Describe how the components of the Hawthorne study are incorporated in current human resource functions? What was the main idea behind this study? How have you been impacted by the components of this study in your current or past work setting? It is a criteria you use material provided and any other is acceptable. 

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Chapter One
Introduction to Organizational
Behavior
Travelpix*Ltd.
Learning(Objectives
After&reading&this&chapter&and&studying&the&materials,&you&should&be&able&to:
Describe(the(essence(of(organizational(behavior.
Explain(how(historical(events(and(business(trends(shaped(the(field(of(organizational(behavior.
Recognize(the(key(interpersonal(skills(that(apply(to(today's(business(environment.
Identify(additional(trends(that(have(affected(the(field(of(organizational(behavior.
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Associated*Press
The(Aflac(duck(visited(the(floor(of(the(New
York(Stock(Exchange(in(2010.(Aflac
celebrates(its(strong(ethical(and(employeeF
centric(foundation.
Learning(Objective(#1:
What(is(the(essence(of(organizational(behavior?
1.1(The(Nature(of(Organizational(Behavior
Managers(in(organizations(engage(in(a(variety(of(activities(every(day,(among(them(supervising(and(directing(employees.(Organizational(behavior(concentrates(on(the
people(side(of(a(business,(nonprofit,(or(governmental(entity.(Organizational(behavior(concepts(are(designed(to(help(a(company(or(nonprofit(fulfill(its(potential(by(creating
a(satisfying(and(positive(environment(that(leads(to(profitability,(growth,(and(other(measures(of(success,(thereby(connecting(the(human(element(with(the(operational
elements(of(an(organization.
Organizational(behavior((OB)(may(be(defined(as(the(investigation(of(the(behavioral(factors(that(affect(modern(organizations(and(their(management(at(the(individual,
group,(and(organizationKwide(levels.(This(textbook(examines(factors(that(dictate(success((or(failure)(in(the(world(of(commerce(at(each(level.
In(this(first(chapter,(four(primary(topics(are(explored.(First,(we(provide(an(overview(of(organizational(behavior(along(with(a(review(of(historical(and(modern(trends(that
influence(the(field.(A(brief(presentation(of(the(disciplines(that(are(related(to(OB(follows.(Next,(we(present(an(analysis(of(the(interpersonal(managerial(skills(that(are(vital(to
individual(success.(The(chapter(concludes(with(an(evaluation(of(the(context(in(which(business(currently(operates.(These(concepts(set(the(stage(for(all(of(the(parts(and
chapters(that(follow.
OB(IN(ACTION:(AFLAC
The(Duck(Stops(Here
Arguably(one(of(the(most(ingenious(advertising(campaigns(launched(in(the(United(States(in(recent(years(has
been(the(Aflac(duck(program.(A(company(with(little(name(and(brand(recognition(moved(to(practically
cultural(icon(status.(Aflac(offers(far(more(than(a(creative(and(sophisticated(marketing(program:(The
company(exemplifies(many(of(the(best(employment(and(business(practices.(A(culture(built(on(a(powerful
ethical(foundation(has(helped(Aflac(become(an(international(force(in(the(insurance(industry.
The(primary(Aflac(product,(supplemental(injury(health(insurance,(can(be(purchased(from(a(variety(of
vendors(other(than(Aflac;(however,(Aflac(has(grown(to(become(the(numberKone(provider(of(guaranteedK
renewable(insurance.(The(insurance(pays(extra(bills(not(covered(by(major(medical(health(insurance
reimbursements.(Aflac(insurance(serves(as(a(safety(net(for(someone(who(has(been(injured(on(or(off(the(job
and(cannot(work(as(a(result,(allowing(an(employee(to(focus(on(recovery(rather(than(financial(problems.
One(of(the(driving(forces(in(the(success(of(Aflac(has(been(CEO(Dan(Amos.(During(a(period(in(which
executive(salaries(were(exploding,(Amos(posted(his(proposed(compensation(package(to(all(internal(and
external(publics.(He(then(asked(the(company's(stockholders(to(cast(votes(on(whether(his(projected(contract
was(reasonable.(The(pay(package(consisted(of(a($1.2(million(salary,($2.5(million(as(a(bonus,(and(an
additional($2.5(million(in(stock(bonuses.(The(same(year((2005),(Home(Depot(CEO(Bob(Nardelli(received(a
$210(million(exit(payment(after(being(fired(for(poor(performance.
Amos(explained(his(approach(by(stating(that(everyone(in(the(organization(should(believe(in(a(strong(link(between(pay(and(performance.(Even(though(the
stockholder(vote(on(his(compensation(was(nonbinding,(Amos(agreed(to(abide(by(the(outcome.
Aflac(offers(a(generous(and(farKreaching(benefit(program.(It(includes(health(insurance,(pension(options,(and(child(care.(Forbes(magazine(named(Aflac(as
one(of(America's(BestKManaged(Companies(in(the(Insurance(category(in(2011.(Fortune(magazine(recognized(Aflac(as(one(of(the(100(Best(Companies(to
Work(For(in(America(for(the(thirteenth(consecutive(year(and(was(on(its(list(of(Most(Admired(Companies(for(the(tenth(time(in(2011.(Hispanic(magazine
included(the(company(in(its(list(of(the(top(100(firms(for(Hispanic(workers(for(the(twelfth(time(in(2011.
The(prestigious(Ethisphere(Institute(think(tank,(which(is(dedicated(to(the(creation,(advancement,(and(sharing(of(best(practices(in(business(ethics,
corporate(social(responsibility,(antiKcorruption,(and(sustainability,(named(Aflac(one(of(the(most(ethical(companies(in(the(world,(for(the(fifth(time(in(a(row,
in(2011.(The(award(was(presented(to(43(companies(in(38(industries(globally.
This(recognition(occurred(as(the(company(encountered(some(turbulence.(Comic(Gilbert(Gottfried(had(been(the("voice"(of(the(Aflac(duck(since(the
inception(of(the(campaign.(When(Gottfried(made(unsavory(comments(about(the(Japanese(tsunami(and(its(aftermath,(his(contract(was(quickly(terminated.
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In(Japan,(Aflac(is(the(numberKone(insurance(company(in(terms(of(individual(insurance(policies(in(force.
Currently,(Aflac(insurance(products(provide(protection(to(more(than(50(million(people(worldwide.(The(strong(ethical(and(employeeKcentric(environment
present(in(the(firm(will(certainly(lead(to(continuing(success(in(the(United(States(and(abroad((Aflac.com,(2011;(Clow(&(Baack,(2011).
Questions(for(Students
1.(Do(you(believe(Dan(Amos's(compensation(package(was(fair?
2.(What(factors(constitute(an("ethical(environment"?
3.(If(Aflac(were(not(growing(and(making(profits,(how(should(the(leadership(of(the(company(change?
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Photos.com
Critics(argued(that(the(principles(of(scientific(management(dehumanized
employees(and(created(sweatshopFlike(conditions.
