moreover, these symptoms give stress to caregivers, and get associated with advanced rates of depression in caregivers. They also add to the risk of institutionalization. Managing dementia costs close to a third of the total cost of caring for dementia.

Behavioral symptoms of dementia are usually more distressing and plain to observers than psychological signs, and are generally more common in medium to severe dementia. However, psychological signs may bring more harm to the patient during the earlier instances of dementia, as victims develop insight about the effect of the diagnosis on their future life.

For the patient picked, the use antidepressants and antipsychotics was the main form of medication. The woman had more adverse effects of depression in dementia compared to other patients. Men generally suffer less than women from depression in dementia.

Intervention and rationale

The symptoms exuded by the woman called for an intervention. Screaming, undesirable behaviors, wandering, and restlessness characterized her behavior. These problems formed the basis for the study and treatment. The medication options sought targeted reduction of such behaviors. The treatment option that this document discusses gets based on the most proper approach for reducing depression in dementia. Pharmacological medication is the treatment option used. The form of intervention used was for the patient to reduce most of these behaviors. The exact behaviors under study are: screaming, cursing, and wandering. A reduction in the number of undesirable behaviors would result in a handsome shopping from me and a waiver for her medication. An increase would lead to no waiver and no shopping at all. No behavioral change meant moderate help. This is the most effective method as behavioral change is accompanied by a reward. Rewarding the patient stimulated her behavioral change.

The client was under the supervision of a therapist. The therapist administered treatment to her as he checked her progress. There are both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment approaches for the problem. The two intervention methods help in cutting down the depression associated with dementia among older adults. Many forms of medications get used, and have varying degrees of success. Non-pharmacological treatments like structured activity programs and behavioral change programs reduce depression, but with modest outcomes. Dosing with gingko biloba extract is a new technique of intervention that has registered success (Rabins, Lyketsos, & Steele, 2005).

Pharmacological treatment got preference to other forms of treatments as it has a higher degree of success compared to other forms of treatment. It works better than non-pharmacological options, which has moderate outcomes.

Pharmacological treatment for depression in dementia

Neurotransmitters or receptors targeted by pharmacological therapists include amino acid receptors, cholinergic receptors, and catecholamine receptors. Clinicians have difficulties in treating depression with dementia. Old patients with dementia bear greater comorbid illnesses than non-demented peers, with almost three-fifths of those with AD bearing 3 or greater. This increased level of comorbidity comes from use of many medications. Therefore, polypharmacy and drug interactions help provoke depression in some patients diagnosed with dementia. Because older adults with dementia have cognitive and physical frailties, they are also susceptible to other adverse effects. Caregivers and clinicians must see patients’ behaviors carefully for evidence of adverse effects when new treatments get introduced because dementia patients communicate rarely. Medication options for the elderly should always take a slow approach. They should start slowly and continues slowly (Sarbadhikari, 2005).

Antidepressants

Antidepressants get prescribed on continuous basis for older adults with dementia. A recent analysis, in 2007, endorsed treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic depressants in patients with dementia. The research findings of the analysis indicated that remission and patient treatment response got superior to the placebo response in the joined effort from all the studies. Other reviews support treatment with various antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, trazodone, movlobemide, and sertraline, on depression in dementia. Citalopram and sertraline get commonly prescribed. Reviews show trazadone and mirtazapine as other options but there are fewer trials that support their use.

Antipsychotics

Different categories of antipsychotics treat depression with varying levels of success. However, older adults with dementia who take haloperidol are at a significant risk of extrapyramidal signs including tardive dyskinesia and parkinsonism. Because of the above reason, most clinicians focus on “atypical” antipsychotics like olanzapine and risperidone, which have vital, thought moderate, effects, and fewer adverse effects than typical antipsychotics at lower doses.

Care is very imperative as both olanzapine and risperidone have increased risks of stroke and associated mortality, and many safety warnings limit their use for treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. There are disagreements over the real risk involved and people suggest that increased cardiac arrest occur at high doses. Other scholars claim that patients of stroke have other risk factors besides the use of risperidone in dementia (Hay, Klein, & Hay, 2003).

Reduced cholinergic activities, mainly resulting from reduced acetylcholine concenctrations brought about by dementia-linked changes; result from decreased cognitive ability in dementia, and increases in BPSD. Cholinesterase inhibitors, including tacrine and donepezil, gets used in targeting increasing levels of acetycholine, with success, especially in patients with mild to medium dementia. A review on the effects of rivastigmine on BSPD shows that there are positive effects on patients with a range of dementia, and that anxiety and apathy form the list of behavioral domains showing the most consistent positive response.

Results

The above approach forms one of the most significant methods of treating depression in dementia. After a period of six months whereby the patient was under scrutiny and medication, good results got registered. The patient improved greatly and emerged with less stress than her first state. Earlier symptoms such as restlessness and screaming ceased completely.

The use of pharmacological approach for treatment of depression with dementia is very proper and effective. Antidepressants and antipsychotics have varying levels of success on reduction of depression in dementia. The use of various forms of antipsychotics and antidepressants served the purpose. They greatly cut down on the level of depression for the elderly woman. Since the medication worked well, this paper recommends its use.

EMBED Excel.Chart.8 s

Day of the week Behaviour Total tally

screaming wandering cursing Monday 10 8 12 30

Tuesday 8 6 10 24

Wednesday 4 4 8 16

Thursday 6 3 9 18

Friday 5 3 7 15

Saturday 2 2 6 10

Sunday 2 3 4 9

References

Hay, D. P., Klein, D. T., & Hay, L. K. (2003). Agitation in Patients With Dementia: A Practical

Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Arlington: American Psychiatric Pub.

Rabins, P. V., Lyketsos, C. G., & Steele, C. (2005). Practical dementia care. New York: Oxford

University Press.

Sarbadhikari, S. N. (2005). Depression and dementia: Progress in brain research, clinical

applications, and future trends. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Storandt, (2003). Neuropsychological assessment of dementia and depression. American

Psychological Association.

Thompson, S. B. N. (2006). Dementia and memory: A handbook for students and professionals.

Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

Appendix

CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE IN A SINGLE SYSTEM RESEARCH DESIGN

I am aware that this research design is being conducted by D.C., who is a Graduate Student in the Rutgers University School of Social Work. This intervention is to fulfill the requirements of a mandatory assignment for Research II, Section 19:910:595, with Professor Raymond Sanchez-Mayers.

The purpose is to measure the effect that moderate exercise, antipsychotics and, antidepressantswill have on my Dismentia. I am the only subject participating in this intervention.

The intervention will take 30 days to complete. The data recorded will be on Compcare wher I am recently receiving medication.

I understand that the following requirements are necessary for this intervention:

Week 1 (Days 1-6) – ingestion of antidepressants

Week 2 (Days 7-12) – ingestion of antidepressants and antipsychotics

Week 3 (Days 13-18) – ingestion of antidepressants and antipsychotics and moderate exercise

Week 4( Days 19-28)- exercise only

Every effort will be made to stick to the set schedule for my assesment. The Intervention consists of 10 minutes of warm-up, 15 minutes of brisk walking/slow jog, and 10 minutes of cool down after undergoing pharmacological medication.

I realize that there are risks involved with any exercise program. I agree to stop the intervention if at any time I feel pain, shortness of breath, or any other symptom of discomfort that seems above and beyond normal exercise symptoms.

It is understood that the benefits of exercising have been shown to parallel a healthy lifestyle, which my focus and reason for volunteering for this research project. I hope to have this be the incentive for me to continue exercising on a frequent basis.

il(student) for my participation.

If I have any questions about this research that D.C. is not able to answer, or any complaints regarding this intervention, I may contact Professor Sanchez Mayers at:

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

School of Social Work

536 George Street

New Brunswick, NJ 08901

(732) 932-7520 Ext. 111

Email: write email

Signature on FileSignature on File

_____________________________________________________________

D.R.L. – Research Subject D.C., Student

Date: May 23, 2013

Psychotherapy in Depression Intervention

Depression Intervention

Depression Intervention

Psychotherapy is a term for treating mental health problems which entails consulting with a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other mental health providers. During psychotherapy, an individual learns about their conditions, moods, feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. It does help one in learning how to take control of their life and respond to challenging situations with essential healthy coping skills (Minuchin, & Fishman, 2004).

