since it is the last day before Lent. Lent is the season of prayer and fasting observed by the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian denominations during the forty days and seven Sundays before Easter Sunday. Easter can be on any Sunday from March 23 to April 25

since it is the last day before Lent. Lent is the season of prayer and fasting observed by the Roman Catholic Church and other Christian denominations during the forty days and seven Sundays before Easter Sunday. Easter can be on any Sunday from March 23 to April 25

since the exact day is set to coincide with the first Sunday after the full moon following the Spring Equinox. Mardi Gras occurs on any Tuesday from February 3 through March 9. The Gregorian calendar

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Death Dying and funeral as it relates to a social institution

Death Dying and funeral as it relates to a social institution

Death/ Dying and funeral as it relates to a social institution

From a social perspective, death translates into difficult encounter that the members of the affected social institution would like to get over soon. Loss and grieve characterize the mood of the bereaved in nearly all social institutions, a phenomenon of the advanced social life that human beings have. In a general setting, the departure of the diseased creates a somber detachment since the social bond that binds the members of a social institution is usually strongly manifested at that time. Loss of a loved one can leave a huge mark on the bereaved, especially in the family setting to such an extent that the emotional aspect of grieving is extended long after the burial. In such scenarios, assistance is necessitated by the fact that psychological breakdown can easily be experienced.

In the family setting for instance, the loss of a member can result in a serious foiled attachment consequence if the necessary psychological assistance is not accorded to the victim (Kennedy, 45). Some of the most devastating grieving experiences occasioned by the death of a family member include; loss of a child, loss of a spouse, loss of a parent and loss of a sibling. There may be other serious grieving scenarios where members of the extended family were closely attached to a member of the family such as what happens in a nuclear family. An example of a serious loss experience is when a grandparent dies when exercising the custody of his or her grandchildren, who get the shock upon the death. Te basic element of such grieving is the attachment that members of the family develop with each other over the years. In some situations, where the relations are tense and inappropriate to befit a family setting, death may not affect the bereaved.

Coping with the death of a close member of a social institution is a psychological state that only a few can handle. Psychological assistance is offered in assisting the grieving members to come to terms with the fact that the departed is finally gone and assist them continue with life without the dead. A series of stages are brought out in the grief and loss therapy where denial and anger are first dealt with. Acceptance of death and healing from the shock of the loss of a beloved one should facilitate the necessary coping that ends grieving (Moshe, 238). Episodes of bitter emotional breakdowns are expected in the sessions since grief and loss is a highly emotional therapy. Silence does not imply that every member of the family is well with the results of the loss and counseling sessions should be offered to tackle any withdrawal symptoms.

From a social conflict perspective, it is largely agreeable that several disputes arise from death of a member of a social institution. Ranging from petty burial site conflicts to complex inheritance rows, death has been recorded as a source of discord among members of a social institution. According to Maslin (8), the death of a parent can be a source of misunderstanding and conflict among siblings. In areas where a family’s rule may be seen to be under threat, the death of the parent may cause tension not only among the members of the family but also among the power searching opponents of such a political organization thereby creating a conflict (Scheele, 860). From the conflict perspective, it follows that the death of a member of a social institution creates an instability that seems almost impossible to be present while the member is alive. For instance, for inheritance wrangles among members of a family upon the death of a parent, the conflicting parties would find it inappropriate to instigate any differences in the presence of their parent. As reported by McGoldrick (441), issues arise regarding the will of the dying which can result in a preventable conflict. The author holds the opinion that if the appropriate intervention is sought before the dying leaves the uncertainty in the will at the final moments of life, then conflicts would not be prevalent.

From a symbolic interactionism approach, death is a moment that defines the relationship that one has over his or her entire life. People create relationships with both humans and objects to build their own constructs about life and they stick to their perceptions till death. At their hour of death, what was uniquely dear to them may be manifested to reveal a part of their character that others did not know. One of the main reasons why people develop such unique relationship perceptions is dependent on their social life with their social world. According to Abbuhl (1), it is clear that at death, one’s own social life may be subject of analysis to reveal how important social life is to every human being. For instance, the disclosure of love for musical instruments attested by the presence of a variety of collections for the same can be used to draw a conclusion of how the dead person lived among music lovers.