Learning(Objective(#2:
How(have(historical(events(and(business(trends(shaped(organizational(behavior(over(the(past(century?
1.2(Historical(Overview(and(Current(Trends(in(OB
The(fields(of(management(and(organizational(behavior(have(evolved(over(time,(from(relatively(straightforward(ideas(about(increasing(productivity(to(complex(modern
approaches.(Historically,(the(scientific(management(approach(was(at(the(forefront(of(the(study(of(the(field(of(management.(It(was(followed(by(the(human(relations
movement(and(the(subsequent(transition(to(modern(organizational(behavior.
Scientific(Management
Organizational(behavior(is(a(subfield(of(the(larger(field(of(management.(Historians(trace(the(beginnings(of(the(field(of(management(to(1886,(when(Henry(R.(Towne((1886)
presented(a(paper(entitled("The(Engineer(as(Economist"(to(the(American(Society(of(Mechanical(Engineers.(The(article(argued(that(the(study(of(management(was(equal(in
importance(to(the(study(of(engineering,(and(therefore(the(field(should(create(its(own(body(of(research(and(have(its(own(professional(organizations((Bedeian,(1986).
Within(a(decade,(mechanical(engineer(Frederick(W.(Taylor((1903/2010)(developed(the(principles
of(scientific(management,(an(approach(that(merged(classic(scientific(principles(with(what(was
known(about(the(practice(of(management.(The(four(principles(are(displayed(in(Table(1.1.(The(use
of(these(principles(produced(dramatic(increases(in(productivity(levels(of(individual(workers.(By
analyzing(work(scientifically,(selecting(workers(scientifically,(achieving(greater(levels(of
cooperation(between(labor(and(management,(and(sharing(levels(of(authority(between(them,
several(firms,(including(the(Ford(Motor(Company,(realized(increased(productivity(and(profits.
At(the(same(time,(however,(criticisms(emerged(that(the(program(dehumanized(employees(and
created(sweatshopKlike(conditions.(The(labor(movement(achieved(dramatic(legislative(gains(during
the(scientific(management(era,(as(the(United(States(government(and(individual(unions(sought(to
protect(workers(from(unfair(management(tactics,(such(as(the(use(of(child(labor,(pay(scales(not
sufficient(to(maintain(a(standard(of(living,(and(abusive(supervisors((Majority(Report(of(the(SubK
Committee(on(Administration,(1912).
Table(1.1:(Taylor's(four(principles(of(scientific(management
1.(Development(of(a(true(science(of(managing(with(clearly(stated(laws,(rules,(and(principles(that(replaced(ruleKofKthumb(methods.
2.(Scientific(selection,(training,(and(development(of(workers(for(specific(jobs.
3.(Cooperation(with(workers(to(make(sure(work(is(completed(using(scientific(principles.
4.(Equal(division(of(tasks(and(responsibilities(between(workers(and(management.
Adapted*from*A.*G.*Bedeian*(1986).*Management.*Chicago:*The*Dryden*Press.
During(the(early(1900s,(Frank(and(Lillian(Gilbreth((1915)(incorporated(the(principles(of(scientific(management(into(their(time(and(motion(study.(By(observing(work
performance(using(film(and(a(stopwatch(they(designed(more(efficient(methods(to(complete(tasks.(Of(note,(one(governmental(response(to(scientific(management(was(to
ban(the(use(of(a(stopwatch(to(measure(work(output.(Legislators(argued(it(placed(undue(pressure(on(workers,(almost(as(a(form(of(coercion((Bedeian,(1986).
During(the(same(time(period,(Henri(Fayol((1916/1949)(wrote(in(his(native(French(about(the(importance(of(the(classic(management(functions(of(planning,(organizing,
staffing,(directing,(and(controlling.(The(ideas(paralleled(the(principles(of(scientific(management(in(the(United(States(and(became(widely(implemented(throughout(Europe.
The(Human(Relations(Movement
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Figure(1.1:(Maslow's(hierarchy
of(needs
Maslow's(hierarchy(of(needs(suggests(that(people
continually("get(better"(at(each(stage,(by(building
relationships(and(seeking(to(help(others(as(part(of
one's(life(work.
Maslow's(Hierarchy(of(Needs
The(field(of(organizational(behavior(only(recently(emerged(from(other(aspects(of(management.(Some(of(the(origins(of(organizational(behavior(are(credited(to(Mary(Parker
Follett,(who(questioned(the(wisdom(of(scientific(management.(She(argued(that(the(system(ignored(the(human(element(of(organizations.(Follett(believed(that(improved
communication(between(parts(of(a(company(could(be(created(by(increasing(employee(participation(in(the(direction(of(the(firm,(especially(when(workers(were(given
autonomy(and(assigned(into(crossKfunctional(teams(to(work(together(on(projects.(Follett(concluded(that(managers(should(serve(as(coaches(and(facilitators(rather(than(as
monitors(and(supervisors,(which(became(the(basis(of(the(human(relations(movement((Tonn,(2003).
The&Hawthorne&Studies
The(human(relations(movement(in(management(began(in(earnest(in(1927.(Researchers(Elton(Mayo(and(Fritz(Roethlisberger(conducted(the(Hawthorne(Studies,(focusing
primarily(on(people(rather(than(solely(on(productivity.(In(the(studies,(the(researchers(altered(different(factors,(most(notably(the(level(of(lighting,(to(determine(the(effects
on(worker(productivity.(The(primary(findings(of(the(research(project(were(as(follows:
1.(The(subjects(responded(to(positive(and(pleasant(interactions(with(researchers(by(increasing(productivity(rates(on(the(job.
2.(Some(of(the(tasks(performed(by(supervisors(were(eventually(assumed(by(entryKlevel(employees,(who(also(generated(higher(levels(of(production,(because(the(workers
found(the(experience(to(be("fun"(and(free(of(anxiety(about(being(disciplined(for(poor(performance.
3.(Workers(tended(to(form(groups(that(were(cohesive(and(loyal(to(one(another.(Anyone(who(overproduced(became(a("Slave"(or("Speed(King"(who(was(derided(and(even
physically(punched(in(the(arm(("binging")(by(group(members.(Anyone(who(failed(to(do(his(fair(share(of(work(was(labeled(a("Chiseler"(and(admonished(to(keep(up(with
the(group.
Mayo(and(Roethlisberger(concluded(that(workers(are(motivated(by(more(than(money.(Social(interactions(constitute(a(key(part(of(the(organizational(experience.(Individual
attitudes(and(collective(employee(morale(were(significant(determinants(of(productivity(levels.(The(writers(suggested(company(managers(should(account(for(human
emotions(and(interactions(to(achieve(higher(levels(of(success((Urwick,(1960;(Bedeian,(1986).
Abraham(Maslow(and(Humanism
The(field(of(organizational(behavior(has(been(shaped,(in(part,(by(the(field(of(psychology.(The(classical(approach(to(psychology(included(the(belief(that(human(nature(was
essentially(weak(and(prone(to(evil((Hjelle(&(Ziegler,(1981).(Clinical(psychologist(Abraham(Maslow(was(among(the(first(to(shift(views(on(the(nature(of(human(beings.
