Subject: Psychology    / General Psychology
Module 4AP Psychology
1.A psychologist spends her entire career studying how and why changes occur in people throughout their lives. This psychologist is most likely working in the field of ___________. (2 points) abnormal psychology gerontology human development maturational studies applied psychology

2.Which of the following is a disadvantage of the longitudinal design? (2 points) Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another.    It is relatively inexpensive.    It takes less effort than a cross-sectional design.    It takes a shorter amount of time than a cross-sectional design.    Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.

3.A researcher who selects a sample of people of varying ages and studies them at one point in time is, by definition, using the ______ method. (2 points) cohort design longitudinal design behavior genetics design cross-sectional design cross-sequential design

4.Professor Grant is interested in studying the development of a sense of humor. She collects data from groups of 6-year-olds, 16-year-olds, 26-year-olds, and 46-year-olds. What type of research design is Professor Grant using? (2 points) cohort design longitudinal design behavior genetics design cross-sectional design cross-sequential design

5.Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to _________. (2 points) combine longitudinal and cross-sectional research strategies look for gender differences reduce experimenter bias only include cross-sectional strategies within the design reduce the volunteer effect

6.Which of the following is a main disadvantage of the cross-sectional design? (2 points) Individuals of different ages are being compared to one another.    It is relatively expensive.    It takes a longer amount of time than a longitudinal study.    Participants may drop out due to moving, loss of interest, or death.    It takes less effort than a longitudinal study.

7.Dr. Smith believes people who are very aggressive have become so because of their life experiences. Dr. Goldberg believes people are more or less aggressive from birth because of genetic factors. Which of the following terms best describes an issue in human development that is highlighted by their disagreement? (2 points) cognition versus emotion classical versus operant conditioning genetics versus socialization cross-sectional studies versus longitudinal studies nature versus nurture

8.According to research conducted by Ridley (1999), how could individuals like Adolf Hitler, serial killer Ted Bundy, and Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh commit such acts according to the “nature versus nurture” debate? (2 points) These individuals were born (nature) to commit such horrendous acts. It was in their genetic makeup.    Their behaviors are the result of the interaction of nature and nurture.    These individual’s behaviors were attributed to “nurture”and influences of their parents.    These individuals learned to commit these behaviors after staying in long periods of isolation, according to Ridley.    These individuals learned to commit these behaviors due to negative experiences in school, according to Ridley.

9.Rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus that contain genes are referred to as ____________. (2 points) DNA selinked traits chromosomes amines RNA

10.A gene that actively controls the expression of a trait is called a ______ gene. (2 points) recessive mutated recombinant messenger dominant

11.Silvia has blond hair, even though her mother and father each have brown hair. What do we know about Silvia’s parents? (2 points) At least one of her parents has a recessive gene for blond hair.    Each of her parents must have one recessive gene for blond hair color.    Each of her parents must have one dominant gene for blond hair.    At least one of her parents has a messenger gene for blond hair.    Neither of her parents has a gene for blond hair.

12.In _________ syndrome, the 23rd pair of chromosomes is missing an X, resulting in short, infertile females. (2 points) PKU Down triple X Klinefelter’s Turner’s

13.Ovum is a term used to describe _________________________. (2 points) the female sex cell or egg the male sex cell the developing organism from conception to the end of the second week after fertilization the developing organism from 2 to 8 weeks after fertilization the developing organism from 8 weeks after fertilization to birth

14.Mary and Juan are twins who developed from two separate fertilized ova that were fertilized by two different sperm. What type of twins are they? (2 points) monozygotic twins maternal twins dizygotic twins womb mates semi-identical

15.Marisa is at a point in her pregnancy when the zygote is moving down her uterus, and the placenta and umbilical cord are beginning to form. Which period of prenatal development is Marisa currently experiencing? (2 points) fetal embryonic placental umbilical germinal

16.Tameeka is at a point in her pregnancy during which the major organs and structures of her baby are first developing. Which period of prenatal development is Tameeka currently experiencing? (2 points) fetal embryonic placental germinal umbilical

17.What are some of the common consequences to a child whose mother smoked while pregnant? (2 points) increased birth weight and lethargy lower birth weight and short stature severe hearing loss and heart defects severely deformed limbs and muscle spasms heart defects and poor reflexes

18.The prenatal period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional is called the _______________ period. (2 points) germinal embryonic fetal gestational placental

19.Which of the following describes the fetal period? (2 points) the period during which the zygote moves down to the uterus and begins to implant in the lining the period during which the major organs and structures of the organism first develop the period during which the umbilical cord develops the period during which the placenta begins to function the period during which tremendous growth occurs and the organs continue to develop and become functional .