Works Cited

Abbuhl, Shannon “Extreme Isolation of Symbolic Interaction,” 2010. Web. HYPERLINK “http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~sa337397/symbolic.htm” http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~sa337397/symbolic.htm (Accessed 25 April 2011)

Kennedy, A. Your loved one lives on within you. New York, NY: Berkley Publishers, 1997. Print

Maslin, Janet “Carefree Look at Death Reveals Family Conflicts: Review.” New York Times, Issue 24 April 1992, p.8. Print

McGoldrick, Monica “Thoughts on the Importance of Wills in Family Relationships: A Clinical Approach to Elizabeth Stone.” Family Process, 47.4(2008):441-444

Moshe, Israelashvili “Staying Normal in an Abnormal Corner of the World: Mental Health Counseling in Israel,” HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com.ezp.pasadena.edu/docview.lateralsearchlink_1:lateralsearch/sng/pubtitle/Journal+of+Mental+Health+Counseling/$N?t:ac=198719833/12EF3B6DF0C196740A1/2&t:cp=maintain/resultcitationblocks” o “Click to search for more items from this journal” Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 27.3(2005):238-248

Scheele, Judith “Algerian Graveyard Stories.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 12.4(2006):859-879

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Death of a Salesman is a play written by Miller, Arthur in 1949

Death of a Salesman is a play written by Miller, Arthur in 1949

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Death of a Salesman

Death of a Salesman is a play written by Miller, Arthur in 1949. Its story revolves around the life of Willy Loman’s family. His wife is Linda and their two son’s Biff and Happy. Willy Loman proves to be a protagonist all along this play. He starts with worrying about their son Biff even being as tired as he is. This is evident when he complains to his wife that Biff needs to make a good in his life even after he failed in senior year math exam and did not proceed to college. He is devoted to his job that is why he attends business trips far away from his home town. This portrays his attitude towards his work. In the play, Willy also gets angry because his sons, Biff and Happy, did not become what he wanted them to be. Even with Biffs’ promise to succeed in athletics/agons, he did not amount to any of that. The two sons and Willy a meet up at a dinner restaurant and he is left alone when Biff and Happy walk out on him after he refuses to listen to Biffs’ business proposal. Later on at home, Biff goes outside to clear the conflict with his father and the conversation ends with the two of them hugging after Biff asks Willy to accept him for who he is not who he failed to become and tells him that he loves him. On realizing that his son has forgiven him and wants to pursue a business career, the play hits climax when Willy commits suicide through an accident so that Biff can use his insurance money to set up his businesses and start off in his career. This shows to what extent Willy was willing to go to for his sons to succeed.

Biff on the other hand shows his protagonist nature by persisting in becoming an athlete earlier on in the play. He makes a promise to succeed and this shows how optimistic he was about it. Later on in the play after failing in his finals, his father gets an attitude towards him in the manner that he does not even want to listen to his business proposal when they meet in the restaurant. Willy still thinks of him as a failure to this moment because of his performance in his finals. Willy goes to his past employer to try and get his job back but unfortunately does not succeed. He does not give up but he later confronts Willy outside the house on a plot to reconcile with his father. Though it turns to an argument at the beginning, it ends well after he tells him to let go of the dream he still has for him because it does wait for him to this day. They hug and clear off the air and Biff tells his father Willy that he loves him.

Getrude was wife and queen to the deceased King Hamlet in the play, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. She got married to the succeeding King, King Claudius, who is said to have murdered King Hamlet. She shows sympathy in the play to her son and also sarcastically foreshadows to Ophelia in her burial when she says that she had hoped for her to get married to her son. Later on in the play she get’s poisoned in place of her son through a drink meant for Hamlet during his fight with Laertes. She dies shouting in agony and calling out to her son.

I would take us to Host International since being an international hotel it would be suitable. First and foremost I would ask her why she chose or rather decided to marry the deceased King’s brother right after his death. In the play this left so much curiosity in me that I would like to be settled. In normal sense, this should have been a demoralizing act especially in the setting it was placed in. Then I would want to know from her directly why she was not as affected by her husband’s death as she should have been. This should have been a hard time in her life as she tried to recollect the pieces of her life after the incident. Even under the suspension of disbelief, I still would have asked this question. “If you happened to have been aware of King Claudius’ plan towards your son, would you still have taken the drink meant to kill him?”

Personally basing this on the knowledge of Getrude and the exposition in the play, I think the reason she would give as to the subsequent marriage to King Claudius was so that she had always envied the King’s brother even in her marriage with King Hamlet. This would have been the more convincing reason that dint demoralize her, having a hubris personality. To the question on why she did not get as affected by King Hamlet’s death, I think she would say that everyone has their own different ways catharsis and hers was the way that she did. Last but not least, she would say that she would have done it as a mother for the love of her son and so that he would live on his fathers’ life and dream and honor his name by regaining the throne to its rightful leader. Personally, I think the real not said reason would be a straight no.