Maslow(was(a(proponent(of(the(belief(that(the(basic(inner(nature(of(a(person(is(inherently(good,(a(perspective(which(became(known(as(humanism.(In(the(hierarchy(of
needs(theory,(Maslow(expands(the(argument(by(suggesting(that(life(is(the(process(of("getting(better."(Throughout(the(hierarchy,(each(new(stage(leads(to(a(greater
concern(with(connecting(to,(assisting,(and(serving(others.(The(ultimate(expression(of(life,(known(as(selfKactualization,(results(from(performing(helpful(and(meaningful(work
while(staying(true(to(one's(own(sense(of(self.
Maslow's(writings(influenced(the(fields(of(psychology,(social(psychology,(sociology,(marketing,(management,(and(organizational(behavior.(Much(of(the(research(and
theoryKbuilding(that(took(place(in(the(years(following(the(publication(of(the(hierarchy(of(needs(includes(humanist(assumptions.(In(essence,(scientific(management,(which
relied(on(money(and(fear(as(primary(motives,(was(being(supplanted(by(newer,(more(positive(views(of(employees.(Human(relations(theories(incorporate(the(concept(that
positive(employee(attitudes,(combined(with(praise(and(recognition(by(supervisors(and(interesting(work,(can(contribute(equally(to(workplace(motivation(and(productivity
(Maslow,(1954/1998).
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Douglas(McGregor(and(Theory(X/Theory(Y
Perhaps(the(most(insightful(book(related(to(the(field(of(organizational(behavior(is(Douglas(McGregor's(The*Human*Side*of*Enterprise.(Leadership(is(one(key(focus(of(the
book.(McGregor(proposes(two(companion(theories,(summarized(in(Table(1.2,(that(crystallize(the(differences(between(scientific(management(and(the(human(relations
movement.(Theory(X(expresses(the(negative(assumptions(leaders(have(about(their(followers;(for(example,(that(they(want(to(avoid(work(and(responsibility.(The(logical
conclusions(managers(would(draw(would(be(that(they(should(use(fear(or(money(to(motivate(employees.(Theory(Y(represents(the(opposing(perspective,(in(terms(of(both
assumptions(and(conclusions(made(by(leaders:(for(instance,(that(it(is(natural(for(people(to(want(to(work,(and(that(motivation(comes(from(within.
Table(1.2:(McGregor's(Theory(X(and(Theory(Y
Assumptions(of(Theory(X Assumptions(of(Theory(Y
1.(People(dislike(work. 1.(Wanting(to(work(is(natural.
2.(People(avoid(responsibility. 2.(People(seek(responsibility.
3.(People(prefer(direction. 3.(People(enjoy(autonomy.
4.(Most(people(have(little(ambition. 4.(Most(people(are(only(partially(utilized(in(terms(of(talents(and(abilities.
5.(Given(the(opportunity,(employees(will(generate(ideas(to(help(themselves
and(the(company.
(
Conclusions(of(Theory(X Conclusions(of(Theory(Y
1.(Leaders(should(be(productionKoriented. 1.(Leaders(should(be(peopleKoriented.
2.(Employee(motivation(is(derived(from(money(and(fear. 2.(Motivation(comes(from(within(the(individual.
McGregor(believed(that(the(Theory(X(leadership(style(was(ineffective,(because(workers(would(be(underutilized(and(their(potential(contributions(would(be(lost.(He(argued
that(Theory(Y(leaders(unleash(human(potential(and(would(succeed(in(the(long(term.(The(human(relations(movement(became(the(dominant(focus(of(management(theory
from(approximately(1930(to(1960.
As(the(world(began(to(change,(influenced(by(improvements(in(technology,(increasing(globalization,(and(other(trends,(it(became(apparent(that(what(the(Gilbreths(called
the(quest(to(identify(the("One(Best(Way"(was(impossible.(Workplace(situations(are(complex(and(differ(from(one(another.(Consequently,(neither(the(scientific(management
approach(nor(the(humanistic(vantage(point(can(provide(complete(answers.(This(has(led(to(new(ideas(and(concepts(about(how(to(manage(employees(in(the(modern(era.
Modern(Management(and(Organizational(Behavior
During(the(1950s,(1960s,(and(early(1970s,(a(series(of(political,(social,(and(technological(trends(impacted(the(academic(world(and(the(world(of(commerce.(Laws(regarding
discrimination(were(enacted,(issues(regarding(gender(equality(arose,(and(the(government(underwent(a(great(deal(of(scrutiny,(most(notably(as(a(result(of(the(Vietnam(War
and(the(Watergate(scandal.(Social(trends(were(impacted(by(the(baby(boom(generation(and(its(insistence(on(greater(freedom.(Technology(played(a(major(role(in(shaping
the(nature(of(research(and(the(methods(used(to(conduct(business.(Computerization,(miniaturization,(and(robotics(dramatically(influenced(the(workplace(and(the
classroom.
The(field(of(organizational(behavior(evolved(with(the(times.(In(the(1950s,(the(related(college(course(was(often(called("industrial(psychology"(and(was(taught(in(psychology
departments.(As(the(content(moved(into(schools(of(business,(the(most(common(name(for(the(class(was("human(relations."(The(overall(practice(and(study(of(management
and(organizational(behavior(were(influenced(by(two(concepts:(systems(theory(and(contingency(theory.
Systems&Theory
Chester(I.(Barnard(introduced(systems(concepts(to(the(practice(of(business.(Barnard((1938/1968)(believed(organizations(consisted(of(a(series(of(physical,(biological,
personal,(and(social(components(that(form(into(a(cooperative(system(that(pursues(distinct(goals(and(ends.(Later,(systems(theory(conceptualized(an(organization(as(a(set
of(interrelated(parts(working(together(in(a(holistic(fashion.(Figure(1.2(portrays(a(system.(The(model(applies(to(biological,(mechanical,(and(social(systems.
Figure(1.2:(A(system
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Attitudes(of(Exceptional(Employees
Chester(Barnard(developed(systems(concepts,(which(later(became(systems(theory.
Systems(theory(demonstrates(how(an(interrelated(set(of(parts(evolves(into(a(holistic
process.
In(a(business(system,(inputs(include(raw(materials,(financial(resources,(and(human(resources.(The(transformation(process(is(the(company's(production(function,(including
the(assembly(of(physical(products(and(the(delivery(of(intangible(services.(Outputs(are(the(finished,(final(goods(and(services(sold(to(the(public.(The(feedback(mechanism
provides(correction(and(adjustment,(keeping(the(organization(in(tune(with(its(environment.(Control(systems,(such(as(performance(appraisals(of(individual(employees(and
annual(accounting(statements(for(overall(companies,(are(feedback(mechanisms.