20.The most likely cause for miscarriage during the first three months of pregnancy is _______. (2 points) a genetic defect alcohol use not taking prenatal vitamins lack of exercise smoking

21.Javier was born 3 days ago. His parents have noticed that he has several reflexes which the doctors have been testing. Which of the following is NOT a reflex exhibited by healthy newborns? (2 points) Moro reflex rooting reflex walking reflex stepping reflex Darwinian reflex

22.Which sense is the most functional at birth? (2 points) touch taste smell hearing vision

23.Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development? (2 points) preoperational; concrete operations; sensorimotor; formal operations concrete operations; sensorimotor; preoperational; formal operations sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete operations; formal operations preoperational; sensorimotor; concrete operations; formal operations concrete operations; preoperational; sensorimotor; formal operations

24.Young infants cannot appreciate the carnival game in which a pea seems to disappear from under a walnut because they have not yet developed a sense of ______. (2 points) conservation centration egocentrism accommodation object permanence

25.According to Piaget, ___________ represents the beginning of the child’s language development and symbolic thought. (2 points) egocentric thinking accommodation object permanence assimilation organization

26.In Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development between 7 and 11 years of age, in which an individual becomes capable of logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking, is the ______ stage. (2 points) concrete operations sensorimotor preoperational formal operations schematic

27.Which of the following illustrates Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding? (2 points) Several children work together to overcome an obstacle they could not conquer individually.    A teacher works one-on-one with a student and then begins to withdraw help as the student becomes more skilled.    Learning in one area, such as language, tends to reinforce learning that occurs in other areas, such as mathematics.    Physical interaction with the environment is a key to learning, so teachers require students to run and play a great deal.    Taking courses like Latin and geometry will help children learn successfully in other courses of study.

28.Which of the following is the term that refers to the difference between what a child can do alone and what that child can do with the help of a teacher? (2 points) scaffolding conservation hypothetical thinking assimilation zone of proximal development

29.Chester is irritable, loud, and negative most of the time. He does not like it when new people pick him up, and he has irregular sleeping, eating, and waking schedules. According to Thomas and Chess, what temperament does Chester exhibit? (2 points) active slow-to-warm-up difficult easy unconventional

30.Research on the stability of temperament indicates that it is _______________. (2 points) unstable and subject to wide variations over the course of a lifetime unstable during childhood but stabilizes during adolescence and remains stable throughout a person’s adult life relatively stable through the first three to four years of life but begins to vary dramatically once a child reaches school age relatively stable through the first three to four years of life but begins to vary dramatically once a child reaches adolescence relatively stable well into adulthood

31.Which of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial crises revolves around the child’s learning to direct his or her own behavior? (2 points) trust versus mistrust initiative versus guilt industry versus inferiority autonomy versus shame and doubt intimacy versus isolation

32.Erikson’s theory of social development viewed the period from ages 3 to 6, his third stage, as characterized by the major challenge of ______. (2 points) identity versus role diffusion industry versus inferiority initiative versus guilt autonomy versus shame and doubt intimacy versus isolation

33.Between the ages of 5 and 12, children strive to develop a sense of competence arising from their work and effort. Erikson refers to this stage of life as ___________. (2 points) trust versus mistrust autonomy versus shame and doubt industry versus inferiority initiative versus guilt intimacy versus isolation

34.According to Erikson, if an elementary school child fails to succeed in learning new skills and knowledge, the result may be the development of a sense of _________. (2 points) stagnation inferiority shame and doubt role confusion isolation

35.A culture’s expectation of masculine and feminine behaviors can be defined as _____________________. (2 points) homosexual heterosexual gender roles gender typing gender specificity

36.________ is the process by which people learn their culture’s preferences and expectations for proper “masculine” and “feminine” behaviors. (2 points) Gender role Gender identity Gender typing Gender stereotyping Gender specification

37.Traditional views of gender roles are more likely found in ____________. (2 points) collectivist cultures individualistic cultures countries like the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and England all of these none of these

38.Countries like the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, and England are more likely to have ______________. (2 points) nontraditional views of gender a collectivist society very constrained roles for women in society very constrained roles for men in society a strong tradition of women staying home

39.Research on differences in male and female brain activity has found that ________________, (2 points) when doing language tasks, women’s brains tend to be more active in the right hemisphere than men.    men use the right side of the brain for emotional expression, whereas women use both sides.    men use the left side of the brain for visual/spatial expression, whereas women use both sides.    all of the above none of the above

40.The period of life from about age 13 to the early twenties, during which a young person is no longer physically a child but is not yet an independent, self-supporting adult, is called ________. (2 points) adolescence tweens young adulthood early adulthood puberty

41.Puberty is defined as _________. (2 points) the production of hormones in the reproductive glands stimulated by the pituitary gland the stage of identity versus role confusion the physical changes that occur in the body as sexual development reaches its peak the time when a child becomes a teenager the time when an adolescent forms permanent relationships

42.Which of the following is NOT evidence of puberty in boys? (2 points) the growth of the testes and penis the appearance of pubic hair the appearance of underarm hair higher pitch of the voice the appearance of a beard