There are various specific types of psychotherapy, with each psychotherapy approach being unique on its own. The type of psychotherapy that is right for an individual varies within the diverse individual needs and demands. Therefore, each person is entitled a choice of psychotherapy that suits his/her personal conditions. Psychotherapy is a distinct profession in its own right, with many different types of professionals and practitioners engaging in it regularly with a range of qualifications. Such qualifications include psychiatry, clinical psychology, counseling psychology, clinical or psychiatric social work, mental health counseling, marriage and family therapy.

Rehabilitation counseling, school counseling, play therapy, music therapy, art therapy,drama therapy,  dance/movement therapy, and occupational therapy are among other professional qualifications. Besides, this group of professional specializes in psychiatric nursing, psychoanalysis, and other psychotherapies. Individuals wishing to practice this lucrative profession may opt for clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, counseling psychologists, marriage and family therapists, counselors, social workers, mental health counselors, occupational therapists and psychiatric nurses (Compas, & Gotlib, 2002; Minuchin, & Fishman, 2004). Psychotherapy may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated, or unregulated based on the jurisdiction. Requirements of the mentioned professions vary, but they often require graduate school and supervised clinical experience.

Clinical psychologists are largely responsible for the intervention and reduction of depressions among patients. These clinical specialists are charged with the responsibility of assessing and treating mental illness, abnormal behavior, and psychiatric problems. Psychotherapy incorporates science of psychology with the treatment of complex human problems. Clinical psychologists, in most instances, work in medical settings, private practice, or academic positions at universities and colleges. Some of the specialists in the private practice work directly with clients, those suffering from severe psychiatric disorders.

Some of the clinical psychologists prefer working in private therapeutic settings offering short-term and long-term outpatient services to clients who need help coping with psychological distress. Others will work in other settings specializing in research, teaching university-level courses and offering consultation services (Henrik, 2010). One needs to graduate with a degree in psychology followed by professional examination and evaluation to qualify as a psychiatrist. Besides, psychiatrists must have medical and clinical training. A masters or doctoral degree, and a license, are required for senior psychologists. A doctoral degree usually is required for independent practice as a psychologist.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy use in Depression Intervention

The cognitive behavioral therapy model entails a vast number of techniques focusing on the construction and re-construction of people’s emotions, behaviors, cognitions (Minuchin, & Fishman, 2004). The therapist, through CBT, helps clients assess, realize, and deal with problematic, dysfunctional ways of behaving, thinking, and emoting. CBT model’s characteristics are time limited, among the most rapid in terms of results. It normally offers a sound therapeutic relationship between the therapist and client, based on the scientifically supported assumption that most emotional and behavioral reactions are learned, it is structured and directive in the sense that therapists have a specific agenda for each session (Compas, & Gotlib, 2002).

Study samples have shown that CBT is an effective method in getting rid of depression. Therefore, it is worth recommending CBT to people suffering from depression and for sure, this form of therapy would be very effective for such group of people. In most instances, depression entails one’s feelings and emotions having been hurt (Henrik, 2010). Through consulting with counselors and psychotherapists, studies have shown that the counseling session is very effective in reducing depression and hence, relieving the patients of the despair.

References

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2008-09 Edition, Psychologists, on the Internet at HYPERLINK “http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm” http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos056.htm

Compas, Bruce & Gotlib, Ian. (2002). Introduction to Clinical Psychology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Henrik, R. (2010). The Psychotherapy Handbook. The A-Z handbook to more than 250 psychotherapies as used today. New American Library.

Minuchin, S.& Fishman, H. C. (2004). Family Therapy Techniques. Harvard University Press.

Depression and Counselling Theory

Depression, Counselling Theory

Depression and Counselling Theory

Counselling Theory Paper

George is an elderly man, aged 68 years, who showed serious signs of depression and addiction to alcohol and narcotics. He also exhibited signs of being a mentally ill man, who knows his past mistakes in life and sees no reason to even try changing his current situation. He is a divorced man who has little contact with the social world and the only relationship that he currently has is with his dog Spike. I decided on using the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), as the most appropriate counselling theory to help him.

Rationale for Selection of CBT

The rationale behind choosing this specific theory is due to the capabilities of the theory and the nature of the case at hand. According to David, 2006 CBT, it is based on the premise that people should learn to let go of their past and focus on improving the future. Central to this therapy is that it focuses on talking. This allows people to express what they feel without fear of judgement (Williams, et al, 2013). According to Blehar, 1997, CBT works also when used with people who have an addiction to something.

George can very well express himself and his life with detail and precision; this is why this therapy best suits him. For a person of his age, he has good memory and is able to remember issues that had happened earlier in his life even under the influence of alcohol. George has serious cognitive impairments; he was able to score 15 in the MMSE test and a 45 out 60 in the CES-D score which is a clear indication of cognitive impairment. George is also an alcoholic, he uses drugs like marijuana and even hard core drugs to help him ease his thoughts and to feel better. George is also willing to corporate with the therapy; this is mainly because he recognizes the fact that his life is not exactly how he wanted it to be at his age. As much as the therapy is not meant to cure the physical ailments and addictions of George, it is meant to create an empowering foundation and a more optimistic way of dealing with his problems. His fear to face the future is hindering him from achieving the best he can in relationships.

Initial Problem Selection

George is a man troubled by many issues but I chose to deal with two of his problems, depression and addiction to alcohol and narcotics. From the interview, it was clear that George’s divorce had taken a toll on him. This was because it made him lose all personal contact that he had maintained earlier on. He has also lost touch with his religion. As a Muslim he was a dedicated follower but all that was lost ten years ago when he started eliminating himself from the society and all types of relationships.

According to Knight, 2006, depression is usually revealed when the individual pulls himself away from the society. This is because they feel that they are better off being alone as nobody wants to be with them. At this point George feels like there is no way his problems can be solved by anybody. This explains the reason as to why he is afraid to patch things up with his ex-wife. At this point he is afraid of starting any form of relationship with anybody and that is why he has had no intimate or friendly relationship with anybody in a long time.

Roth, Pilling and Hill, 2009, state that depression is associated with low self esteem and self criticism. Counselling for depression is a model that targets emotions that mostly are underlying and are the root cause of the depression. It is also meant to bring out the emotions that make sense to the person but must initially come from them for them to be willing to try them out in their lives. Roth, Piling and Hill devised a framework on how to help people with depression called the humanistic framework. It is based on allowing all the negative emotions and issues to come out and then the positive ones will slowly come out. The results of the experiment done at the Pearson Centre proved that people do indeed have the ability of coming up with the best solution for themselves but first they must be given that chance to do it themselves and must be dedicated to it as well.

The framework will work for George because from the interview it was clear he is suffering from clinical melancholy, which is depression couple up together with some cognitive problems.

Discussion of the Model

I will show how the qualifications that make George to fit into this framework.

The framework focuses on a step to step follow up of the individual who experiences different events in his life that ultimately lead to depression while others are as a result of the depression (Scherer, 2009).

First the individual makes a few wrong decisions in their lives. George had always wanted to have the life that everybody wants, a nice job and a lovely family. But somewhere down the line he made some few mistakes that caused him to lose some of these things and he now sees his mistakes.

The next step is that the person is caught up in looking at his mistakes instead of finding clear solutions to them. Instead of focusing more on what he still had even after making his small and major mistakes, he focused on the mistakes. This is evident from the fact that after he divorced his wife he completely cut all contact and relationship with everybody else. After his divorce, he saw no need of going to mosque and with that he lost a relationship with his God. He also let his relationship with his mother be reduced to an occasional phone call. His relationship with his brother is no longer the same and the one with his daughters is even worse. This cannot even describe the relationship with his friends because i is no longer in existence, he believes that they avoid him since he has his problems.