Two(major(developments(emerged(from(systems(theory:(first,(the(concept(that(organizations(constantly(change,(and(second,(that(organizations(must(adapt(to(the(larger
environment(to(continue(operations.(Prior(to(systems(theory,(firms(were(often(viewed(more(as(a(snapshot(than(as(a(moving(picture.(For(example,(Twitter(at(its(inception
was(a(far(different(organization(than(its(current(form.(A(single(image(would(not(suffice(to(describe(the(company.
The(need(to(adapt(to(the(environment(led(to(biological(analogies.(The(first,(the(lifeFcycle(concept,(suggests(that(organizations(are(born,(grow,(reach(a(maturity(stage,(and
eventually(decline(and(die.(The(second,(natural(selection,(notes(that(organizations(that(do(not(adapt(to(the(environment(will(be(selected(out.(These(concepts(apply(to
management,(marketing,(and(organizational(behavior.(Employees(are(biological(systems(and(go(through(lifeKcycle(phases.(Workers(with(skills(not(suited(to(the(economic
environment(cannot(find(jobs,(which(means(they(are(selected(out.
Contingency&Theory
If(one(phrase(summarizes(contingency(theory,(it(might(be,("There(is(no(one(best(way(to(manage."(In(organizational(behavior,(no(one(best(motivational(system,(leadership
style,(or(form(of(organizational(structure(and(design(exists.(Instead,(If(?(then(approaches(to(management(are(required.(Many(of(the(theories(that(have(evolved(in
organizational(behavior(reflect(contingency(thinking,(where(managers(adapt(to(the(situation,(company,(employees,(and(other(circumstances.
Beginning(in(the(1950s,(systems(theory(and(contingency(theory(set(the(stage(for(a(new(era(in(management(and(organizational(behavior(theoryKbuilding.(New(trends(that
emerged(included(total(quality(management(and(positive(organizational(behavior.
Total&Quality&Management
In(the(1980s(the(business(world(witnessed(an(increasing(emphasis(on(product(quality.(A(concept(created(in(the(United(States(migrated(to(Japan,(where(it(flourished(and
changed(managerial(thinking.(Total(quality(management((TQM)(emphasizes("continuous,(customerKcentered,(employeeKdriven(improvement,"(according(to(Richard(J.
Schonberger((1992),(and(also(requires(a(shift(in(a(company's(overall(culture.
TQM(was(made(popular(in(Japan(by(mathematician(W.(Edwards(Deming((1986),(who(sought(to(reduce(variations(in(quality,(both(in(manufacturing(and(human(operations.
In(the(production(department,(the(goal(of(zero(defects(was(established.(On(the(human(side,(Deming's(methods(include:
training(in(statistical(process(controls
increased(and(improved(teamwork
positive(and(helpful(leadership(instead(of(order(giving(and(punishment
emphasis(on(continuous(improvement
finding(methods(to(improve(workmanship
Deming's(approach(combines(elements(of(scientific(management((the(careful(study(of(methods(to(reduce
defects)(with(human(relations(by(building(teamwork,(inspiring(trust(and(respect,(and(making(quality(a(matter(of
personal(importance(to(employees.(The(TQM(emphasis(on(quality(and(continuous(improvement(led(to(the
development(of(new(programs(in(the(United(States(and(Japan.(The(focus(shifted(to(improving(the(quality(of(both
products(and(the(workplace(experience.
Positive&Organizational&Behavior
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Ciaran*Griffin
A(positive(work(environment(exists(when(employees(feel(free(to(express(their
ideas(and(share(any(problems(with(management.
The(positive(psychology(movement(began(in(the(late(1990s.(The(primary(elements(of(the(approach(seek(an
increased(focus(on(the(building(of(human(strength.(The(perspective(was(translated(from(the(field(of(psychology
to(the(field(of(organizational(behavior(by(Fred(Luthans.(Instead(of(the(quickKfix(selfKhelp(approaches(often(found
in(the(popular(press,(positive(organizational(behavior(seeks(to(identify(human(resource(strengths(and(capabilities
that(can(be(measured,(developed,(improved,(and(managed.(To(do(so,(positive(organizational(behavior(is(built(on
the(principles(summarized(by(the(acronym(CHOSE,(or
1.(Confidence(and(selfKefficacy:(I(believe(I(control(my(own(destiny.
2.(Hope:(I(think(there(is(a(good(chance(I(will(make(my(numbers(this(year.
3.(Optimism:(Even(though(our(team(is(being(asked(to(do(more(with(fewer(resources,(we(can(use(this(as(a(chance
to(shine.
4.(Subjective(wellKbeing:(Each(situation(requires(a(unique(response.
5.(Emotional(intelligence:(The(ability(to(adapt(to(change(and(environmental(turbulence.
A(positive(work(environment(can(be
built(in(which(managers(are(approachable(and(employees(feel(free(to(express(ideas(and(seek(to
develop(their(full(potential.(This(bodes(well(for(every(aspect(of(their(organizational(lives,(and
includes(achieving(personal(success(while(increasing(company(profitability(and(growth.
The(positive(psychology(movement(has(roots(in(concepts(such(as(openKdoor(management,
wherein(managers(offer(access(to(employees,(who(can(ask(questions(or(discuss(ideas(or
problems.(It(incorporates(an(emphasis(on(employee(participation(as(well(as(Theory(Y.(Positive
psychology(emphasizes(nurturing(and(empowering(employees.
The(history(of(the(field(of(management(and(of(organizational(behavior(have(revealed(that(an
"either–or"(approach(cannot(succeed.(A(manager(cannot(focus(solely(on(production(or
exclusively(on(human(resources.(Following(the(scientific(management(era,(the(human(relations
movement(tipped(the(scales(to(the(extreme(opposite(direction(in(favor(of(concentrating(on
workers.(In(the(more(modern(era,(methods(such(as(total(quality(management(and(positive
organizational(behavior(seek(to(achieve(a(balance(between(every(aspect(of(organizational(life(in
order(to(produce(the(highest(level(of(success.
Related(Disciplines
The(term(hybrid(field,(which(means(that(those(who(study(the(topic(will(encounter(concepts(and(theories(generated(in(a(variety(of(academic(disciplines,(is(commonly
associated(with(organizational(behavior.(The(study(of(organizational(behavior(in(the(modern(context(requires(a(modest(understanding(of(concepts(generated(in(the
following(fields:
psychology
social(psychology
sociology
organization(theory
human(resource(management
history
research(methods(and(statistics
anthropology
Each(contributes(unique(insights(into(the(study(of(methods(used(to(improve(individual(and(organizational(performance.
Psychology
Psychology,(the(study(of(individual(mental(processes,(profoundly(influences(the(field(of(organizational(behavior.(Psychologists(examine(many(factors(that(are(part(of
organizational(life,(including(stimuli,(perception,(learning,(personality,(and(motivation.(By(understanding(how(stimuli(are(perceived,(attentionKgetting(factors(associated
with(learning(can(be(designed(to(improve(training(programs(and(create(effective(workplace(safety(practices.(Perception(affects(the(subsequent(development(of(the
attitudes,(beliefs,(and(values(that(shape(citizenship(within(the(firm.(Several(motivation(theories(that(apply(to(the(workplace(were(developed(or(influenced(by(psychology.