Tragedy plays are mainly plays that have males as the main protagonists or whose major characters die or plays with shuttered hopes or null promises through trickery. So as to change Tartuffe to a tragedy play, first I would reverse the script that instead of Tartuffe being a friend to Orgon, he is an old friend to Elmire who she insists to his husband to let stay with them for some time. This breaks the obviousness of plays that the male is always the lead character. Tragedy would also be brought in the play Tartuffe by creating a relationship between Tartuffe and Damis. I would have it that Damis was old enough but his father had not yet given him his share of wealth and for this reason he grew to hate his father. So for this reason he befriends Tartuffe in a quest to the destruction of his father and the sharing of the property on Orgon’s downfall. Later on after Tartuffe has been arrested and truth is in the light about his plot with Tartuffe, he is arrested too and faces the same judgment

Looking at the plays Death of a Salesman and Tragedy of Hamlet, they have their differences and similarities despite being written by different authors. For instance the major similarity between the two is vivid as both Biff and Hamlet are in a conquest to meet certain expectations in their lives. Other than one of their parents being involved in an act that is greatly unpleasant to them they still look at the greater picture which is achieving what they have their minds set to. Biff catches his father Willy cheating while he was in a business trip and Hamlet’s mother, Getrude, marries the succeeding King who happens to be a brother to his deceased husband. Beef tries to explain to his father the new business idea he had but gets turned down whereas Hamlet engages in many fights in the quest to avenge his father and reclaim his place in the throne.

The setting itself raises the curtains for the differences between them. Whereas Death of a Salesman is set in a town and developed kind of setting, Tragedy of Hamlet is placed in a setting showing the ancient days when the rules of king’s existed and there was the hierarchical shift of power and thrones.

The play Death of a Salesman is meant to show how a father worked so hard in his lifetime so that his sons would grow up to be who he always thought of them to be except they grew up to be different people, who like different things and had different perceptions of their future. On realizing this after so many years, he does what the situation would only allow him to, so that he could be of assistance to his son’s success. He kills himself so that the son would use the life insurance money to start up the career he wanted.

In comparison to delusion, Willy and Linda Loman were really under the want that their sons make in life through education. This is shown when Willy complains to Linda about Biff not having made anything of him. We are then reminded him of how he had failed on his final math exam and failed to join college and his father changed his perception on his success.

In Tartuffe, women have been treated in a diminishing manner. In that Elmire is unable to change her husband’s mind about the son’s banishment after they tried to give reason to their father that Tartuffe had other bad motives to his stay. Normally as lady of the hose and mother to Damis she had a say in Orgon’s decision. This is also clear because roles of women in the play are fewer than those of men.

In The Tragedy of Hamlet, women have been given a vital role. They are present before King Hamlet dies and also after his succession. For example Getrude is wife to King Hamlet and also to King Claudius. However much she dies out of poisoning at the end, she is a lead character throughout the play being the queen to both kings.

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Death And Funeral As It Relates To A Social Institution

Death And Funeral As It Relates To A Social Institution

Death And Funeral As It Relates To A Social Institution

From a social perspective, death translates into difficult encounter that the members of the affected social institution would like to get over soon. Loss and grieve characterize the mood of the bereaved in nearly all social institutions, a phenomenon of the advanced social life that human beings have. In a general setting, the departure of the diseased creates a somber detachment since the social bond that binds the members of a social institution is usually strongly manifested at that time. Loss of a loved one can leave a huge mark on the bereaved, especially in the family setting to such an extent that the emotional aspect of grieving is extended long after the burial. In such scenarios, assistance is necessitated by the fact that psychological breakdown can easily be experienced.

In the family setting for instance, the loss of a member can result in a serious foiled attachment consequence if the necessary psychological assistance is not accorded to the victim (Kennedy, 45). Some of the most devastating grieving experiences occasioned by the death of a family member include; loss of a child, loss of a spouse, loss of a parent and loss of a sibling. There may be other serious grieving scenarios where members of the extended family were closely attached to a member of the family such as what happens in a nuclear family. An example of a serious loss experience is when a grandparent dies when exercising the custody of his or her grandchildren, who get the shock upon the death. Te basic element of such grieving is the attachment that members of the family develop with each other over the years. In some situations, where the relations are tense and inappropriate to befit a family setting, death may not affect the bereaved.

Coping with the death of a close member of a social institution is a psychological state that only a few can handle. Psychological assistance is offered in assisting the grieving members to come to terms with the fact that the departed is finally gone and assist them continue with life without the dead. A series of stages are brought out in the grief and loss therapy where denial and anger are first dealt with. Acceptance of death and healing from the shock of the loss of a beloved one should facilitate the necessary coping that ends grieving (Moshe, 238). Episodes of bitter emotional breakdowns are expected in the sessions since grief and loss is a highly emotional therapy. Silence does not imply that every member of the family is well with the results of the loss and counseling sessions should be offered to tackle any withdrawal symptoms.