The third step is that the persons self esteem is seriously affected and they criticize themselves very harshly. George’s self esteem was seriously affected; this is the reason why on looking at him during the interview he looked unkempt. His uniform was dirty and he was not shaven. Hours after his shift ended he is still in his uniform while most people cannot wait to leave work and take off their uniform. This is because he sees no need to do that, to him it is not worth the trouble. He also believes that nobody wants to be associated with him, according to him he is not the one who pulled away from his friends, they are the ones who avoid him because they believe that he is mentally unstable. He is even not sure about reconciling with his ex-wife and it is not because he does not love her and does not long to have some company but it is because he feels he has failed her too much in the past and he doesn’t deserve her taking him back. He feels like he is failure and does not deserve to have someone with him.

The last step is when the person takes up a destructive addiction or activity that helps him escape from the world and feel better for just a while. The other step was George turning to alcohol and drugs and becoming addicted to them. He consumes alcohol because he believes it is the only way he can relieve himself of the stressful issues that he has. To him, there is realistically no way of solving as it is too late. Time has passed too much and there is not much that can be done. Once he uses these drugs and consumes alcohol he goes to another world where he gets the chance to get away from all the worries.

At the heart of the model is the interaction of emotions that lead to some cognitive and behavioural attributes;

Lacks of paying attention to the small things in life, for instance most people do not brush their teeth nor shave their beard. This is the behavioural character that is very visible on George. People also forget the day of the week, George can hardly remember the date and avoids doing any calculation on the test and does not write much on the questionnaire. This is because he probably finds it difficult to do simple addition and subtraction. This means that he is not interested in the events and occurrences of the country for instance politics, economics and even security matters. To him they are of less concern and there is no need to get to know them.

Poor communication skills are exhibited; this is because the people feel like others cannot understand them when they speak calmly. They may feel the need to act it out when trying to explain a specific point. This is reason as to why George feels the need to throw his arms out while speaking. This is because in his mind, he thinks that what he is saying will not be understood unless he actually demonstrates it using hands.

Denial is also a major emotional and cognitive defence mechanism. This is exhibited by tendency not to admit to some situations (Scherer, 2009). During the interview, George also skips over things that he does not feel like talking about. This means that his problem is actually bigger than he is willing to agree. The fact that he believes that he only drinks because he is lonely at times and not because he is an addict is also another point of denial.

Implications for Treatment

The treatment will be done in three phases the early, middle and final stage. This will be done in roughly 15- 20 sessions with George. At the end of the treatment there will be certain expected results and changes.

According to Williams, et al, 2013, the move to another stage will only be possible after the successful completion of the previous stage. The early stage is made up of discussion with George on the strategy to be used, to collect the necessary data required and all relevant information. It is in this stage that George gets to reveal his expectations at the end of the sessions and after several months after the sessions as well.

After that we shall move on to the second stage, at this point there will be several experiments performed to see if the strategy and the framework completely fits his situation, several adjustments can be made to ensure that the strategy is efficient (Blehar, 1997). It is also at this stage that we deal with George’s emotions, as stated earlier he will let all the negative emotions come out and with little assistance he will come up with a suitable and realistic solution that can solve his depression, fears and help mend his relationships. In the final stage, there will be the termination of the sessions and also the implementation of a strategy that will avoid relapse into depression and alcoholism.

During the first stage, all information and data pertaining George will be revealed. This is because the information in this stage will be used in the next stage. George is expected to grasp the seriousness and conceptualize the CBT and all the expectations from him. All the pre existing issues from his decision to leave the basketball sponsorship will be addressed and will act as a foundation in his case.

In the second stage George will bring out all the negative emotions, what he actually and truly feels so that it can lead him to alcohol and to shut himself away from the rest of the world (Blehar, 1997). All the broken relationships will be discussed and the various ways in which they can be amended. It is obvious that George knows some of his mistakes but what he does not seem to know is how to solve them especially at this time when he has grown old. As a father, a son, a brother and a friend he has a role to play in these relationship. He has to come up with the solutions but a relationship at a time to avoid overwhelming him. Having closure is something important in any relationship, it may not mend it but it will help one not to carry emotional baggage.

In this stage George will explain how his life was like before all the changes and which aspects were there and he would like to have back. He will experiment by trying out some of the interests that he had prior to adopting the alcohol drinking habit. It is also at this point that all the negative side effects of his current life will be made to him; however he has to be the one to point out what exactly he feels he is ready to start changing. This will give him the chance to voluntarily give out information.

In the final stage, as the sessions are terminated there will be strategy that will be aimed at ensuring that George will have a social life that includes at least taking spike for a walk in the park full of people and trying out the outside world with his new friend and see if he can make new friends. George is expected to create a new habit that takes the place of drinking alcohol, for instance playing a sport or even reading a book. Then termination will occur with follow up to take place periodically.

Further Discussion

Although this paper is basically supposed to be dedicated to George and his psychological issue of depression, it is also going to dedicate on a few other issues that George is going through and how to best resolve them. These are issues that can be solved by CBT and others cannot be solved by it. It is limited to the psychological aspect of George.

At the age of 68 years George is still physically able to provide for himself but with time he will retire and will be dependent on other people. this is the high time that he solves the issues to do with his mother and daughters before it gets to the point that he completely has no other alternative.

George has cognitive impairment that requires to be treated. This is evident from his lack of coordination of the issues during the interview. This can be as a result of alcohol consumption over the years. This is because alcohol with time decreases proper mental and physical coordination. This may be the reason as to why his hygiene is questionable. Medical intervention is required as there be other physical negative effects that he has developed over the years and during the interview I was not able to detect. For a proper evaluation, a full body check up should be embarked on.

Due to years of withdrawing from the social world, he may be willing to go out there to make friends but may not know how to. He may require a few sessions to be conducted outside in the open where there is interaction with people. This being a person who is looking to stop alcohol intake and is looking for a new hobby, a visit to a golf court would be highly recommended. This however easily follows during the follow up sessions.

Conclusion

George has gone through many traumatic and tough times and he is only human to feel stressed. However he feels judged and this has made him to shrink further and further away from the society. At this point his ex wife is trying to reach out to him but he is way too deep and sees just a failure who will fail her again.

George dedication to the process and strategy will help him to be able to restore his life to the way it was if not better, but he still requires all the other to be willing to help in this process as well. This is because someone may dig themselves into a hole that gets too deep. But when at low place the only other place to go is up and this is his situation. He is willing to come up but he just needs the people around him to help dig his way out.

With a little help from his family and friends George will be able to solve all his psychological problems and become a well off productive citizen.

References

Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions With Older Adults: Integrating Clinical and Gerontological Research, Derek D. Satre, Bob G. Knight, and Steven David, 2006, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Vol. 37, No. 5, p 489-498

Psychotherapy for Depression in Older Adults, Edited by Sara H. Qualls and Bob G. Knight, 2006, Wiley Series in Clinical Geropsychology

Counselling for Depression; Critical look at Cognition, Roth, Pilling and Hill, (2009), Pearson Print Press

The Psychological Treatment of Depression, J. Mark, G. Williams, 2013, University of Oklahoma Print Press, p324-455

The cognitive Psychology of Depression at Old Age, Ian H. Gotlib, Howard S.Kurtzman, Mary C. Blehar, 1997, p 94- 150

Self stigma and Psychological Depression; Help Seeking for Depression, Joshua Scherer, 2009, p 7-56.

Depression and Personality Theory

Depression and Personality Theory

Depression and Personality Theory

Author

Institution

Depression and Personality Theory

#1

Beck’s cognitive therapy is pegged on Beck’s theory which proposes that depression is caused by three things namely; self worth, the environment, and the future. Depressions result from a negative view of oneself in his or her environment and a bleak view of the future. This results in hopelessness because the person views himself or herself as not being fit for society (McLeod, 2008). The person blames him or herself for any deficiencies in their life. Beck’s therapy is effective in therapy because therapy involves helping a patient to change his view of himself and the world around him. Thus, it involves creating a positive self- image. Thus, the focus is on the cognitive, which is the basis for developing a poor self- image.

Irene is a twenty three year old girl. She comes from a middle income family, and she has always had a good upbringing. Although she did not have a privileged upbringing, she had a comfortable life. Irene is a beautiful girl, and she has always received admiration from her peers. In addition to this, she is an above average student, and she has never had to struggle much in her education. She has always had things fall in place without much effort.