Social&Psychology
Social(psychology,(or(the(examination(of(social(factors(that(influence(individual(mental(processes,(includes(a(sweeping(number(of(topics(that(overlap(with(organizational
behavior.(Roles(and(role(theory,(teams(and(groups,(decisionKmaking(processes,(leadership,(and(communication(are(topics(studied(by(both(social(psychologists(and
organizational(behaviorists.(Recent(contributions(made(by(social(psychology(to(the(field(of(organizational(behavior(include(the(concepts(of(social(information(processing
and(the(nature(of(inclusive/exclusive(language(that(can(be(used(to(alienate(or(discriminate(against(others.
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Attitudes of Exceptional Employees
From Title: The Exceptional Employee: A Guide to Success o...
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George*Doyle
Sociology,(psychology,(social(psychology,(and(anthropology(all(influence(the(field
of(organizational(behavior.
Associated*Press
The(collective(behavior(of(the(people(working(in(an(organization(and(the(overall
culture(of(the(work(environment(are(called(organizational(culture.(A(company's
culture(usually(begins(with(a(founding(story,(such(as(Mark(Zuckerberg's(creation
of(Facebook.
Sociology
Sociology(is(the(study(of(social(organizations.(Organizational(design(and(structure,(roles,(and
teams(and(groups(are(subjects(that(sociology(and(organizational(behavior(have(in(common.(Many
of(the(classic(principles(of(organizational(structure(first(appeared(in(the(writings(of(sociologists,
including(Max(Weber(and(Peter(Blau.
Organization&Theory
A(strong(overlap(exists(between(sociology(and(organization(theory(due(to(their(emphasis(on
organization(design(issues.(The(primary(difference(is(that(organization(theory(approaches(the
topic(from(a(stronger(business(perspective.(In(both(sociology(and(organization(theory,(the
organization(constitutes(the(primary(unit(of(analysis(rather(than(individual(employees,(teams,(or
groups.
Human&Resource&Management
Human(resource((HR)(management(and(organizational(behavior(share(a(parent(field:
management.(Each(area((HR(and(OB)(is(a(management(specialty.(Both(examine(the(subjects(of(job
design,(union–management(relationships,(and(job(satisfaction,(including(the(indicators(of
satisfaction((rates(of(absenteeism,(tardiness,(turnover,(accidents,(grievances,(and(vandalism)(in
the(workplace.(Many(organizational(behavior(research(efforts(aim(at(improving(job(satisfaction(and(its(indicators.
History
The(role(of(history(in(organizational(behavior(is(related(to(context.(Many(leadership(theories,(for(example,(emerged(as(a(result(of(a(heightened(interest(in(the(topic(during
World(War(II.(The(ability(to(conduct(more(sophisticated(research(emerged(from(the(development(of(computer(technology(and(the(Internet.
Research&Methods&and&Statistics
Research(methods(and(statistics(programs(seek(to(generate(highKquality(experiments(and(empirical(investigations(of(constructs,(postulates,(hypotheses,(and(theories.(A
construct(is(a(term(that(is(used(to(represent(an(unobservable(process.(Motivation(and(learning(are(constructs(that(cannot(be(seen,(but(that(still(take(place.(In
organizational(behavior,(a(quality(research(project(includes(reliability,(or(consistently(repeatable(measures(of(variables,(along(with(validity(in(findings(that(can(be
generalized(to(other(groups.
A(research(study(that(finds(employees(who(work(the(third(shift(in(a(hospital(are(more(dissatisfied(with(their(jobs(than(those(working(the(first(or(second(shifts(exhibits
reliability(when(the(measures(of(the(construct("job(satisfaction"(can(be(repeated(and(obtain(the(same(results.(The(study(has(validity(when(the(finding((greater
dissatisfaction(is(present)(can(be(transferred(to(employees(in(other(settings,(such(as(thirdshift(workers(in(manufacturing(plants,(restaurants,(and(hotels.(Knowledge(in(the
field(of(organizational(behavior(advances(through(quality(research.
Anthropology
Anthropology(contributes(to(organizational(behavior(through(the(emphasis(on(concepts(such(as(organizational(climate(and(culture.(The(climate,(or(prevailing(atmosphere
within(an(organization,(dictates(whether(employees(feel(relaxed(and(accepted(or(stressed(and(fearful.(Internal(and(external(forces(can(change(the(climate(of(a(company.
An(external(factor(such(as(a(recession(can(cause(organizational(members(to(worry(about(losing(their(jobs(and(lead(supervisors(to(exhibit(a(more(directive(management
style.(An(internal(change(in(climate(results(when(top(managers(leave.(Each(new(executive(will(imprint(his(or(her(personality(on(the(organization,(thereby(causing(a(shift(in
the(firm's(environment.
Anthropological(methods(include(the("researcher(as(participant"(form(of(inquiry.(Classic(studies
by(John(Van(Mannen(in(a(police(department(and(Rosabeth(Moss(Kanter(in(a(major(corporation
have(added(new(insights(into(what(happens(in(the(workplace((Van(Maanen,(Dabbs,(&(Faulkner,
1982;(Kanter,(1977).(Both(argue(that(organizations(should(be(studied(from(within(rather(than
by(using(constructs(imposed(from(outside.
Another(anthropological(element,(culture,(also(impacts(organizational(behavior.(Culture(at(the
national(level(influences(many(companies.(The(operation(of(a(firm(in(Japan(will(likely(be(quite
dissimilar(from(that(of(a(company(in(Mexico(due(to(differences(in(national(culture.
Organizational(culture(constitutes(the(more(enduring(aspects(of(life(within(a(company.(A
company's(culture(often(begins(with(a(founding(story,(such(as(Mark(Zuckerberg's(tale(at
Facebook(or(the(story(of(J.C.(Penney's(first(retail(store.(Over(time(company(stories,(legends,
language,(and(rituals(evolve(and(then(become(relatively(fixed(and(difficult(to(change.
As(this(brief(section(indicates,(organizational(behavior(has(been(enriched(by(the(theoretical
contributions(and(research(findings(from(a(variety(of(related(fields.(More(recently,(concepts
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derived(from(postmodernism,(including(ideas(about(the(construction(and(deconstruction(of
language(as(well(as(views(of(the(organization,(hegemonic(processes,(notions(of(subjectivity(and(identity,(and(cultural(imperatives(have(begun(to(influence(thinking(about
what(happens(in(the(workplace((Baack(&(Prasch,(1997).(Undoubtedly(the(future(will(include(even(greater(expansion(into(other(academic(fields(to(enhance(understanding
of(organizational(processes.
