For this assignment please write an analysis section that describes the analytical approach of one of the mock data collection described in one of the proposals completed in Sections 1 or 2. 

Support your paper with a minimum of 5 resources (preferably no more than 5 years old). In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.
Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages
References: Minimum of 5 scholarly resources.

You may choose any proposal (proposals 1 or 2 from the first two weeks-attached) and discuss the data collection process and how to analyze the data.


 
NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET
Student:  Jarrett E. Walton						
THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETELY FILLED IN
Follow these procedures:  If requested by your instructor, please include an assignment cover sheet. This will become the first page of your assignment. In addition, your assignment header should include your last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number. This should be left justified, with the page number right justified. For example:
DoeJXXX0000-1                                                                          1

Save a copy of your assignments: You may need to re-submit an assignment at your instructor’s request. Make sure you save your files in accessible location. 
Academic integrity: All work submitted in each course must be your own original work. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by your instructor. Knowingly submitting another person’s work as your own, without properly citing the source of the work, is considered plagiarism. This will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University.
	
BTM7108	Dr. Bai
	
Research Design	Assignment #1
	

Hello, Dr. Bai.  Attached you will find Assignment #1.
 
 
Running head: Develop a proposal

	Even though the economy is bad and employment is difficult to find, the turnover rate is still high (Bureau Labor Statistics, 2014). The Bureau of Labor Statistics defines turnover rate as the total number of separations in employment, including people who quit, are laid off, and discharged or fired. During July 2014, there were 2.5 million people in the United States who quit their jobs. The quits rate was 1.8 percent. The quit rate has been 1.8 percent for six months in a row. When the rate is not seasonally adjusted, the quits rate in private industry becomes 2.3 percent, and the rate of .8 percent for governmental organizations. The highest rate is in the accommodation and food services industry, at 4.3 percent, followed by health care at 4 percent and retail at 3.1 percent. Turnover is marginally higher in the South, at 2.3 percent, and significantly lower in the Northeast, at 1.5 percent (Bureau Labor Statistics, 2014, p. 16). 
	Payroll represents a significant investment in any organization. Every employee that leaves costs the company money, whether the cost is a tangible cost or an intangible one. Intangible costs include lost productivity, the cost of redoing work by new employees who are still learning the job, the increased cost of supervision to monitor the new employees, and lost productivity by existing staff members who must cover the individual’s absence and then help the new employee until they adjust to the job (Hillmer, Hillmer, & McRoberts, 2004). Tangible costs include the costs to advertise for a new employee, conduct background checks, training costs, orientation costs, and other employees’ salary for assisting with interviews, testing, and training (Hillmer et al., 2004). 
	What motivates people to voluntarily leave a job? The question is particularly intriguing when the job market is not good. It would seem that employees would not voluntarily leave a job when times are difficult economically, but the Bureau of Labor statistics tell a different story. This project investigates why employees leave a company and what can be done to slow the rate of turnover.  
Purpose of the Study
	This purpose of this qualitative research will be to gain insight into the reasons that employees voluntarily separate from the company, in order to gain insight into what companies can do to prevent this loss.
Research Questions
	The inquiry that guides the research is, at its deepest level, why employees would voluntarily leave a “sure thing” job, particularly when the job market is slow and re-gaining employment is not a certain thing.  The inquiry led to the development of three research questions:
Q1.	Why do employees leave their jobs voluntarily? 	
Q2.	What can be done to decrease the rate of voluntarily leaving of a company?
	The two research questions, when considered together, will provide insight into why employees voluntarily leave a company, and what employees can do to change conditions so that employees are more likely to remain with the company.
Definition of Key Terms
Environmental Attributes
	The environmental attributes are the external factors which impact the company. The size of the community, the resources available, and so on are environmental attributes (Abelson & Baysinger, 1984).
Individual Attributes
	Individual attributes are the demographics of the employees that may impact employment, including level of education, being a single parent, etc. (Abelson & Baysinger, 1984).
Organizational Attributes
	Organizational attributes include the variables within a company that can impact the way the company operates and how the employees feel about the company (Abelson & Baysinger, 1984).
Quits Rate
	The number of people who quit their jobs (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). 

Turnover
	The turnover rate is defined as the total number of employees who leave a job (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). For the purposes of this paper, the voluntary turnover rate, or quits rate, will be utilized in the definition of turnover.