However, Irene recently completed her college studies and finding a job has been hard because most employers think she is not qualified for the available positions. Additionally, her boyfriend recently broke up with her for another girl who is not even college educated and whom, according to Irene is not as beautiful as her. These two events have left Irene devastated, and she is depressed. Cognitive therapy is suitable for Irene because she needs to have a positive image of herself. This would restore a positive image of herself and her capabilities. This is because her depression is due to a negative self- image and hopelessness for the future (McLeod, 2008).

#2

My interpersonal style follows Sullivan’s theory, which states that human behavior is formed from interactions with other people. The personality of a person emerges from interactions with other people (Magnavita, 2012). These interactions result in reactions, which form the basis of personality. Human nature is based on the principle of maximizing pleasure and reducing pain. This describes the desire by people to avoid those situations that result in discomfort. According to Sullivan, human beings are interdependent and thus, most cases of maximizing pleasure come from interactions with others. These interactions are mutually satisfying and thus, they result in pleasure and reduction of anxiety.

My interpersonal have been affected, by the need to have friends whom I can count on at all times. These are people whom I can interact with at any time and do so freely without fear of being judged. Additionally, we share common interests, and this increases pleasure when we are having a good time because we are able to find different ways of maximizing pleasure. Sometimes, these interactions result in conflicts, which we solve amicably because conflicts reduce pleasure and increase anxiety (Magnavita, 2012). Those relationships that do not result in pleasure are quickly terminated because they cause discomfort.

These styles are consistent with Sullivan’s theory because the interaction styles are based on mutual benefits. In addition to benefits, these interactions enable me to learn to overlook some aspects of my personality, which can result in anxiety. These interactions also enable me to bring my unique personality and blend it with that of my peers for maximum pleasure. Through interactions, other aspects of my personality have been revealed, which were not visible in the past. This is in accordance to Sullivan’s theory, which holds that interactions are crucial in the formation of personalities (Magnavita, 2012).

References

Magnavita, J.J. (2012). HYPERLINK “http://outboundsso.next.ecollege.com/default/launch.ed?ssoType=CDMS&redirectUrl=https://content.ashford.edu/ssologin?bookcode=AUPSY330.12.1” t “_new”Theories of personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.

McLeod, S. (2008). “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy” SimplyPsychology. New York: Simply Psychology.

Posted in Uncategorized

Department of Social Sciences

Department of Social Sciences

ASSIGNENT ONE

Population: Sociology 303-A

Department of Social Sciences

McNeese State University

Paper – 1

Instructor: Muhammad M. Haque

Based on your reading of the text, and corresponding class lectures and discussion of the materials from Chapter 1: Introduction to Demography, Chapter 2: Demographic Data and Applied Demography and Chapter 3: Demographic Perspectives and Theories, provide a word-processed response to the following questions. This is a seven-page assignment. The first page – cover page – should provide information following the example below. All the information must be typed bold, single spaced, on the left top corner of the page with a one-inch margin.

Name: John A. Henry

ID: 344 56 9987

Paper: One

Course: Population

No. & Sec.: Sociology 303-A

Semester & Year: Fall 2021

Instructor: Muhammad M. Haque

Due date: October 10, 2021

Date handed in:

SECTION A: Describe in brief the history of world population growth from the earliest available estimated date to its present form by identifying its specific trends and patterns. (24+24 lines=Total 2 pages: 100 points)

SECTION B: Based on the history of world population sketched above, provide an explanatory analysis of the trends and patterns by utilizing any one of the demographic theories that you think is the best for the purpose in very succinct form first by providing a description of the theory (12 lines) and then applying the theory to the analysis of the trends and patterns (12 lines). (Total 1 page=12+12 lines: 50 points)

SECTION C: Based on the history of world population sketched in the first section, provide an explanatory analysis of the trends and patterns documented by utilizing a different demographic theory that falls second in order compared to the first one in terms of scientific applicability in very succinct form first by providing a description of the theory (12 lines) and the applying the theory to the analysis of the trends and patterns (12 lines). As you introduce the second theory for explanatory purpose, this must have the mitigatory capacity to address the fallacious arguments of the first one. (Total 1 page=12+12 lines: 50 points)

SECTION D: If you were assigned to investigate the sketch of the world population history and the associated theoretical explanation that you provided, explain which data collection technique (only one) would be the best for this purpose. In this section first provide a brief description of the technique (12 lines) then illustrate the application of the technique to the analysis of the trend and the theoretical application drawn (12 lines). This technique should focus on the population status over the last thirty years. (Total 1 page=12+12 lines: 50 points)

SECTION E: If you were assigned to investigate the sketch of the world population history and the associated theoretical explanation that you provided, explain which data collection techniques you would use that would fall second in order of scientific applicability and be complementary to the first one, covering population status from the earliest arrival of human population to the beginning of the thirty year period analyzed in ‘Section D’. In this section first provide a brief description of the techniques (12 lines) then illustrate the application of the techniques to the analysis of the trend and the theoretical application provided (12 lines) As you introduce the second set of techniques for the analytical purpose, they must have the mitigatory capacities to address the procedural flaws of the first one during the description of the techniques. (12 lines). (Total 1 page=12+12 lines: 50 points)

FORMAT:

1)Your response must follow the precise length as prescribed.

Sections must be labeled as SECTION A:, SECTION B:, SECTION C:, SECTION D:, and SECTION E:. You should start typing the text immediately after typing the section label as capitalized, on the same line, instead of starting a separate paragraph. Spacing between two sections should be the same as the text if they appear on the same page (double spaced).

For a half page response there cannot be more than two paragraphs, and for a one-page response there cannot be more than four paragraphs.

Your paper must be word processed, double spaced, justified (aligned left and right), with one-inch margins on each side (top, bottom, left and right). Please note that sometimes you may have to readjust the margin spacing after examining a proof page if it comes out as not prescribed by going through page setup (in the File or Format icon on the toolbar).

Font size: Times New Roman (12 point).

Print: no dot matrix, only laser or ink jet.

Paper color: white.

Paper size: 8 & 1/2″ by 11″.

No clips or report covers. The paper must be handed in neatly stapled vertically on the left top corner of the page without touching the text.

Attention must be paid to:

a. content (use of textual information and class lectures),

b. critical thinking,

c. grammar,

d. spelling,

e. organization (logical arguments and structure),

f. aesthetics (neatness), and

g. timeliness in finishing the assignment.

Carefully plan. If anything seems unclear, consult immediately after the assignment is handed out and during office hours. Consultation must not take place during the last two days prior to when the paper is due. Please assume responsibility with utmost seriousness.

ASSIGNMENT TWO

Population: Sociology 303-A

Department of Social Sciences

McNeese State University

Collaborative Project – 1

Instructor: Muhammad Haque

SECTION A: Based on your reading of Chapter 5: The Health and Mortality Transition, (a) define the terms life span, life expectancy, and various other measures of mortality, (b) describe, among all the measures which one is the easiest to calculate and which one is most difficult to calculate, and why, (c) develop a very general explanatory model to explore mortality differential by outlining its various direct and indirect social and biological causes without identifying any specific types of societies, (d) specify in what ways the causes you identified in your model may vary between the highly industrialized or modern societies and the least industrialized or traditional societies, (e) describe in what ways changes in mortality levels in any direction—high to low or low to high—may pose a threat to societal stability as well as viability to societal stability, and (f) to analyze all the steps above, describe what types of methodological approaches you would utilize in the collection of data that would be rapid, cost effective, and very precise.

SECTION B: Based on your reading of Chapter 6: The Fertility Transition, (a) define various measures of fertility by distinguishing them from fecundity, (b) describe, among all the measures which one is the easiest to calculate and which one is most difficult to calculate, and why, (c) develop a very general explanatory model to explore fertility differential by outlining its various direct and indirect social and biological causes without identifying any specific types of societies, (d) specify, in what ways the causes you identified in your model may vary between the highly industrialized or modern societies and the least industrialized or traditional societies, (e) describe in what ways changes in fertility levels in any direction—high to low or low to high—may pose a threat to societal stability as well as viability to societal stability, and (f) to analyze all the steps above, describe what types of methodological approaches you would utilize in the collection of data that would be rapid, cost effective, and very precise.

