I need help with this exam. You match the terms with their definition. This class is immunology class, the text book we are using is The Immune System, Peter Parham, 3rd Edition, Garland Publishing,


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uclear transcription factor activated by cytokine response to 
produce inflammatory cytokines.
1.

Commens
ual 
species

2.

Opportunistic 
pathogens

3.

Defensins

4.

GALT

5.

C3b

6.

CD59

7.

MAC

8.

TLRs

9.

LPS

10. NFkappaB
11. LFA­1:ICAM­1
12. CRP

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Question 3 (20 points)
 
Match genes, terms, proteins for chapters 3 and 4.  You may use your note cards and my lecture notes for this question.  
Only one choice per match.
Question 3 options:

Key genes for somatic recombination, these
are transcribed only in lymphocytes.

1.

Primary 
Immune 
Response

2.

Secondary Immune 
Response

Adaptive response that follows if pathogen 
breaches skin, provides a first exposure to 
an antigen­­this response takes some time.

3.

Clonal Selection

4.

Negative Selection

Process that increases numbers of B and T 
cells that recognize a specific pathogen

5.

CDR3

6.

Epitope

7.

Somatic Recombination

8.

RAG

Process of enhanced diversification of V­
Domain coding sequences­­occurs after 
initial B cell activation.

9.

P and N Nucleotides

Process of cutting, splicing and random 
recombination that produces diversity for 
antigen recognition.

11. Somatic Hypermutation

Palindromic and Nontemplated­­these 
nucleotides fill in randomly to create more 
diversity in CDR3

Adaptive response that follows if the 
antigen has been previously seen­­this 
response is fast.

The shape recognized by an antibody, this 
is also the shape that leads to the MHC 
presentation for T cell receptors.
Key function of certain antibodies and 
complement components to coat pathogens
and thus inactivate them.

10. Isotype Switching

12. Opsins/Opsinization

Stage in T­Cell development where T cells 
that recognize self are targeted for 
Apoptosis.
Hypervariable loop key for recognizing 
antigens.
Process where antibody can be modified 
(not antigen binding region) to produce 
alternative effector functions.

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Question 4 (20 points)
 
Match terms, genes and proteins for chapters 5 and 8.  Only one choice per match.  Note cards and my lecture notes ok!
Question 4 options:

Master Professional Antigen Presenting Cell
(white gloves and all)
Cell surface molecules from professional 
antigen presentiing cell that interact with T 
cells.
This T­cell receptor binds the B7 ligand.
Lingand (related to immunoglobulin family) 
that binds the CD28 co­receptor.
is found on antigen presenting cells and 
indicates a positive infection.
This cell signaling molecule transduced the 
T­cell activation initiated by antigen 
presenting by way of phosphorylation.
Antigen processing components used for 
MHC­1 presentation; Antigen processing 
components used for MHC­­II presentation.
Nucleotide sequences recognized by RAG 
genes for somatic recombination; Key genes,
ony expressed in B and T cells that are 

RSS; RAG 1 
and 2

1.
2.

CD4; CD8

3.

MHC­I; MHC­II

4.

Proteasome, TAP, 
ERAP, Calnexin; 
Invariant chain, CLIP

5.

Allotype; Genetic 
polymorphism

6.

MHC Restriction

7.

HLA­1A, HLA 1B, HLA­
1C

8.

Dendritic Cell

9.

LFA­1:ICAM­2, 
CD2:LFA­3

10. B7

thought to have evolved from transposons.
HLA isotypes with the greatest extent of 
polymorphism.
Proteins produced by different forms of a 
given gene; Where muliple alternative forms 
of a gene exist in a given population.
Co­receptor for helper T cells; Co­receptor 
for cytotoxic T cells.

11. Zap 70
12. CD28

Antigen presentation that indicates 
intracellular pathogen; Antigen presentation 
that indicates extracellular pathogen.
Where a T­cell receptor is specific to a 
complex of both the MHC and antigen 
presentation for activation.