Comprehension(Exercise
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Business(Problems/Ethics
Hemera
Building(an(ethical(foundation(is(necessary(to(ensure(public(trust(in(commerce.(In
2008(and(2009,(individual(lenders(did(not(share(possible(risks(with(homebuyers,
which(led(to(large(numbers(of(foreclosures.
Learning(Objective(#3:
Which(interpersonal(skills(are(most(valuable(in(today's(business(environment?
1.3(Interpersonal(Skills:(Keys(to(Personal(and(Managerial(Success
The(study(of(theories(in(organizational(behavior(can(contribute(to(both(personal(and(organizational(success.(At(times(these(two(goals(overlap.(At(other(times,(managerial
duties(aimed(at(organizational(success(are(distinct(from(personal(growth(and(development(activities.(To(help(separate(these(concepts,(management(can(be(defined(as
accomplishing(work(and(organizational(goals(by(assisting,(training,(and(leading(others.(SelfFmanagement(involves(all(efforts(designed(to(pursue(personal(goals.(Both
require(key(interpersonal(skills.
SelfFManagement(and(Personal(Success
"Personal(success"(is(a(difficult(concept(to(define.(For(one(individual,(the(concept(suggests(wealth(or(fame.(For
another,(success(results(from(moving(to(the(top(of(the(organizational(chart(and(assuming(the(role(of(chief
executive(officer((CEO).(Another(still(may(view(personal(success(in(terms(of(serving(people,(including(family,
friends,(and(even(strangers.(For(our(purposes(here,(the(concept(of(personal(success(specifically(addresses(one's
career(and(time(spent(in(business(organizations.(The(primary(concepts(that(apply(to(personal(success(in(that
context(include
building(an(ethical(foundation
training(and(preparation
finding(the(right(person–organization(fit
continuous(improvement
achieving(balance
Each(component(contributes(important(elements(to(a(satisfying(career.
Building&an&Ethical&Foundation
The(past(two(decades(have(been(filled(with(incidents(of(unethical(activities(of(individuals(and(corporations(that
have(damaged(personal(lives,(companies,(and(public(trust(in(commerce.(The(Sarbanes–Oxley(laws,(which(were(passed(in(2002,(set(new,(more(rigorous(legal(requirements
for(corporations(in(the(attempt(to(protect(people(from(shady(financial(practices.(Reforms(have(been(implemented(in(the(credit,(banking,(and(lending(industries(as(a(result
of(abuses(that(led(to(dire(economic(circumstances.(Governments(continue(to(try(to(regulate(pollution,(tax(evasion,(misuse(of(personal(information,(and(unsafe(products,
as(well(as(other(business(practices.(Major(accrediting(agencies,(including(those(associated(with(management(and(organizational(behavior,(have(developed(codes(of(ethics
and(emphasize(the(importance(of(ethics(training(in(the(classroom.
Assessment(of(ethical(and(unethical(actions(remains(essential(at(the(individual(level.(Individual
decision(makers(failed(to(take(the(necessary(steps(that(would(have(prevented(the(2010(Gulf(of
Mexico(oil(spill((Broder,(2011).(Individual(lenders(failed(to(properly(warn(homebuyers(about(the
risks(associated(with(some(mortgages,(leading(to(a(vast(number(of(foreclosures(in(2008(and
2009.(Individual(financial(speculators(made(massive(profits(while(endangering(the(global
economy(during(that(same(time(period.
Consequently,(personal(success(should(be(defined(in(terms(of(what(contributes(to(the(greater
good,(and(should(therefore(begin(and(end(with(building(a(personal(ethical(foundation.
Guidelines(as(straightforward(as(the(Golden(Rule(and(common(sense(can(help(an(employee
establish(a(personal(moral(code.(Then,(ethics(training(and(ethics(counseling(can(assist(when
moral(questions(arise.(In(essence,(ethical(actions(are(the(starting(point(and(ultimate(goal(of(a
truly(successful(career.
Training&and&Preparation
The(concept(of(lifelong(learning(has(swept(through(much(of(the(academic(and(business(world.
New(technologies(and(methods(of(operation(require(continuous(study.(A(successful(personal
career(likely(includes(formal(training(in(the(academic(world,(such(as(undergraduate(and
master's(degrees;(participation(in(managerial(training(programs(in(individual(companies;(personal(efforts(to(improve(skills(through(conferences,(seminars,(professional
reading,(and(online(research;(and(discussion(with(mentors(and(experts.
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Business Problems/Ethics
From Title: Business Ethics: A 21st-Century Perspective
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Finding&The&Right&Person–Organization&Fit
For(most(people,(finding(the(ideal(workplace(will(not(happen(with(the(first(employment(experience.(It(takes(time(and(several(jobs(to(discover(what(someone(wants(in(a
company.(An(individual(may(most(value(social(interaction,(the(work(itself,(the(opportunity(to(be(promoted,(or(numerous(other,(less(visible(aspects(of(organizational(life.
Figure(1.3(models(the(person–organization(fit(concept.(It(suggests(that(when(an(employee(has(found(the(right(employer,(a(series(of(beneficial(outcomes(emerge.(Part(of
career(management(involves(personal(awareness(regarding(what(you(think(is(important,(combined(with(seeking(to(find(the(company(that(offers(the(best(chance(to
achieve.
Figure(1.3:(A(person–organization(fit(model
The(person–organization(fit(concept(suggests(that(positive(outcomes(occur(when(an
employee(finds(the(right(employer.
Conducting(a(selfKexamination(will(be(part(of(finding(the(right(fit.(Some(people(belong(in(a(category(called("cosmopolitans":(persons(who(find(the(greatest(fulfillment(in
serving(the(larger(profession(rather(than(a(specific(organization.("Locals"(focus(on(succeeding(within(the(employer(company((Goldberg,(1976).(In(finding(a(fit(with(an
organization,(cosmopolitans(are(suited(to(companies(that(grant(greater(autonomy(and(derive(recognition(from(the(external(professional(activities(of(employees.(Locals(fit
in(most(organizations,(so(long(as(professional(requirements(do(not(eliminate(them(for(obtaining(jobs(or(limit(them(from(being(promoted.
Continuous&Improvement
Beyond(lifelong(learning,(a(successful(career(includes(honing(personal(skills,(building(relationships,(and(taking(new(challenges(as(time(passes.(Improving(computer(skills,
learning(a(foreign(language,(and(understanding(the(customs(of(another(country(make(a(person(more(valuable(to(an(employer(while(creating(new(opportunities(to(explore
other(aspects(of(company(life,(including(possibly(an(assignment(in(or(junket(to(a(foreign(country.
Early(in(a(career,(one(form(of(improvement(might(involve(finding(a(mentor(who(is(willing(to(help(a(young(employee(navigate(the(challenges(of(a(specific(company(and
occupation.(Later,(continuous(improvement(involves(becoming(a(mentor(to(assist(and(develop(others.(These(and(other(relationships(help(make(for(a(fulfilling(career(based
on(more(than(mere(onKtheKjob(accomplishments.