SECTION C: Based on your reading of Chapter 7: The Migration Transition, (a) describe the term migration and define its various measurements by focusing on both, internal and international forms, (b) describe among all the measures which one is the easiest to calculate and which one is most difficult to calculate, and why, (c) develop a very general explanatory model to explore migration differential by outlining its various direct and indirect causes without identifying any specific types of societies, (d) specify, in what ways the causes you identified in your model may vary between highly industrialized or modern societies and the least industrialized or traditional societies, (e) explain in what ways the causal dimension that you portrayed in the explanatory model may vary between internal and international migration, (f) describe, by focusing on both internal and international migration, in what ways the whole migratory process poses a threat to societal stability as well as viability to societal stability, and (g) to analyze all the steps above, describe what types of methodological approaches you would utilize in the collection of data that would be rapid, cost effective, and very precise.

INSTRUCTIONS:

Please note that you will be given a few in-class sessions for the purpose of discussion prior to the actual presentation. If additional time is needed, that must be arranged outside the class session. During the oral presentation every student participant of the group is required to speak. It will be the responsibility of the whole group to collectively decide, divide and share the responsibility as equally as possible during the time of the oral presentation and defense. During the discussion session group must make sure that each student brings the text and notes that are helpful for responding to the questions asked in the assignment. The group has the right to eliminate any member who does not make oral and written contribution in terms of helpful notes during the discussion. However, the student/s in question and the instructor must be informed before any such decision is made to see if any positive resolution can be made. Please note that all forms of conflict must be resolved before the final grade is given. Complaints associated with any disputes will not be accepted after grades have been handed in, due to various legal implications. It is very important that the questions in the assignment are not divided between the group members during the preparatory process of the answers. Rather, the group members must collectively finish answering each question at a time. In that way someone’s absence on the day of presentation will have minimal negative effect on the group performance because every member will have the same information. After finishing responses to all the questions, all of the group members must practice the oral presentation several times as a preparation to finish the presentation in the allocated time. As you practice, each time you should start with a different person in case of any excused absences during the final presentation, since your instructor will decide who will be the first person to initiate the presentation.

Maximum time for oral presentation: Ten minutes

Maximum time for defense: Ten minutes

The following criteria will be used to evaluate your performance:

F D- D D+ C- C C+ B- B B+ A- A A+

00% 61% 65% 69% 71% 75% 79% 81% 85% 89% 91% 95% 99%

a.evidence that you have read the text.

b.evidence that you paid attention to the class lectures.

c.whether or not you have responded to all the questions.

d.whether you have used your critical thinking skills.

e.your enthusiasm in presentation.

f.maintaining proper level of eye contact with the audience.

g.maintaining diversity in the tone of voice.

h.whether you have used artful/effective techniques in your presentation.

i.your scholarly defense of arguments while confronted with questions from the audience.

j.balanced distribution of timing for response to all the questions.

k.finishing the presentation in the allocated time.

l.maintaining balanced coordination between the group members during presentation.

m.maintaining balanced coordination between the group members during defense.

ASSIGNMENT THREE

Population: Sociology 303-A

Department of Social Sciences

McNeese State University

Paper – 2

Instructor: Muhammad M. Haque

Based on your reading of the text, and corresponding class lectures and discussion of the materials from Chapter 8: The Age Transition, provide a written response to the following questions. This is an eight page assignment. The first page – cover page – should provide information following the example below. All the information must be typed bold, single spaced, on the left top corner of the page with a one inch margin.

Name: John A. Henry

Albert H. Adams

Paper: Two

Course: Population

No. & Sec.: Sociology 303-A

Semester & Year: Spring 2004

Instructor: Muhammad M. Haque

Due Date: October 10, 1999

Date Handed In:

SECTION A: Address the following terms—1. Age Cohort, 2. Sex Ratio, 3. Age Pyramid, 4. Average Age of a Population, 5. Dependency Ratio, 6. Growth Rates by Age, 7. Stable Population, 8. Zero Population, and 9. Stationary Population—first by defining them, and then by introducing their calculation process. For any particular term that does not have a formula or calculation process available, offer its brief description. Please ensure that the treatment to each concept, in terms of segment length and answer, is proportionate to the total length as indicated in parentheses. (Total 2 pages=24+24 lines: 100 points)

SECTION B: In this section provide a very brief description of the usage of the above demographic measurements by the demographers (12 lines) and the non-demographers (12 lines). (Total1 page=24 lines: 50 points)

SECTION C: Define the term ‘aging’ (old) from a biological and a social point of view with very specific illustrations. Provide your response in descriptive form rather than cursory indicative illustrations. (Total 1/2 page=12 lines: 25 points)

SECTION D: Make a distinction between the biological and social aspects of aging in addressing the causal processes determining the status of the elderly. In the process of discussion, address how the concepts of fertility, mortality and migration processes, discussed during the first part of the course and the concept of age stratification presented in Chapter 8, and the schematic diagram provided in the class, aid in the preparation of this segment of the assignment. (Total 2 and ½ pages=24+24+12 lines: 125 points)

SECTION E: Provide a descriptive illustration of the efficacy of studying the area of aging and its associated processes by the demographers (12 lines) and non-demographers (12 lines) in some specified professional settings. (Total 1 page=24 lines: 50 points)

FORMAT:

1)Your response must follow the precise length as prescribed.

2) Sections must be labeled as SECTION A:, SECTION B:, SECTION C:, SECTION D:. and SECTION E:. You should start typing the text immediately after typing the section label as capitalized, on the same line, instead of starting a separate paragraph. Spacing between two sections should be the same as the text if they appear on the same page (double spaced).

3)For a half page response there cannot be more than two paragraphs, and for a one page response there cannot be more than four paragraphs.

4)Your paper must be word processed, double spaced, justified (aligned left and right), with one inch margins on each side (top, bottom, left and right). Please note that sometimes you may have to readjust the margin spacing after examining a proof page if it comes out as not prescribed by going through page setup (in the File or Format icon on the toolbar).

5)Font size: Times New Roman (12 point).

Print: no dot matrix, only laser or ink jet.

Paper color: white.

Paper size: 8 & 1/2″ by 11″.

No clips or report covers. The paper must be handed in neatly stapled vertically on the left top corner of the page without touching the text.

Attention must be paid to:

a. content (use of textual information and class lectures),

b. critical thinking,

c. grammar,

d. spelling,

e. organization (logical arguments and structure),

f. aesthetics (neatness), and

g. timeliness in finishing the assignment.

Carefully plan. If anything seems unclear, consult immediately after the assignment is handed out and during office hours. Consultation must not take place during the last two days prior to when the paper is due. Please assume responsibility with the utmost seriousness.

ASSIGNMENT FOUR

Population: Sociology 303-A

Department of Social Sciences

McNeese State University

Collaborative Project -2

Instructor: Muhammad Haque

SECTION A: Based on your reading of Chapter 11: Population and Sustainability, (a) make a distinction between economic growth, (b) economic development and (c) social development in both definitional and descriptive forms.

SECTION B: Following the distinction made above, demonstrate how you would argue in favor of the position that population growth acts as a stimulus to economic development. For a critical response to this segment of the assignment you may consider reviewing Chapter 3: Demographic Perspective.

SECTION C: Following the distinction made between economic growth and economic development, demonstrate how you would argue in favor of the position that population growth acts as a detriment to economic development. For a critical response to this segment of the assignment you may consider reviewing Chapter 3: Demographic Perspective.

SECTION D: Based on the population growth’s position as a stimulus and a detriment to economic development, explain how these two positions are attendant to the status of the global environment in its past, current and future forms.

SECTION E: Based on your reading of Chapter 12: What Lies Ahead? and corresponding class lectures, define the term population policy by making a distinction between direct and indirect input measures to the total policy framework.

SECTION F: Develop a general population policy framework for any one of the less developed countries with its specific intervention criteria, taking into consideration three dynamic processes and their patterns—fertility, mortality, and migration. As you develop the policy framework and its interventional criteria, you must demonstrate that ultimately the developmental status that the country will arrive in will be socially balanced, economically cost effective, and environmentally sustainable in the long run.