Theoretical Framework
	The company is an organization with interlocking and interacting parts. An action in one part of the organization affects the other parts of the organization, particularly when the employees are directly impacted. Departments do not stand alone; they are part of a system. Senge (2006, 1996) identified a number of factors that can motivate employees, including peer leadership. Thus, line managers or executives have an impact on the employees, but so do peer leaders. Today, many workers function in virtual teams. With virtual teams becoming a norm, understanding that e-leaders can also impact the job is important (Fan, Chen, Wang, & Chen, 2014). 
Brief Review of the Literature
	 A brief review of the literature would normally be included at this point. For brevity, it is omitted.
Research Method
	Qualitative research is concerned with meaning and with determining reasons. That meaning cannot just be extracted from the context of the interview or narrative and considered to be stand-alone data (Qu & Dumay, 2011). It is not standalone data; it involves critical reflection on the meaning of the investigation in the overall context of the subjects’ perspectives. No preconception is made as to what may be discovered in the research. The key is to understand that qualitative research deals with meaning and rich description of situations, while quantitative research is concerned with quantifying the information. Qualitative research investigates ideas, but quantitative research tests hypotheses (Zikmund, Banin, Carr, & Griffin, 2008). Qualitative research explores a small sample of a population (Zikmund et al., 2008). Creswell (2013) suggested that in some types of research especially in narrative inquiry, a maximum of two to three subjects should be chosen for study.  Based on these definitions and the research questions, qualitative methodology is appropriate for this study.  
	The proposed research study will conduct narrative inquiry on a sample of two individuals from company X, in order to gain information for the body of knowledge relating to the rate of quits in a company. According to Creswell (2013), narrative research collects stories from individuals, documents, or conversations relating to lived experiences. In this case, the lived experience will be the experience of working with a company and watching employees coming and going and, of course, hearing either in person or ‘through the grapevine’ why the employee left. 	The population of interest in this study are the employees that remain behind when someone has quit the company. 
Measurement
	An oral history will be gathered from two employees. The oral history “consists of gathering personal reflections of events and their causes and effects from one individual or several individuals” (Creswell, 2013, p. 74). The specific focus will be the stories told about the organization. The interpretive framework utilized will be the framework described earlier I the paper, that of the organization as a system. 
Procedure
	The individuals will be selected from company X, an organization with significant turnover by quits. The individual selected will be selected by a purposive snowball sample, in which one likely participant known to the researcher will be invited to submit several names for other potential participants. Tracy (2010) suggests seeking out a subject who will be able to provide information that will move the heart, as well as the head. 
	The method of data collection and recording will be to utilize the open laptop to video and audiotape the interviews. Microsoft Word Voice will be used to assist in transcribing the audio. Information about the context of the participants’ stories will be collected, including the historical contexts of time and place of hiring, working, and participating in company culture. The stories will be analyzed, utilizing the process of re-storying, or “reorganizing the stories into some general type of framework” (Creswell, 2013, p. 74) beginning with a chronological narrative. In chronology, the stories have three parts: beginning, middle, and end, with a predicament or conflict, a main character, implied cause, and resolution (Creswell, 2013). 
Report
	The final report will provide a context for the study, as well as the information gathered from the participants and viewed through the lens of individuals who quit the company. Recommendations will be made for lowering the number of individuals who voluntarily choose to leave the company. In addition, suggestions will be made for future research. 
Summary
	This qualitative research project will strive to understand why individuals choose to leave a company, particularly when the job market is bad. The research will add to the body of knowledge on turnovers and quits. It will provide valuable information for company X and general information for companies in similar circumstances. 
 
References
Abelson, M. & Baysinger, B. (1984) Optimal and dysfunctional turnover: Toward and organizational level model. Academy of management review, 9(2) 331-341.
Bureau Labor Statistics (2014) Job openings and labor turnover – July 2014. News Rleass. Retrieved online at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/jolts.pdf.
Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fan, K., Chen, Y. H., Wang, C. W., & Chen, M. (2014). E-leadership effectiveness in virtual teams: motivating language perspective. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(3), 421-437.
Hilmer, S., Hilmer, B., & McRoberts, G. (2004). The Real Costs of Turnover: Lessons from a Call Centre. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 34-41.
Qu, S., & Dumay, J. (2011). The qualitative research interview. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 8(3), 238-264.
Senge, P. (1996) Rethinking leadership in the learning organization. The Systems Thinker, 7(1), February 1996. Retrieved from http://www.thesystemsthinker.com/PDFs/070101pk.pdf.
Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning. Doubleday. 
Tracy, S. (2010). Qualitative quality: Eight “big-tent” criteria for excellent qualitative research. Qualitative inquiry, 16(10), 837-851.
Zikmund, W., Banin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2008). Business methods research. (Eighth Ed.) Mason, OH: Southwest.