43.Most young adolescents, especially those who receive a formal high school education, are at the level of thinking that Piaget described as ______. (2 points) formal operations preoperational preconventional identity versus role confusion industry versus inferiority

44.The development of formal operations in adolescence leads to ______. (2 points) extroverted behavior a lessening of self-analysis compared to preoperational thought introspection and egocentrism thinking in terms of concrete things thinking more about others than themselves

45.The tendency of teenagers to feel that they are always “on stage” and that they are the center of everyone else’s world, just as they are the center of their own, is a phenomenon known as ___________. (2 points) formal operations the personal fable puberty internalization the imaginary audience

46.According to Kohlberg, most adolescents are at the _________ level of morality. (2 points) preconventional conventional postconventional preliminary committed

47.Around age 40, adults ___________. (2 points) see a decline in sexual functioning may need to wear bifocal lenses experience a sharpening of the senses experience a noticeable decline in hearing do not experience any physical changes

48.The gradual decline in the sexual reproductive system of males is called ____________. (2 points) menopause perimenopause male menopause change of life andropause

49.Which of the following is the MOST common cause of death in middle adulthood? (2 points) suicide homicide heart disease stroke cancer 50.All of the following are reasons that middle-aged adults experience changes in memory EXCEPT _______. (2 points) stress having more information to remember having more difficulty retrieving information having more information stored in memory hardening of the arteries

51.According to Erikson, an emotional and psychological closeness that is based on the ability to trust, share, and care, while still maintaining one’s sense of self, is called ________. (2 points) bonding intimacy attachment attraction affiliation

52.Psychologists say that an elderly person who is looking back over his or her life and coming to terms with the actions of that life is engaging in ___________. (2 points) despair a sense of identity ego integrity a life review generativity

53.The _______ theory of aging suggests that unstable oxygen molecules cause damage to the structure of cells, increasing with age. (2 points) wear-and-tear theory cellular clock theory disengagement theory free radical theory senescence theory

54.Several weeks of diagnostic tests have revealed that cancer has spread throughout Barry’s body. His physician suggests that he “take care of important matters.” Barry realizes his family’s home needs repairs, so he arranges to have that done right away. To relieve his family of the agony of planning his funeral, he has made all the arrangements. Barry tells his minister he has had a good life and just wants to make sure he provides for his family after his death. This description fits the stage Kubler-Ross called _________. (2 points) denial acceptance bargaining depression denial

55.The__________ lobes are located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere, containing the centers for touch, body position, and temperature. (2 points) frontal temporal occipital parietal mamillary bodies

56.Incoming sensory messages are made sense of in ______. (2 points) Broca’s area the motor projection areas the association areas Wernicke’s area the somatosensory cortex

57.The area of the frontal lobe that is devoted to the production of fluent speech is ______ area. (2 points) Broca’s Gall’s Wernicke’s Korsakoff’s Cajal’s

58.Bill was admitted to the hospital last week after he fell. When Bill’s son visited, he found his father was unable to get words out in a smooth, connected fashion. If Bill’s difficulty speaking is due to brain damage, what is the likely location of the damage? (2 points) Broca’s area Gall’s area Wernicke’s area Korsakoff’s area Cajal’s area

59.Mary suffered a head injury in a car accident last week. Since that time, she is able to speak fluently but uses the wrong words when expressing herself. Mary may be exhibiting __________ aphasia. (2 points) Broca’s Gall’s Korsakoff’s Cajal’s Wernicke’s

60.Robert’s mother is usually meticulous in her presentation. When picking her up for a family dinner, he noticed that her make-up was only applied to the right side of her face. Her hair was also brushed on the right side, but on the left it was matted and uncombed. He immediately took her to the hospital after she was unaware of any problems. She was diagnosed with __________, which is evidenced by damage to the association areas of the right hemisphere. (2 points) Wernicke’s aphasia Broca’s aphasia spatial neglect split-brain temporal lobe damage

61.Which endocrine gland controls all of the other endocrine glands? (2 points) thyroid adrenal thymus pancreas pituitary

62.Which structure is like a locked door that only certain neurotransmitter keys can unlock? (2 points) synapse receptor site neural chiasm response terminal synaptic vesicle

63.Which is NOT a potential cause of ADHD according to the research? (2 points) teratogens prematurity high level of lead in the body prefrontal brain damage restlessness

64.Which of the following are symptoms of adult ADHD? (2 points) obsessiveness, delusions, hallucinations hopelessness, losing things, fatigue impatience, obsessiveness, fatigue restlessness, impulsiveness, losing things restlessness, obsessiveness, fatigue

65.Medication for ADHD for children can also be effective for adult symptoms. Which of the following are types of medications that are used to treat this condition? (2 points) antipsychotics and stimulants stimulants and antidepressants antidepressants and antipsychotics antianxiety and antidepressants stimulants and antianxiety

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