INSTRUCTIONS:

Please note that you will be given a few in-class sessions for the purpose of discussion prior to the actual presentation. If additional time is needed, that must be arranged outside the class session. During the oral presentation every student participant of the group is required to speak. It will be the responsibility of the whole group to collectively decide, divide and share the responsibility as equally as possible during the time of the oral presentation and defense. During the discussion session group must make sure that each student brings the text and notes that are helpful for responding to the questions asked in the assignment. The group has the right to eliminate any member who does not make oral and written contribution in terms of helpful notes during the discussion. However, the student/s in question and the instructor must be informed before any such decision is made to see if any positive resolution can be made. Please note that all forms of conflict must be resolved before the final grade is given. Complaints associated with any disputes will not be accepted after grades have been handed in, due to various legal implications. It is very important that the questions in the assignment are not divided between the group members during the preparatory process of the answers. Rather, the group members must collectively finish answering each question at a time. In that way someone’s absence on the day of presentation will have minimal negative effect on the group performance because every member will have the same information. After finishing responses to all the questions, all of the group members must practice the oral presentation several times as a preparation to finish the presentation in the allocated time. As you practice, each time you should start with a different person in case of any excused absences during the final presentation, since your instructor will decide who will be the first person to initiate the presentation.

Maximum time for oral presentation: Fifteen minutes

Maximum time for defense: Ten minutes

The following criteria will be used to evaluate your performance:

F D- D D+ C- C C+ B- B B+ A- A A+

00% 61% 65% 69% 71% 75% 79% 81% 85% 89% 91% 95% 99%

a.evidence that you have read the text.

b.evidence that you paid attention to the class lectures.

c.whether or not you have responded to all the questions.

d.whether you have used your critical thinking skills.

e.your enthusiasm in presentation.

f.maintaining proper level of eye contact with the audience.

g.maintaining diversity in the tone of voice.

h.whether you have used artful/effective techniques in your presentation.

i.your scholarly defense of arguments while confronted with questions from the audience.

j.balanced distribution of timing for response to all the questions.

k.finishing the presentation in the allocated time.

l.maintaining balanced coordination between the group members during presentation.

m.maintaining balanced coordination between the group members during defense.

Posted in Uncategorized

Depression in Canadian Adolescent Females

Depression is the most well-known mental issue among adolescents

Background

Depression is the most well-known mental issue among adolescents with commonness rates going from 15-20% among adolescents between the age of 14-19 year, and it is accepted to be a significant helping variable in Adolescent suicide. In addition, depressive issues are fundamentally more regular in females than in males, with lifetime predominance of 14.1% for females and 8.6% for males. Some epidemiological, group and clinical studies have demonstrated that girls commonly have been found to show more elevated amounts of depressive side effects than young men. This has been ascribed to hereditary qualities, expanded predominance of nervousness issue in females, organic changes connected with pubescence, cognitive inclination and sociocultural variables. Few Canadian studies were directed to research the commonness and symptomatology of pre-adult gloom (). In a study including an example of essential and preparatory schools in the city of Alexandria 10.3% of students showed depressive scores, which were most astounding among the most established age amass (20.3%) (Kerr et al,. 2010). Girls had higher depressive scores when they were contrasted and young men. Adolescents who had a constructive history of suicide endeavors had essentially higher melancholy scores (93.7%) (Kiesner, Poulin & Dishion, 2010).

In the 1999 national study of Canadian adolescents, 59% of the example reported encountering sentiments of apprehension or tension. Forty for every penny of kids with tension issue had a comorbid depressive issue. In the National Comorbidity Survey, most cases reported intermittent depressive scenes and critical part debilitation, including endeavored suicide among 21.9% of those with MDD. Conceal gloom could be diagnosed in adolescents showing hyperactivity, forceful conduct, or misconduct on the off chance that they showed discouraged influence and indicated depressive or negative subjects on projective tests (Kiesner, Poulin & Dishion, 2010).

Dysphoria and/or fractiousness may take the spot of satisfaction and euthymia as the youngster’s prevailing inclination state. Expanding levels of misery, mournfulness, outrage responses, or candid wraths set off by insignificant or minor incitements may be taken note. Abnormal amounts of ecological push and also a couple of key distressing occasions were connected with suicide endeavors; a late sentimental separation or being attacked added to suicide endeavor hazard, past the impacts of psychopathology (Leatherdale & Ahmed, 2010). Once in a while do adolescents look for, all alone, contact with mental wellbeing experts for assessment of creating state of mind indications, in spite of the fact that they might all the more every now and again reach accessible experts or administrations spotted on location in school settings. Adolescents uncover their depressive sentiments all the more frequently through reports toward oneself than to their guardians

Aim of the study

Through this study, the creators pointed:

1- To gauge the predominance of depressive issue in Canadian adolescent females.

2- To gauge the trademark side effect profile of Canadian adolescent females (if there is a trademark profile).

Hypothesis

The speculation of this study was that depressive issue are profoundly predominant among Canadian female adolescents, and that there is a particular symptomatology describing the depressive issue in this age bunch. However accessible writing gives no direction in this matter. Methods

Design of the Study

This study is a descriptive, cross-sectional, school based study.

Site of the Study

This study was led in Ontario, Canada. A specimen of female Adolescent school understudies in Eastern Ontario was drawn. Six schools were chosen from two instructive regions, one locale speak to higher financial status (3 schools) and alternate less well-off status (3 schools). From each one school, 3 classes were chosen and all understudies in each one class were incorporated. Selection (Leatherdale & Ahmed, 2010). Essentially a strategy for examining was taken after permitting every significant variable to help in the constitution of the example an impart that was proportionate to its weight in the guardian populace. Determination of the span of this example was carried out after the interview of a statistician, examining was performed arbitrarily at five levels:

The city (Ontario) has 5 major geological territories from which one was chosen (Eastern Ontario).

2- Educational framework in Eastern Ontario was isolated into two real classifications (Private and Public) focused around financial profile.

From every classification three schools were picked.

Schools were looked over two instructive regions, one speaks to higher financial status (non-public schools) and alternate less well-off status (state funded schools), and those locale were (Heliopolis and El-Zaytoun).

From each one school, 3 classes (one class speaks to every auxiliary evaluation) were chosen and all understudies in each one class were incorporated. Choice of the classes was dictated by the school powers.

Ethical considerations

Amid the time of information gathering there was no moral panel (as of late settled in McGill University), be that as it may; the creators got the acknowledgement of power figures in McGill University and the Ministry of Education before beginning the study methods. Likewise, an educated assent was gotten from every member; they were educated about the surveys being utilized as a part of the study and acknowledged their offering in the study.

Procedures

The information were gathered by immediate talking with of the subjects in suitable settings inside their schools amid a period from the earliest starting point of November 2006 to the end of March 2007. At the time of the examination, an aggregate number of 602 pre-adult female understudies took part in the study, while the quantity of non-partaking female understudies was around 74 understudies. The clear explanation behind non-investment was their unlucky deficiency from school at the time of the study or being missed amid lessons or the time of the break.

The subjects of the study completed the following tools:

The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), it is a screening instrument for psychiatric sickness so as to recognize potential cases which could then be checked and the way of which could be dictated by utilizing a second stage instrument as it shouldn’t be utilized as a sole standard for analysis, it is basically used to discover casernes. The form utilized as a part of this study is the Canadian rendition of a short 28-things scale with the example scorer technique which is (0-0-1-1). The cut-off purpose of GHQ was 7 as per comparative past national studies to minimize the related misrepresentations with the first low edge score.

The Children Depression Inventory (CDI), which is intended to be utilized as a screening instrument for melancholy in an ordinary adolescent specimen or as a measure of indication seriousness. It is helpful for furnishing the clinician with organized, age and sexual orientation standard referenced data about the tyke symptomatology. The scale is suitable for adolescents and adolescents from seven to eighteen years of age. It comprises of 27 gatherings of proclamations; each gathering comprises of three announcements speaking to the subject’s inclination at the most recent two weeks. The score is from 0-2 as per the manifestation seriousness and the aggregate score extends between 0-54. The cut-off point utilized for this study was 24 as comparative past national studies. It has been institutionalized and meant Canadian dialect. Adolescents who scored more than 24 on (CDI) were further assessed by the accompanying polls:

Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder (clinician rendition) (SCID-I), a semistructured demonstrative meeting focused around a productive yet careful clinical assessment. The study utilized the Canadian adaptation of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV hub I Disorders (SCID-I).