From a social conflict perspective, it is largely agreeable that several disputes arise from death of a member of a social institution. Ranging from petty burial site conflicts to complex inheritance rows, death has been recorded as a source of discord among members of a social institution. According to Maslin (8), the death of a parent can be a source of misunderstanding and conflict among siblings. In areas where a family’s rule may be seen to be under threat, the death of the parent may cause tension not only among the members of the family but also among the power searching opponents of such a political organization thereby creating a conflict (Scheele, 860). From the conflict perspective, it follows that the death of a member of a social institution creates an instability that seems almost impossible to be present while the member is alive. For instance, for inheritance wrangles among members of a family upon the death of a parent, the conflicting parties would find it inappropriate to instigate any differences in the presence of their parent. As reported by McGoldrick (441), issues arise regarding the will of the dying which can result in a preventable conflict. The author holds the opinion that if the appropriate intervention is sought before the dying leaves the uncertainty in the will at the final moments of life, then conflicts would not be prevalent.

From a symbolic interactionism approach, death is a moment that defines the relationship that one has over his or her entire life. People create relationships with both humans and objects to build their own constructs about life and they stick to their perceptions till death. At their hour of death, what was uniquely dear to them may be manifested to reveal a part of their character that others did not know. One of the main reasons why people develop such unique relationship perceptions is dependent on their social life with their social world. According to Abbuhl (1), it is clear that at death, one’s own social life may be subject of analysis to reveal how important social life is to every human being. For instance, the disclosure of love for musical instruments attested by the presence of a variety of collections for the same can be used to draw a conclusion of how the dead person lived among music lovers.

Works Cited

Abbuhl, Shannon “Extreme Isolation of Symbolic Interaction,” 2010. Web. HYPERLINK “http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~sa337397/symbolic.htm” http://oak.cats.ohiou.edu/~sa337397/symbolic.htm (Accessed 25 April 2011)

Kennedy, A. Your loved one lives on within you. New York, NY: Berkley Publishers, 1997. Print

Maslin, Janet “Carefree Look at Death Reveals Family Conflicts: Review.” New York Times, Issue 24 April 1992, p.8. Print

McGoldrick, Monica “Thoughts on the Importance of Wills in Family Relationships: A Clinical Approach to Elizabeth Stone.” Family Process, 47.4(2008):441-444

Moshe, Israelashvili “Staying Normal in an Abnormal Corner of the World: Mental Health Counseling in Israel,” HYPERLINK “http://search.proquest.com.ezp.pasadena.edu/docview.lateralsearchlink_1:lateralsearch/sng/pubtitle/Journal+of+Mental+Health+Counseling/$N?t:ac=198719833/12EF3B6DF0C196740A1/2&t:cp=maintain/resultcitationblocks” o “Click to search for more items from this journal” Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 27.3(2005):238-248

Scheele, Judith “Algerian Graveyard Stories.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 12.4(2006):859-879

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New Product Development Process The Case of Uber and Netflix

New Product Development Process The Case of Uber and Netflix

New Product Development Process: The Case of Uber and Netflix

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New Product Development Process: The Case of Uber and Netflix

1. Introduction

New Product Development refers to the process of introducing a new product to the existing market. At times it also covers renewal of an existing product and the introduction of old products to new markets (Kim, Park, & Sawng, 2016). This involves the identification of market needs, product conceptualization, building the roadmap of the product, product launch, and feedback collection. New product development happens to be key part of product design and this process does not end unless the life cycle of a product is over. The companies can keep on collecting feedback from the users and iterate on newer versions by adding or enhancing newer features (Awwad & Akroush, 2016). This paper will discuss each stage in the product development process based on case studies of two companies: Netflix and Uber.

2. Opportunity Identification, Idea Generation and Screening

Ideas that are unique and meet consumers’ needs form the spine of the new product development. It is the most important step in developing any new product, and they arise from market opportunities that can be innumerable.

2.1 Opportunities Leading to the Development of Concepts and Products for Netflix and Uber

Netflix launched in the year 1997 when Blockbuster was already in the business of video rental for years. The aim of Netflix was to compete against Blockbuster but there were changes and disruptions to the home/video entertainment industry and that is where Netflix took a different direction (Elkawy et al. 2015). Contrary to Blockbuster, it did not have late fees. When the customers were done with the DVDs, they were required to return them to Netflix and rent another. Netflix did this because there was a marketing and technology and competed with Blockbuster (Elkawy et al. 2015).

The concept for Uber generated when two friends Garrett Camp and Travis Kalanick were not able to get a cab. The idea of Uber came about when they asked themselves, “what if we could request a ride from our phones?” They saw an opportunity in the fact that customers always have a hard time finding a cab (Sharma, 2019). They thought it would be easy for them to get a cab if they were able to request one from their phones. The entrepreneurs however went their separate ways but later on, Camp returned to San Francisco and he was still fixated in that concept. He then purchased the UberCab.com domain name.