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Question 5 (4 points)
 
Please see Figure 2.20 (shown on slide 11 of chapter 2 lecture notes).  This figure shows the Toll­like receptors.  They are 
highlighted on the opening video for this chapter!  Which of the following are true for these key components of the Innate 
Immune system?
Question 5 options:

These receptors are signaling molecules.  The family members are specific for 
different microbes.  Our text describes at least 9 different TLRs in this family that 
provide detection of specific microorganisms. 
When activated, these TLRs will activate cell signaling processes that lead to 
cytokine responses.  For example, when LPS is recognized by TLR4, a kinase 
cascade results in the nuclear localization of a key transcription factor (NFkappa 
Beta) that will activate the transcription of inflammatory cytokines.
Toll Like Receptors only sense microbes on  the outer surfaces of cells.
1 and 2
2 and 3
All answers are correct

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Question 6 (4 points)
 
Please see Figures 3.8 and 3.9 from our text.  These are shown on slide 8 of the Chapter 2 lecture.  These two classes of 
antigen­presenting molecules are critical for our well­being and the stars of our Davis novel. In fact, our text states that MHC
genes are "the best­known examples of highly polymorphic genes". Which of the following statements are true for these key 
molecules?
Question 6 options:

MHC Class I molecules present to CD8 T cells and in addition to binding the T cell 
receptor, these bind the CD8 co­receptor.  CD8 T cells are cytotoxic T cells.
MHC Class II molecules present to CD4 T cells and in addition to binding the T cell
receptor, these bind the CD4 co­receptor.  CD4 cells are helper T cells.
MHC Class I molecules present antigens from intracellular pathogens (viruses for 
example) while MHC Class II molecules present antigens from extracellular 
pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal and even parasites).
MHC class I molecules are expressed by all cells (except for Red Blood Cells) in 
the body, while MHC class II molecules are only expressed on dendritic cells,  
macrophages and B cells. 
1, 2 and 3
All answers are correct. 
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Question 7 (4 points)
 
Our text states that "The number of different antibodies that can be produced by the human body seem to be virtually 
limitless".  Key to creating the diversity witin the antigen binding sites (Slide 7 of chapter 4 lecture) are the result of random 
recombination of gene segments.  The RAG genes are key for creating this process.  Please see Slide 15 from the chapter 4
lecture that shows Figures 4.19­4.21.  The RAG story lecture elaborates on these genes and this process.  Please select the 
statement that is NOT true about RAG Genes and random recomination. 
Question 7 options:

Somatic recombination occurs during B cell development.  During this process, the 
V, D and J segments are cut and spliced and help produce the great variety of 
antigen binding sites.
Variable region sequences are flanked by RSSs, these signal sequences are 
recognized by the RAG genes.

Junctional diversity is created by exchanging V regions for J regions.
Junctional diversity is created by having random N­ nucleotides added after RAG 
genes clip RSSs generating P­nucleotides.
RAG genes are thought to have evolved from transposons. 
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Question 8 (4 points)
 
Please see Figure 5.20.  This is shown on slide 16 of the chapter 5 lecture notes.  Please select the statement(s) that 
correctly describe the difference between MHC class I and MHC class II antigen processing.
Question 8 options:

There is no difference in how antigen processing occurs for MHC class I and MHC 
class II molecules.
As MHC class I molecules present antigens exclusively from extracellular 
pathogens, the extracellular antigens are engulfed and form an endocytic vesicle.  
Peptides are then processed using phagocytosis, and are bound by MHC 
molecules. 
As MHC class II molecules present antigens exclusively from intracellular 
pathogens, the intracellular antigens are processed in a proteasome.  Peptides are
then transported from the proteasome through TAP to the ER lumen where they 
are loaded onto the MHC molecule.
Answers 2 and 3 WOULD be correct if the MHC class type were switched.  
Specifically, answer 3 would be correct if MHC class I molecules were identified, 
and answer 2 would be correct if MHC class II molecules were identified.
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Question 9 (4 points)
 
Please see the summary slide for our chapter 8 lecture.  This slide shows Figure 8.39 from our text.  Please select the 
correct statement(s) for this question on the stages of the T cell response.
Question 9 options:

Naive T cells must be activated in order to become effector T cells.  Specifically, 
Naive CD8 T cells recognize the antigen presented by MHC class II molecules and
will then develop into helper T cells.
Naive T cells must be activated in order to become effector T cells.  Specifically, 
Naive CD8 T cells recognize the antigen presented by MHC class I molecules and 

will then develop into cytotoxic T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells recognize cells that have been infected (viral) and kill them via 
Apoptosis.
Helper T cells exist in two forms; TH1 cells recognize macrophages that contain 
vesicles of bacteria and activate the macrophages to kill the bacteria, while TH2 
cells activate B cells that will develop in to plamsa cells for antibody production. 
Answers 1 and 3 are correct
Answers 2 and 3 are correct
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