The Hamilton Rating Scale for misery (Ham-D) intended to measure the seriousness of depressive manifestations in patients with essential depressive indications, it is the most ordinarily utilized eyewitness evaluated depressive side effects rating scale. Its interior consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.76, and 0.92. It is an agenda of things that are positioned on a scale of 0-4 or 0-2. Scoring: extremely serious >23, extreme 19-22, direct 14-18, mellow 8-13 and typical < 7.

Statistical Analysis

All information were recorded and exchanged on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17. The results were classified, assembled and factually examined utilizing the accompanying tests:

• Descriptive detail were accounted for as means and frequencies.

• Pearson Chi square test (X2): to distinguish whether there is a critical relationship between diverse downright variables.

• Student t-test: used to test for measurable centrality of fluctuation between two examples implies.

• P quality: used to demonstrate the level of importance: critical is P < 0.01.

Results

The mean age for the mulled over specimen was 15.7 + 0.9 years and 15.4 + 0.99 years for higher and lower social class schools individually. A rate of 15.3% of the mulled over specimen were assessed to meet criteria for sadness as indicated by the CDI cut-off point. While, by the utilization of SCID-I around 13.3% of the mulled over populace was found to have depressive issue, appropriated as 5% sub-edge depressive side effects, 5% MDD and 3.3% dysthymic issue. As per Ham-D, 10% of discouraged female adolescents included in the study were named having moderate depressive state, while 30% had gentle depressive state and 60% of them had subthreshold depressive state (Table 1)

Table 1. Circulation of seriousness of dejection among discouraged understudies, as measured by Ham-D.

In this study the exhaustion or absence of vitality (discovered by Ham-D) was by a long shot the most widely recognized side effect among discouraged female adolescents (81.3%) took after by negativity with respect to the future, feeling miserable, low self regard, psychomotor hindrance, absence of focus, blame, suicidality, sleep deprivation, anhedonia, hypersomnia, weight addition, and ultimately weight reduction and psychomotor unsettling (Table 2).

Table 2. Dispersion of depressive side effects among discouraged understudies, as measured by SCID-I.

This study uncovered that 75.5% of youthful females evaluated as having moderate depressive state had suicidal indications (recognized by Ham-D), 52% of Adolescent females appraised as mellow depressive state accomplished the same side effects, and 43% of understudies with subthreshold depressive state additionally had suicidal manifestations.

Suicidal ideations (answer 3 for the inquiry regarding suicide in Ham-D) were the most well-known of the suicidal indications in Adolescent females, 20% of the specimen of discouraged female adolescents, while the rate of genuine endeavors was 2.5% of the example.

Concerning between depressive issue and other psychiatric issue (evaluated by SCID-I) summed up uneasiness issue was the most pervasive comorbid finding (32.5% of discouraged understudies), emulated by social fear (20%) then substance misuse (8.8%) then over the top impulsive issue (0.1%) (Table 3). Likewise screening by GHQ uncovered minor psychiatric bleakness in 46.4% of Adolescent females.

Table 3. Dissemination of comorbid psychiatric conclusions among discouraged youthful females as per SCID-I.

Discussion

I-Prevalence of depression

A rate of 15.3% of the mulled over specimen were assessed to meet criteria for sorrow as indicated by the CDI cut-off point. The study addressed the first piece of the fundamental theory of the study. It uncovered the point commonness of depressive issue among this specimen of Adolescent females as indicated by SCID-I to be around 13.3%. This commonness is moderately high when contrasted with comparable studies. Kessler and Walters inspected adolescents and youthful grown-ups and discovered the 30-day commonness was 5.8% (significant misery) and 2.1% (minor despondency) as indicated by DSM-IV (Morse et al,. 2008).

Higher predominance of depressive issue among pre-adult females in an Canadian group may be the consequence of a foundation of social, social and enthusiastic insecurity describing this particular age amass notwithstanding the oppression females predominating social orders in a large portion of the underdeveloped nations some of the time announced and more often than not denied, trying to wear cultivated behavior and practices.

II-Symptoms

The second piece of the primary speculation was a trial to outline a particular symptomatology describing misery among Adolescent females. The symptomatology portraying melancholy in pre-adult females was prevailed by weariness and absence of vitality (more than 80%), at times with psychomotor impediment (around 2/3 of the example). Likewise negativity, trouble and low self regard were communicated (around 3/4 of the example). A sleeping disorder was accounted for (45%) ordinary citizen than hypersomnia (33.8%). Weight put on and weight reduction were accounted for, both were accomplished practically ambiguously (around 1/3 of the example for each). Sociality was discovered to be generally high (around 1/2 of the specimen) (Morse et al,. 2008).

Somatic symptoms

In this study the exhaustion and absence of vitality were by a long shot the most widely recognized side effects among discouraged female adolescents (81.3%), notwithstanding psychomotor impediment (62.5%), and psychomotor fomentation (20%). This was as per aftereffects of more established Canadian studies. The clinical profile of psychiatric issue (DSM-III and III-R individually) in the Canadian group was formerly mulled over and they found that physical indications were the most well-known manifestation, among the discouraged Canadian populace. The results were about like that of McCormick, Mathews, Thomas & Waters (2010) who found that the most widely recognized depressive manifestations (measured by CBDI) were exhaustion and physical indications in an example of Canadian adolescents.

Notwithstanding; these results were not the same as those of different studies performed in western nations, the most widely recognized manifestations among discouraged adolescents were sentiments of pity, dismalness, discouraged temperament and slumber aggravations. The error in the middle of eastern and western groups as respects the way the youthful females experience and express their discouragement may be an intriguing zone for future investigates.

In Canadian society, individuals have a tendency to cover their influence with substantial protests, which involve the closer view and the emotional part of their ailment subsides to the foundation. This may be because of more noteworthy social acknowledgement of physical objections than of mental dissentions which are either not considered important or are accepted to be cured by rest or begging. Physical disease and substantial sign of mental misery are more satisfactory and prone to incite a minding reaction than the dubious objections of mental trouble which can be ignored or considered as a shortcoming or a level of craziness. A late study performed by Stein et al (2010) inspected ethnic/racial contrasts toward the start of treatment among members in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). African American and Latino youth were contrasted with Caucasian youth on indication presentation and cognitive variables connected with sadness. In opposition to speculation, there were no noteworthy contrasts in indication presentation as measured by the meeting based things of the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) (Kendall et al,. 2010).

Emotional symptoms

Adolescent females in this study demonstrated a scope of passionate and cognitive side effects in the setting of depressive manifestations. Negativity (75%), pity (73.8%), and low self-regard (73.8%) were the commonest (Table 2). The self-impression of discouraged adolescents normally are checked by sentiments of insufficiency, mediocrity, disappointment, and uselessness. Assessment of this rule is testing on the grounds that numerous adolescents don’t straightforwardly recognize such negative self-observations. Numerous adolescents specifically report a discouraged disposition a great part of the time, in any case; sorrow in adolescents generally communicates as a bad tempered inclination, on the grounds that numerous adolescents fail to offer the passionate and cognitive advancement to effectively distinguish and compose their enthusiastic encounters

In agreement to the current study, Kendall et al,.(2010) showed a solid relationship between depressive manifestations and thought toward oneself. Contrasted and alternate gatherings, adolescents in a custom curriculum at danger for passionate and behavioral issue demonstrated a noteworthy diminishing in thought toward oneself after age 15. Also, high disguising conduct was connected with more depressive side effects and lower thought toward oneself. In spite of the fact that unequivocally denied by the Canadian group, sentimental connections and fizzled relationships may assume a real part in the etiology of depressive side effects among pre-adult females. These adolescents need to face their disappointments and fix their mix-ups either alone or looking for the assistance of the unpracticed companions and associates.