 
NORTHCENTRAL UNIVERSITY
ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET
Student:  Jarrett E. Walton						
THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETELY FILLED IN
Follow these procedures:  If requested by your instructor, please include an assignment cover sheet. This will become the first page of your assignment. In addition, your assignment header should include your last name, first initial, course code, dash, and assignment number. This should be left justified, with the page number right justified. For example:
DoeJXXX0000-1                                                                          1

Save a copy of your assignments: You may need to re-submit an assignment at your instructor’s request. Make sure you save your files in accessible location. 
Academic integrity: All work submitted in each course must be your own original work. This includes all assignments, exams, term papers, and other projects required by your instructor. Knowingly submitting another person’s work as your own, without properly citing the source of the work, is considered plagiarism. This will result in an unsatisfactory grade for the work submitted or for the entire course. It may also result in academic dismissal from the University.
	
BTM7108	Dr. Bai
	
Research Design	Assignment #2
	

Hello, Dr. Bai.  Attached you will find Assignment #2.
 
 
Employee Turnover: A Mini-Proposal
Introduction
	The turnover rate is high regardless of the state of the economy (Bureau Labor Statistics, 2014). On its website, the Bureau of Labor Statistics defines turnover rate as the total number of separations in employment, including people who quit, are laid off, and discharged or fired (Bureau Labor Statistics, 2014, cited in student’s previous paper). The highest rate is in the food and lodgings industry, at 4.3 percent, followed by health care at 4 percent and retail at 3.1 percent, with turnover marginally higher in the South but significantly lower in the Northeast (Bureau Labor Statistics, 2014, cited in student’s previous paper). 
Statement of the Problem 
Turnover costs represent a significant cost to companies, because so much time and money is invested in finding, interviewing, hiring, vetting, and training personnel. Hillmer, Hillmer, & McRoberts (2004) pointed out that the costs are not only associated with the direct costs of hiring, but indirect costs caused by drain on the existing personnel, who must frequently do double duty while the new person is hired, trained, and gets up to speed. This project investigates why employees leave a company and what can be done to slow the rate of turnover. The methodology will be the comparative case study.
Statement of Purpose 
	This purpose of this qualitative research will be to gain insight into the reasons that employees voluntarily separate from a company, and what can be done to slow the rate of turnover. 
Research Questions
	The inquiry that guides the research is why employees leave a job, in order to determine what can be done to retain them.  The inquiry led to the development of two primary areas of comparison:
Q1.	Why do employees leave their jobs voluntarily? 	
Q2.	What can be done to decrease the rate of voluntarily leaving of a company?	
Discuss the Strengths and Weaknesses 
	Senge (2006, 1996) identified a number of factors that can motivate employees, including peer leadership. Senge’s overall perspective is that the organization is an organism; changes in one part of the organization impact all parts. Today, this includes both on- site employees, distance employees, and even virtual employees (Fan, Chen, Wang, & Chen, 2014). Murray (2010) asserts that hiring the correct people for the company’s culture and then carefully ensuring that they know they are appreciated will make a tremendous difference in turnover. The theoretical framework for the study is that actions of management affect everyone, and employees who fit the culture must still be treated decently and appreciated. 
	Qualitative research is concerned with developing meaning, generally meaning related to human existing. In qualitative work, effort is taken to ensure that the research is approached objectively; no preconceptions are made. The goal is to investigate ideas and either find information that supports existing concepts or information that develops new ones. In addition, qualitative research generally addresses small samples of a population rather than a large group (Zikmund, Banin, Carr, & Griffin, 2008). Creswell (2007) defines the case study as a qualitative approach to research, in which the researcher explores a single case (bounded system) or multiple cases over time (multiple bounded cases) or a thorough, detailed, in- depth collection of data involving multiple data sources relating to a theme. This could include observations, media, interviews, documents, reports, and even observations and interviews. Dul and Hak (2008) define the case study somewhat differently. They state that:
A case study is a study in which (a) one case (single case study) or a small number of cases (comparative case study) in their real life context are selected, and (b) scores obtained from these cases are analyzed in a qualitative manner. (p. 4).
Dul and Hak (2008) believe that surveys can even be utilized in a case study, as long as the information contained in the survey is analyzed from a qualitative, or ‘meaning’ perspective, rather than a mathematical or statistical perspective. Dul and Hak also point out that case studies can be used to compare other settings (comparative case study), to test the results of other cases (parallel single case study) or research in which each case takes into account the results of each previous case (serial single case study) (p. 45). This proposed research would best be described as a comparative case study, where two cases are used to compare two different situations and reach conclusions from the results.