2.2 Product Innovation Charter

Netflix came about when VHS video was the standard within the industry so the founder and CEO of Netflix Reed Hastings saw an opportunity and introduced a monthly subscription service of DVD by mail. Netflix, in every step from DVD subscription services to online video streaming, to content creation continues to innovate. Its innovation charter was firmly held on innovation, and a continuous process of becoming better. Its competitors, on the contrary remained rigid to change, forcing consumers to move their preference to Netflix.

In Uber’s new product and service, the evolution of the internet was the main push behind the life-changing taxi app. The founders saw an innovation opportunity and a ready market based on the behavior of people, the frequency of the problem, and the demand that would drive the market. Uber’s technology focused on brokering a platform that would connect existing taxi drivers with a ready market.

3. Idea and Concept Generation

3.1 Product Idea Conception

Among the most vital reasons that Netflix developed into an exponential business model is the fact that its founders were able to view the product as outsiders. According to them, they were not impressed with the business model at that particular time but looked at where the market would be in a decade (Lotz, 2021). The founders combined a number of building blocks for exponential growth by constantly finding newer ways to solve the customers’ problems. They aimed to do that with digitized services by the use of lean approaches. For instance, in the year 2007 Netflix acknowledged that the rental business of DVDs was not as profitable as before.

The idea and concept generation of Uber on the other hand came about with the possible simplicity and ease of ordering a cab from one’s phone. This idea fueled the rising popularity of the app (Dudley, Banister, & Schwanen, 2017). With just a click of a button, customers could be able to order their ride and their location could be identified through the GPS and the cost is charged to the card automatically on the account of the user.

3.2 Building and Nurturing Creativity

At Netflix, the founders understood that consumers would want more than just renting videos. According to them, consumers would want to access a user-friendly and large offering (Lotz, 2021). They also wanted to order videos from the comfort of their home and not bothered with having to return them. The pair foresaw the impending change and used their background in Information Technology and created fitting digital solutions and it was rolled out in lean way. Creativity is built based on emerging problems and consumer needs. Then, creativity is nurtured through intrinsic and extrinsic motivation approaches. Here, a market driven approach is used to solve customer problems identified through gaps in the current market and a a need-technology, form sequence.

For Uber, the start-up based in San Francisco quickly became among the hottest firms and it grew very quickly. The first ride on Uber was requested in the year 2010 and a year later in 2011, it was already launched globally in Paris, the city in which the idea came about. Creativity is built through an agenda of continuous improvement. Developers must view the products and services from the perspective of the user. It uses a market driving approach that first develops interesting technology and later applies it to solve the customer problems using a technology-form-benefit sequence approach.

4. Concept Testing Process (Potential Customer Feedback and Full Screen Process)

4.1 Monadic testing

In concept testing, Netflix used Monadic testing in which they broke down the target audience into many groups in which they are shown the concept. With this type of testing, they wanted to gain more insights into the preferences of the customers and to create a fan base with fitting content for all at any given time (Chang & Taylor, 2016). The researchers asked follow up questions such as the product’s look and feel. Their algorithm was evolved to open source initiatives because they knew that with the consumers’ technological knowledge and more data, the consumers would find their experience with Netflix as much better. The Monadic test method enabled the Netflix researchers to be flexible and to ask many follow-up questions. Therefore, the results provided more context on why the Netflix concept was much better than renting DVDs on mail.

From the insights gathered from the Monadic testing, Netflix started developing their own shows and production based on the customers’ data analysis. This way, the company was able to understand better the future preferences of the customers and acted on it (Chang & Taylor, 2016). The first big Original movie by Netflix was House of Cards. While other production companies wanted to make a pilot, Netflix had more knowledge based on data and consumer insights that the series would be a hit and they signed up for two seasons immediately.

4.2 Proto monadic testing

Uber used a proto monadic test to test their concept. The test includes a sequential monadic test where the target customers are also divided into groups but rather than being shown a single aspect, each group is shown all the concepts and they randomized the concept’s order to avoid bias (Chang & Taylor, 2016). All the respondents were asked similar follow up questions in order to gain more insights. The respondents were asked to evaluate many concepts and then they had to choose their most preferred concept. This type of concept testing was useful to Uber because the results were validated. The researchers verified the selected concept and found out that the insights they had gathered were compatible with the selected concept. The findings were positive because most of the respondents stated that they would like it if they would be able to order a cab on their phones (Chang & Taylor, 2016). So the co-founders, Camp and Kalanick designed the Uber Mobile App for Android Smartphones and iPhone which enabled the users to get the driver’s estimated arrival time on their phone. This App was liked by the customers because of its ease-of-use and convenience. After downloading the App on their phones, users pay for the services via a third party called Transportation Network Company (TNC) that uses the UberX platform which takes a picture or scans the credit card with the camera of the smartphones.