Achieving&Balance
Robert(Dubin(noted(that(some(employees(tend(to(view(work(as(a(central(life(interest(while(others(do(not.(Part(of(career(success(includes(understanding(the(role(of(work
in(your(life.(Then,(achieving(balance(helps(ensure(that(work(does(not(dominate(to(the(point(that(personal(time(is(lost(or(cannot(be(enjoyed((Dubin,(Champoux,(&(Porter,
1975).
Experts(in(the(fields(of(stress(management(and(time(management(note(the(importance(of(rest(and(taking(a(mental(vacation(from(the(demands(of(work.(Finding(ways(to
maintain(a(positive(life(away(from(work(can(lead(to(improved(productivity(on(the(job(and(greater(life(satisfaction(in(general.(The(opposite,(burning(the(candle(at(both
ends,(often(results(in(burnout,(a(shorter(life(expectancy,(and(a(less(successful(career.
Recently,(new(technologies,(declining(economic(conditions,(and(increasing(competition(have(made(work–life(balance(more(difficult(to(achieve.(When(an(employee(is
expected(to(carry(a(mobile(phone(with(a(tracking(device(and(a(laptop(that(can(be(monitored,(every(movement(can(be(studied(by(supervisors.(The(individual(often(feels
compelled(to(work(during(what(should(be(personal(or(family(time(at(home.(As(layoffs,(outsourcing,(and(downsizing(continue(to(take(place,(the(employees(that(remain
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Creatas
Achieving(a(balance(between(work(and(personal(time(should(be(an(important
career(objective.
employed(face(the(demands(of(taking(on(tasks(performed(by(those(who(have(left.(Once(again,
home(life(can(suffer.(Increasing(competition(comes(from(those(who(wish(to(stay(on(the(job(as
well(as(from(competing(companies.(A(major(challenge(for(many(21stKcentury(workers(will(be
coping(with(these(forces.
In(summary,(a(series(of(steps(must(be(taken(to(build(a(personal(career.(Starting(with(the(solid
foundation(of(an(ethical(orientation(and(being(sure(to(choose(an(organization(that(is(a(good
personal(fit,(an(employee(works(to(enhance(personal(attributes(that(are(of(value(to(companies
while(tending(to(the(evolving(tasks(assigned(to(him(or(her.(The(final(building(block,(finding(a
balance(between(life(at(work(and(away(from(the(office,(helps(guarantee(that(at(the(end(of(a
career,(the(individual(can(take(satisfaction(in(a(job(well(done(and(a(life(well(lived.
Managerial(Skills
While(the(world(of(business(has(changed(dramatically(over(the(past(several(centuries,(certain(aspects(of(management(remain(largely(the(same.(One(continuing(aspect(is
the(basic(distinction(between(managerial(levels.(At(the(core(of(nearly(every(company,(there(are(three(levels(of(management:
firstKline(supervision((operational(managers)
middle(management((tactical(managers)
top(management(and(CEO((strategic(managers)
As(an(individual(rises(through(the(ranks(of(a(company,(from(entryKlevel(associate(to(supervisor(to(CEO,(the(individual's(orientation,(duties,(and(required(skill(set(evolves.
Concepts(derived(from(organizational(behavior(can(assist(in(acquiring(and(refining(the(talents(needed(to(succeed(at(each(level.
Managerial&Orientation
For(most(employees,(the(first(position(taken(in(a(company(will(be(at(either(the(entry(level(as(a(line(worker(or(as(a(firstKlevel(supervisor(or(manager(trainee.(Over(time(and
with(promotion,(the(primary(focus(and(duties(at(each(level(of(management(shift(along(the(four(dimensions(displayed(in(Table(1.3((Guest,(1956).
Table(1.3:(Managerial(orientation(and(duties
technical,(conceptual,(managerial(orientation
specific(versus(general(tasks
time(orientation:(shortK(versus(longKterm
degree(of(human(relations(orientation
FirstKline(supervisors(and(operational(managers(are(far(more(likely(to(be(concerned(with(specific,(technical(matters.(An(office(manager(in(a(physician's(practice(will(be
consumed(with(making(sure(that(the(paperwork(associated(with(billing(patients,(filing(insurance(claims,(ordering(medical(equipment,(and(other(medically(related(tasks(are
correctly(completed.(A(line(manager(in(a(manufacturing(plant(will(concentrate(on(quotas,(deadlines,(and(defects(associated(with(production.(A(department(manager(in(a
retail(store(spends(a(great(deal(of(energy(managing(inventories,(creating(ingenious(displays,(teaching(effective(selling(techniques,(and(engaging(in(other(onKtheKfloor
activities.
In(essence,(the(managerial(orientation(rests(with(the(task(at(hand.(Not(surprisingly,(then,(the(focus(largely(remains(short(term.(Deadlines(must(be(met,(paperwork(must(be
completed,(employee(schedules(must(be(filled(out,(and(other(matters(that(take(place(in(the(coming(weeks(or(months(receive(the(greatest(amount(of(attention.(At(the
same(time,(a(firstKline(supervisor(spends(significant(amounts(of(time(working(directly(with(people.(In(this(area,(concepts(learned(from(organizational(behavior(are(of(great
value(in(completing(the(more(technical,(specific,(and(shortKterm(elements(of(the(job,(especially(in(the(areas(of(motivation,(leadership,(communication,(problem(solving,
and(conflict(resolution.
Middle(managers(and(tactical(managers(oversee(sets(of(departments(or(operations.(They(often(hold(titles(such(as(plant(manager,(division(head,(or(operations(manager.
The(increasingly(complex(nature(of(meshing(various(tasks(and(operations(together(requires(more(complex(managerial(thinking(skills(that(move(away(from(specific(tasks(to
more(general(processes.(Also,(even(though(immediate(outcomes(remain(important,(the(middle(manager(often(is(asked(to(think(about(tactical,(midKrange(subjects,(such(as
plant(modernization,(acquisition(and(application(of(new(technologies,(or(shifts(in(marketing(methods.(The(decisions(have(implications(that(last(much(longer(than(the(short
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term.(Middle(managers(also(engage(with(other(people,(and(the(roles(they(play(are(more(complex.(The(concept(of("having(a(boss(while(being(a(boss,"(or(the(superior–
subordinate(syndrome,(indicates(that(middle(managers(must(understand(when(they(have(authority(and(when(they(do(not.(They(must(know(how(to(effectively(lead(and
follow.(A(wider(range(of(human(relations(skills(becomes(necessary.
Organizational(behavior(may(be(especially(helpful(to(middle(managers(in(two(areas.(The(first(evolves(from(applying(knowledge(to(various(situations,(which(improves(a
person's(conceptual(thinking(skills(while(completing(longerKrange(projects.(The(second(results(from(a(greater(understanding(of(maintaining(quality(relationships(with
people(of(higher(and(lower(rank.