One further note should be made, however. Creswell (2007) pointed out that the case study can be methodology, strategy, or the strategy of an inquiry. This perspective is borne out by Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill (2009). In this research, the case study is considered the strategy, and a variety of techniques are utilized for data collection (as described in Creswell, 2007). 
	The case study is “empirical inquiry that investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident” (Yin, 2003, p. 13). It deals with distinctive situations and relies on multiple evidence sources. Yin suggested that one of the ways to determine how to conduct the case is to review the type of questions that will be investigated, as well as the control the researcher has over the events. Finally, if the researcher is focusing on contemporary events, the approach will be different than if the emphasis is on historical events. In this research, the nature of the question suggest that two or more cases should be utilized, especially for comparison purposes. Since the researcher has no control over the organization(s) involved, participatory research is ruled out as well as observation. Given the nature of the research questions, the best approach was considered to be interviews of human resources managers in two SMEs that had a high level of turnover and a lower level of turnover, respectively, within local business. News stories and industry reports were utilized to select two businesses, referred to herein as A and B. 
	 The procedure to be followed is an adaptation of the one defined by Dul and Hak (2008). They establish nine primary steps, although each step can have sub- steps. The first step is to define the research topic, followed by defining the research objectives and type of research. The research topic is turnover rates; the objective is to determine why some companies have fewer turnovers than others. This is a practice-oriented type of research.
	The third step is to determine the specific type of research. The research will be theory building; the strategy, step four, is the case study. In step five, the instances are selected. The choices are a single case N, small number of cases N, or a large number of cases N. A small number of cases (2) were selected. The measurement level is selected in step six. This is a qualitative study, so qualitative measures will be studied. The data analysis will be by ‘visual inspection’, which Dul and Hak (2008) define as a method other than statistical analysis. The results, when discussed, will be implications for practice. Finally, the results, aimed at practitioners, will be produced. Each of these steps has been completed in this proposal, up to the seventh step, the conduction of data analysis.
	The visual analysis referred to by Dul and Hak (200) is one of pattern matching. In this particular research, the same types of questions will be asked of both HR directors; similiarities and differences in responses will be revealed by pattern matching. An example might be the search for “management” in the interview notes and comparison of references to management by both HR managers. The results will include a discussion of limitations, consequences of the results of the practices by the management of both companies, suggestions for future research, speculations of consequences of results for practices, and a comparison of the results at the two companies. Finally, recommendations for future research will be provided. 
	The final report will provide a context for the study, as well as the information gathered from the participants and viewed through the lens of individuals who quit the company. Recommendations will be made for lowering the number of individuals who voluntarily choose to leave the company. In addition, suggestions will be made for future research (former paper, by student). 
Summary
	This qualitative research project will strive to understand why individuals choose to leave a company, and what is being done in another company to prevent voluntary attrition. The research will add to the body of knowledge on turnovers and preventing a high turnover rate. It is expected to provide valuable information for companies who seek to modify their turnover rate, or to keep their turnover rate from ever rising. 




References
Bureau Labor Statistics (2014) Job openings and labor turnover – July 2014. News Rleass. Retrieved online at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/jolts.pdf
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.
Dul, J. & Hak, T. (2010) Case study methodology in business research. San Francisco: Elsevier
Fan, K. T., Chen, Y. H., Wang, C. W., & Chen, M. (2014). E-leadership effectiveness in virtual teams: motivating language perspective. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(3), 421-437.
Hilmer, S., Hilmer, B., & McRoberts, G. (2004). The Real Costs of Turnover: Lessons from a Call Centre. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 34-41.
Murray, A. (2010) The Wall Street Journal essential guide to management. Harper Business.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009) Research methods for business students. Essex: Pearson.
Senge, P. (1996) Rethinking leadership in the learning organization. The Systems Thinker, 7(1), February 1996. Retrieved from http://www.thesystemsthinker.com/PDFs/070101pk.pdf
Senge, P. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning. Doubleday. 
Yin, R. K. (2003) Case study research: Design and methods, 3rd edition, London, SAGE Publications
Zikmund, W., Banin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2008). Business methods research. (Eighth Ed.) Mason, OH: Southwest