5. Sales Forecasting

For sales forecasting, Uber used the Test-Market Analysis Forecasting which enabled the company to roll their product to their target audience based on their needs. The product was first tested in San Francisco to see how it would perform. After the product was first rolled out, Uber used the results to make more accurate forecasts of the market in the future (Baardman et al. 2017). Uber thought that this method was ideal because the product being rolled out was new and it wanted to test the response of the market. To roll out the Uber product, the market was divided into two regions. This implementation of this method happened without any form of advertising first and then later on, they started to promote the product to have a control market. The difference between the sales in the control market and test market is analyzed (Baardman et al. 2017). The gap analysis helps forecast the future sales of the product. All financial statements begin with sales estimates and they combined margin forecasts estimate income in the future and they combined the sales estimates to turnover forecasts to estimate assets in the future. This whole process was based on the sales forecasts of Uber.

In the case of Netflix, they used qualitative techniques for their sales forecasting because at the time, they did not have enough data. They used this technique also because they were introducing a new product into the market (Lau, Zhang, & Xu, 2018). Therefore, human judgment was employed and rating schemes used and were turned into qualitative estimates. Netflix’s objective was to systematically and logically bring together all the information and judgments regarding the estimated factors. The qualitative technique method was also used because market acceptance and rate of penetration was not certain. One component of this technique used was the expectations of the buyers. The Netflix researchers surveyed the market intents and buying intentions (Lau, Zhang, & Xu, 2018). Netflix wanted to survey the intentions of the buyers and a sample of potential buyers was selected for the company to gain information on their potential purchases of the Netflix in the future. Then, Netflix induced the information from the potential buyers to get a forecast on total demand that the translated into sales forecasts.

With time, Netflix incorporated information from two different sources of sales growth in the future— changes in the number of units that generate sales, for instance new subscribers and changes in the sales per unit rates, for instance the subscription fee charged by Netflix. The product is a subscription service and its sales are considered as a function of the number of subscribers the company can retain multiplied by the subscription fee charged. This was written in terms of growth of sales.

6. Product Design

6.1 Product Design-Netflix

Product design was very important to Netflix because it is a product that evolved from a DVD rental platform to an online streaming platform. A common theme occurring when one takes a look at the history of Netflix, their goal was to eliminate friction for their customers (Verganti, Vendraminelli, & Iansiti, 2020). At a key point in its evolution, a need was identified within the market and the Netflix product was developed to address that need. Whether it was easy to access the DVDs or to live stream videos, the decision to design the Netflix product was based on the insights of the users. In order to continue adding value it was important for Netflix to develop a user friendly product design that addresses the problems that users face. This tied Netflix’s product design strategy to both the needs of the customers and the business goals (Verganti, Vendraminelli, & Iansiti, 2020). The ability to anticipate the changing customer expectations and market trends is the way Netflix has developed a good product design causing it to become the most popular online streaming platform in the world. With time, the company has profoundly changed the way consumers interact with the media.

As the first internet television network, Netflix faces a variety of unfriendly and stringent distribution traditions established by years of schedule-specific and live broadcast and cable television realities (Verganti, Vendraminelli, & Iansiti, 2020). The future of video streaming industry is based on the ability to evolve such traditions to suit better the digital era’s consumer and technological realities.

6.2 Product Design-Uber

The product design of Uber on the other hand was meant to be simple because the founders wanted the users to have an easy time finding a cab on their phone. As a technology application in transportation, Uber was meant to be close to the users as far as they have the app installed and internet connectivity (Armitage, Cordova, & Siegel, 2017). The design of Uber App is important because it was built to offer safe transportation of users across distances. One of the issues encountered in Uber’s product design is the fact that not all areas have enough access to network to support maps. While America is used to having fast phone networks that can easily support the maps, many developing countries are using 2G, which is not fast enough. In order to ensure that users have a visual experience on the App, the design team developed a simple version of the “arrival time” screen. This features a simple line segment representing the average time limit it would take for the driver to reach the rider’s destination.

7. Product Use Testing

In practice, Netflix uses a wide range of testing techniques to tailor the products to client needs. Alpha, Beta, and Gamma testing, and other product testing protocols are therefore deployed in various stages of product development (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). For Netflix in particular, A/B Testing – a user experience research methodology that compares two versions of a single variable by typically testing a subject’s response to variant A against variant B and finding out which of the two variants is more effective, is utilized to predict and evaluate the performance of various shows on the platform (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). The objective is to design an experiment with a control group and one or more experimental groups referred to as cells in Netflix which receive a different treatment. All participants belong exclusively to one cell within a given experiment (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). One of the cells/groups is always labelled the “default cell”. This cell represents the control group, which receives the same experience as all Netflix members not in the test.