Vegetative symptoms

Adolescent females in this study had vegetative indications extending in the middle of run of the mill and atypical side effects of discouragement: (45%) experienced sleep deprivation, while (33.8%) accomplished hypersomnia. Audit of writing uncovered distinctive patterns: an inclination to portray atypical depressive indications in the pre-adult age bunches. This may be ascribed to the personality disarray and revolting state of mind towards customs and standards intimated by the family and the general public, prompting evident changes in the slumber example and beat. Rest aggravation is normal in discouraged adolescents, (interviewed by the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-and finished the inclination and emotions report toward oneself misery poll) a large number of whom depict their slumber as non-remedial and report trouble getting up in the morning. Rest aggravation shows as a sleeping disorder, hypersomnia or huge movements of slumber example over the diurnal cycle. These discoveries were not as per the current study. Definite dissection of the slumber example ought to be assessed in further research (Hankins et al,. 2010).

As respects weight changes, weight increase was an indication in (33.8%) of the discouraged females, and weight reduction was accomplished by (30%) of them (Table 2). The adolescents are demonstrating an over concern with their physical appearance which is generally the aftereffect of their adjustment to companion gathering impact. Different studies demonstrated distinctive comes about longing and weight changes: anorexia is more common in juvenile girls. While a few adolescents with depressive issue want and consume more particular sustenance (i.e. trash nourishment and carbs) and as needs be put on more weight than anticipated amid their youthful development spurt. Further assessment of longing and weight changes among discouraged Adolescent females is required.

Suicidality

In this study suicidal manifestations (counting last requests, suicidal ideation and suicidal endeavors) were pronounced by (48.8%) of discouraged adolescent females. The recurrence of suicidal side effects was 75.5% among subjects with moderate depressive express (8 subjects). While of the adolescent females enduring of mellow depressive express (23 subjects), 52% accomplished suicidal indications. Interestingly, of the subjects who accomplished sub-limit depressive express (49 subjects) 43% additionally accomplished suicidal indications. These discoveries are higher than the discoveries of different studies however as per them: One of these studies demonstrated that 35% of discouraged adolescents had suicidal indications, Another study demonstrated the rate of suicidal side effects to be 30% among discouraged understudies while a third study uncovered endeavored suicide among 21.9% of the adolescents with real misery. An alternate Canadian study uncovered that suicidal ideation and endeavors were regular among discouraged Canadian adolescents, 30% of the specimen reported that they had solid last requests (measured by CDI) or had a plan to damage themselves (Paus et al,. 2010).

The rate of suicidality in the current study was much higher than the rate recognized by Torros et al (2004) who found that suicidal indications (measured by CBDI) were sure in 6.9% of discouraged Canadian adolescent girls, this variety in results may be clarified by social and religious contrasts bringing about underreporting of suicidal side effects because of alarm of disgrace or blame. The current study uncovered that discouraged adolescent females may have suicidal side effects, notwithstanding the seriousness or number of depressive indications. This discovering shades light on the way that the sub threshold depressive indications in youthfulness -not simply clinical sorrow ought to be considered important. Subjects with sub threshold sorrow ought not to be delegated “non-cases” not one or the other to be dealt with just as they have a comparative anticipation to the individuals who are asymptomatic.

A study performed by Paus et al,. (2010) analyzed suicide endeavors among discouraged essential forethought youthful patients, youth named suicide attempters demonstrated hoisted levels of psychopathology, particularly depressive manifestations, externalizing behavioral issue, nervousness substance utilization, lunacy and PTSD indications. Further assessment of suicidality in this particular age gathering need to be carried out in future exploration.

III-Psychiatric comorbidity

In this study, summed up uneasiness issue was the most common co-horrible conclusion among discouraged adolescent females, notwithstanding social nervousness issue, and substance use (Table 3). This is consonant with different studies which demonstrated that uneasiness issue was the most well-known comorbid issue with despondency.

In the study led by Paus et al,. (2010) aggregate nervousness and stress and oversensitivity side effects were found to anticipate later depressive manifestations more unequivocally for girls than for young men. Physiological nervousness predicts later depressive side effects for both young men and girls. These discoveries which are consonant with the aftereffects of the current study, highlight the criticalness of uneasiness for the advancement of sorrow in youth, especially stress and oversensitivity among girls.

Strengths and limitations

As one of the few studies that have explored the commonness and the symptomology of juvenile gloom, the present study has utilized an extensive battery of psychiatric devices for screening, conclusion and appraisal of seriousness of sadness, the utilization of a semi-organized clinical meeting for finding, not depending on the reports toward oneself. The meetings utilized were straightforwardly tended to understudies not in vicinity of their families which is additionally easing to female adolescents, they want to discuss their emotions in their associate surroundings instead of before parents.

In spite of these qualities, there are a few confinements of this study that require cautious attention in the translation of the discoveries. In the first place, the extent of the example was generally little. Second, the psychiatric analyses were chiefly focused around clinical meetings of study subjects without questioning their guardians. Past studies have demonstrated low assention among kid, guardian, and instructor witnesses in reporting adolescents’ passionate and behavioral issues and the need to join educators’ reports into the distinguishing proof of depressive symptomology. Third, a more complete study would include an instrument for a definite identity evaluation, to prohibit the impact of some identity characteristics on the subjects’ conduct, e.g.suicidality. Fourth, the estimation of suicidality was focused around inquiries inside the Ham-D, this would better be surveyed by a particular scale for suicidality. At last, the setting for the study, as it is realized that administrating self-reports in non-clinical populace may bring about expanded scores. The absence of complete data in psychiatric conclusions for all study subjects has hindered the likelihood for detailed longitudinal examines of psychiatric indications.

Conclusions

The physical side effects were by a long shot the most well-known exhibiting indication for female adolescents experiencing depressive issue. Depressive phenomena including unexplained weariness, diminished vitality, psychomotor changes, absence of fixation, weight changes and self-destructive ideations may be the exhibiting objections rather than the exemplary miserable state of mind.

Further studies are required to check if early recognition of depressive issue in adolescents may influence the course of the depressive disease, and its entanglements i.e. Substance misuse, educational disintegration and suicidality. Further examination of danger variables, longitudinal course of depressive manifestations, level of working, examples of comorbidity, and the psychopathological foundation of juvenile populace at danger would be finishing the picture around there of exploration.

References

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Kiesner, J., Poulin, F., & Dishion, T. J. (2010). Adolescent substance use with friends: Moderating and mediating effects of parental monitoring and peer activity contexts. Merrill-Palmer quarterly (Wayne State University. Press),56(4), 529.

Leatherdale, S. T., & Ahmed, R. (2010). Alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use among Canadian youth: do we need more multi-substance prevention programming?. The journal of primary prevention, 31(3), 99-108.

Marshal, M. P., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., King, K. M., Miles, J., Gold, M. A., … & Morse, J. Q. (2008). Sexual orientation and adolescent substance use: a meta‐analysis and methodological review*. Addiction, 103(4), 546-556.

McCormick, C. M., Mathews, I. Z., Thomas, C., & Waters, P. (2010). Investigations of HPA function and the enduring consequences of stressors in adolescence in animal models. Brain and cognition, 72(1), 73-85.

Montaner, J. S., Lima, V. D., Barrios, R., Yip, B., Wood, E., Kerr, T., … & Kendall, P. (2010). Association of highly active antiretroviral therapy coverage, population viral load, and yearly new HIV diagnoses in British Columbia, Canada: a population-based study. The Lancet, 376(9740), 532-539.

Strathdee, S. A., Hallett, T. B., Bobrova, N., Rhodes, T., Booth, R., Abdool, R., & Hankins, C. A. (2010). HIV and risk environment for injecting drug users: the past, present, and future. The Lancet, 376(9737), 268-284.

Toledo‐Rodriguez, M., Lotfipour, S., Leonard, G., Perron, M., Richer, L., Veillette, S., … & Paus, T. (2010). Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with epigenetic modifications of the brain‐derived neurotrophic factor‐6 exon in adolescent offspring. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 153(7), 1350-1354.

Tonmyr, L., Thornton, T., Draca, J., & Wekerle, C. (2010). A review of childhood maltreatment and adolescent substance use relationship. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 6(3), 223-234.