Once the test has been set and deployed, the test administrators track metrics of importance. This for instance could include data on streaming hour and use preference (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). Once participant provide sufficient meaningful conclusions and enough data has been collected, the test admins move the next stage and analysis the efficacy of each test before selecting a winner out of the various variation.

Initially, Netflix also used a different model of testing, when they sent their first DVD to one of the co-founders’ houses in California. They mailed the disc to Santa Cruz, to test the viability of their model, which aimed at selling and renting DVDs to customers across the United States (Lobato & Lotz, 2020).

Similarly, Uber conducted a beta launch in May 2010 before launching the ride-hailing application to users. In the test, the service conducted services with three cars in New York City to know the viability of the idea (Christofer & Sandström, 2016). Once the stakeholders were satisfied with Uber’s operations in New York, it officially launched in San Francisco and immediately began offering its services to customers (Christofer & Sandström, 2016). Thus, the service focused on beta tests once the application was fully integrated with city service provision mechanisms, allowing stakeholders to determine the viability of their service.

8. Product Launch and Marketing Strategy

Netflix launched its streaming services to customers in 2007. They introduced the availability of videos on demand on the internet, allowing Netflix subscribers with the necessary bandwidth to watch content online, without having to download it first. The product launch occurred gradually over the course of 2007 (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). Further, the platform availed the product to subscribers under different plans, offering buyers the opportunity to buy within their preferred price range. They availed 1000 films on Netflix at first, allowing customers to stream them according to the available number of films or hours they had subscribed to. Subsequent purchases were enabled by improvements to the Netflix and streaming technology (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). Noting the technological hurdles hindering subsequent customers and expansion, the service increased its film selection, and increased its connection capability to access personal computers, televisions and even smart phones.

The first sale on the platform sold as soon as the service released the TV show. Previous Netflix subscribers who used the DVD rental service had access to the streaming service product, as well as new subscribers. The company applied various strategies to increase sales after the launch, mainly performing modifications on their service. First, Netflix introduced partnerships with other film industry service providers to increase its content selection online. For instance, the service partnered with Relativity Media Company in 2010, to stream movies made by the production company. Further partnerships with Starz Inc., Paramount, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Lionsgate increased the variety of films that consumers could access on Netflix (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). Secondly, availing the service internationally is the greatest modification made by Netflix. It enabled the service to expand worldwide, to all nations but a few like China and Syria (Lobato & Lotz, 2020). As such, these initial and subsequent modifications by Netflix increased sales by increasing subscribers to their online streaming platform.

Netflix utilizes various entrepreneurial marketing strategies to publicize its product worldwide. For instance, its use of a wide variety of social media and other online campaigns is a crucial strategy for multinational corporations (Yang, 2017). Moreover, Netflix offers consumers personalized content to keep their customers interested. The service offers location-specific content to allow users to access content based on their location (Yang, 2017). Further, Netflix monitors a customer’s watching habits and recommends content based on past history. These strategies allow consumers to keep interested in what the streaming service has to offer.

Uber’s product launch and marketing strategy began when Uber formally launched its ride-hailing service in 2011 in San Francisco. Its first service to customers allowed them to hail a luxury car for almost twice what local taxis charged per ride (Christofer & Sandström, 2016). Therefore, after initial complaints from customers over the high prices, the company modified its services to include UberX, which allowed drivers to use cheaper, less luxurious vehicles to offer rides. The company also modified its services by increasing its availability to many other cities throughout the world, despite legal challenges in most locations.

The company has applied entrepreneurial marketing strategies corresponding with the modern model. First, the marketplace is driven by technology, which is the single most determinant of business success in the current economy (Omunyala & Bett, 2019). Uber drivers and users must have a smartphone App of the service to access ride-sharing capabilities. Further, Uber emphasizes on customer satisfaction, even allowing customers to rate their drivers’ services on the Application (Omunyala & Bett, 2019). TThis strategy ensures customer retention, since most who feel well-served do not defect to Uber’s competitors like Lyft. Finally, the dynamic pricing offered by Uber allows the pricing strategies to change depending on location, distance and market forces. Therefore, this strategy allows both drivers and customers to receive fair pay and services respectively.

9. Public Liability and Environmental/Ethical/Societal Issues

When Netflix launched its online streaming service in 2007, many previous customers raised issues, stating that prices increased when the company decided to separate its DVD rental and streaming services online (Donato-Weinstein, 2015). Further, since its launch Netflix has faced criticism over its failure to adequately minimize risks to vulnerable viewers. For instance, support groups of people with disabilities note that the streaming service lacked captioning mechanisms, discriminating against most deaf and blind people (Donato-Weinstein, 2015). The company has had to blend its DVD hiring and streaming services to serve public interest, and minimize discrimination. Further, the service allows close captioning on its streaming service to allow the deaf to consume their content.

Uber has also faced various criticisms concerning the service’s effect on the environment. This egregious harm led to what was dubbed the “True Cost of Uber Campaign”. A report released by Euromonitor revealed that through its ride-hailing service was casing a hike in the carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming and climate change. Specifically, Uber was responsible for release of 515 kilotons of carbon dioxide within the span of a few years, which equates the addition of 250 thousand cars in the cities affected (Christofer & Sandström, 2016). Further, the most Uber drivers in European cities use diesel-fueled cars, hence the air pollution in those cities is always increasing tremendously. The pollution exacerbated by Uber also arises from increased vehicles on the streets. In the years since the company launched its product, the registration of private hire vehicles increased significantly. The registration of traditional taxis was capped, hence they could not increase past a specified number. However, that of private hire vehicles is not capped, hence the numbers doubled in most cities after the launch of Uber (Christofer & Sandström, 2016). This increase in vehicles corresponds to the increase in carbon dioxide emissions in major cities in the world.

The company launched a new campaign in its product launch to alleviate consumer worries about the environment. In this regard, Uber introduced the Clean Air Plan in cities like London (Christofer & Sandström, 2016). The aim of the Clean Air Plan is to make sure every car used on the Uber Application is fully electric, by the year 2025. They buttressed this goal by adding a Clean Air Fee of $0.19 per mile on trips in London (Christofer & Sandström, 2016), to support drivers who intend to shift from diesel-fueled to electric cars.

10. Conclusion

The current dicussion intended to describe each of the stages in the product development process based on case studies of Netflix and Uber. New product development involves the identification of market needs, product conceptualization, building the roadmap of the product, product launch, and feedback collection. As shown in the discussion, it is a key part of product design and this process does not end unless the life cycle of a product is over. The companies can keep on collecting feedback from the users and iterate on newer versions by adding or enhancing newer features.

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saw pre-Lenten balls and fetes in the infant New Orleans. The masked balls continued until the Spanish government took over and banned the events. The ban even continued after New Orleans became an American city in 1803. Eventually

saw pre-Lenten balls and fetes in the infant New Orleans. The masked balls continued until the Spanish government took over and banned the events. The ban even continued after New Orleans became an American city in 1803. Eventually

the predominant Creole population revitalized the balls by 1823. Within the next four years

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Dear President Obama,

Dear President Obama,

President Barack Obama

The White House

1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW

Washington, DC 20500

Dear President Obama,

I am a concerned citizen interested to bring to your attention the public outrage about your frequent use of English in a non standard way. Kory Stamper points to your use of comparatives, where by you said, “madder” instead of “more mad.” Patricia O’Conner and Stewart Kellerman point to your use of pronouns, where by most people criticize you for using “I” instead of “me”. For instance, you said, “a very personal decision for Michelle and “I” and “the main disagreement with john and I.” Finally Michael Dowling point to your use of gerunds and participle. For instance, you said, “These goals can be achieved without us increasing troop levels” instead of “…without our increasing troop levels.” There are different reactions about the non-standard usage of language. Some people feel that the context in which you speak necessitates use of non standard words while some feel that it should not happen at all.

Other that what the authors above have reported, there are other grammatical mistake that the public has consistently pointed out. First is subject verb agreement. For instance, William Bigelow quoted you saying “Well, first of all, I do continue to believe that the greatest threat to United States security are the terrorist networks like al Qaeda …” instead of “Well, first of all, I do continue to believe that the greatest threat to United States security is the terrorist networks like al Qaeda …” Second is your mix-up of words or wrong vocabulary. An example reported by an American blogger is “They were fulfilling a central tenant of democracy envisioned by our founders” where you used “tenant” instead of “tenet.” Also Fan Oreilly noted your poor use of articles. For instance, your are reported saying “we are focused on a potential mission to a asteroid as a prelude to a manned mars flight.”

I agree with these critics that you do make grammatical mistakes. However, I do not agree with those who believe that the mistakes are an indication of you linguistic ability or intellect. Like I believe that you use of “madder” instead of “more mad” is for contextual purpose (register). I also believe that the use of I and me could be as confusing to anyone as it to you. For use of gerunds, I recommend Dowling’s advice that “gerunds ought to be preceded by possessive pronouns, not objective pronouns.

Sincerely

Citizen

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