TopKlevel(managers,(strategic(managers,(and(the(chief(executive(officer(encounter(a(vastly(different(set(of(responsibilities(that(require(a(different(orientation(from(other
managerial(levels.(Top(managers(must(see(the(big(picture.(They(are(required(to(understand(how(all(parts(of(an(organization's(operation(are(brought(together(in(a(smooth,
efficient,(and(effective(manner.(Therefore,(conceptual(skills(and(managerial(skills(are(at(a(premium.(Daily(routines(are(more(general,(consisting(of(a(series(of(managerial
roles(that(must(be(played.(Table(1.4(displays(Henry(Mintzberg's(classic(set(of(roles(played(by(top(managers.
Table(1.4:(Roles(played(by(top(managers(and(the(chief(executive(officer
Interpersonal(Roles
Figurehead attends(ceremonial,(symbolic(events
Leader acts(as(visible(director(of(activities
Liaison interacts(with(internal(departments(and(external(publics
Informational(Roles
Monitor collects(information(internally(and(externally
Disseminator transmits(information(to(internal(constituents
Spokesperson transmits(information(to(external(constituents(and(publics
Decisional(Roles
Entrepreneur develops(new(ideas,(concepts,(products,(and(brands
Disturbance(Handler deals(with(unforeseen(events(and(crises
Resource(Allocator spends(resources(and(designs/signs(budgets
Negotiator completes(contracts(with(unions,(suppliers,(buyers
Sources:*Henry*Mintzberg*(1973).*The*Nature*of*Managerial*Work.*New*York:*Harper*&*Row.*Henry*Mintzberg*(1975).*"The*Manager's*Job,*Folklore*and*Fact,"*Harvard*Business*Review*(July/August)
pp.*49–61.*Arthur*G.*Bedeian*(1986).*Management.*Chicago:*The*Dryden*Press.
TopKlevel(managers(think(strategically.(Issues(that(will(arise(in(the(long(term(deserve(attention(by(those(in(charge(of(moving(the(company(forward(into(the(next(decade.
Interpersonal(skills(remain(a(vitally(important(resource,(as(a(manager(interacts(with(employees,(suppliers,(customers,(government(officials,(the(general(public,(union
leaders,(and(other(publics.(Public(speaking(skills(are(a(major(asset(at(this(level.
In(summary,(managerial(orientation(requires(technical(skills(at(the(lowest(ranks(that(evolve(into(more(conceptual(challenges(as(the(person(is(promoted(to(middle(and(top
management.(Managerial(skills(are(present(at(all(levels,(while(the(managerial(tasks(performed(are(somewhat(different.(The(job(itself(shifts(from(a(specific(set(of(tasks(to
more(general(duties(at(higher(levels,(and(the(amount(of(time(spent(planning(increases.(Organizational(behavior(offers(training,(models,(and(concepts(that(can(assist(a
manager(at(any(rank(in(the(organization,(especially(in(the(area(of(interpersonal(relations.
Comprehension(Exercise
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An(economic(downturn(and(the(global(market(are(examples(of(noncontrollable
forces(that(demand(a(manager's(attention.
Stockbyte
A(career(in(business(is(likely(to(include
interactions(with(people(from(other(countries.
Learning(Objective(#4:
What(recent(trends(have(affected(the(field(of(organizational(behavior(and(the(practice(of(management?
1.4(Managing(in(the(21st(Century
Traditional(principles(of(management(textbooks(examine(five(main(forces(present(in(the
noncontrollable(external(environment(that(demand(a(manager's(attention.(The(noncontrollable
forces(include(political,(social,(economic,(technological,(and(competitive(elements.(The(21st
century(has(already(witnessed(dramatic(shifts(in(each(of(these(areas.(From(the(election(of(the
first(African(American(president(to(the(influence(of(the(tea(party,(the(political(arena(continues(to
evolve.(Numerous(social(trends(affect(culture,(business,(and(everyday(life.(An(economic(downturn
late(in(the(first(decade(of(the(new(millennium(increased(unemployment(and(profoundly
influenced(many(companies.(Technology(introduced(a(sweeping(number(of(new(products(and
product(features(that(have(made(the(pace(of(business(even(faster.(Competition(has(shifted(to(a
worldwide(marketplace.
Beyond(the(traditional(forces(associated(with(the(noncontrollable(external(environment,(the(field
of(organizational(behavior(has(been(affected(by(other(trends.(Four(areas(stand(out:
1.(Globalization(and(global(management
2.(Diversity
3.(Ethical(challenges
4.(The(new(and(evolving(workplace
Each(alters(what(is(taught(in(an(organizational(behavior(course(and(its(application(in(the(world(of(business.
Globalization(and(Global(Management
The(reach(of(even(the(smallest(business(has(changed.(The(Internet(and(improved(shipping(capabilities(have(made(it
possible(for(smaller(companies(to(attract(customers(around(the(world.(At(the(same(time,(global(conglomerates(continue(to
adapt(and(expand.(Mergers,(acquisitions,(partnerships(and(trade(relationships,(and(a(growing(number(of(trade(agreements
among(nations(have(affected(the(ways(in(which(business(is(conducted.
Globalization(has(a(noticeable(impact(on(the(availability(of(products(and(services(to(customers.(The(rising(number(of
product(choices(has(improved(the(standard(of(living(for(many(people.(The(spread(of(mobile(communications(products
serves(an(example.(People(around(the(world(have(access(to(cell(phones(and(the(Internet(through(handheld(devices.(As(the
new(century(unfolds,(the(trend(toward(a(greater(number(of(product(choices(will(continue((World(Trade(Organization,
2011).
The(global(marketplace(also(impacts(how(managers(operate.(A(series(of(new(challenges(awaits(anyone(interested(in
conducting(international(business,(especially(in(the(area(of(human(resources.(Managers(engaged(in(international(trade(can
expect(to(encounter(issues(in(the(following(areas:
selection(of(homeK(versus(hostKcountry(employees(and(managers
understanding(how(cultural(differences(influence(business(activities
reaction(to(international(trends
adaptation(to(local(language
Employee&and&Manager&Selection
An(organization's(general(strategic(approach(forms(the(basis(for(all(other(business(operations.(It(affects(many(of(the(company's(business(activities,(including(employee
selection(processes.(Each(firm(exhibits(one(of(three(mindsets:(ethnocentric,(polycentric,(or(geocentric.(Each(presents(a(set(of(options((Baack,(2005).
In(the(first(approach,(ethnocentric(management,(homeKcountry(employees(will(be(selected(and(trained(for(overseas(assignments.(The(strategy(is(often(preferred(by
companies(exporting(to(regions(with(the(same(or(a(similar(culture.(For(example,(a(Canadian(company(might(hire(someone(and(train(that(individual(for(assignments(in(the
United(States(and(Great(Britain,(simply(because(it(would(be(the(easiest(choice.(Such(individuals(are(called("expatriate(employees,"(or("expatriate(managers"(when(they
serve(in(supervisory(roles.(Expatriates(usually(require(training(in(a(foreign(language,(and(must(have(an(open(mind(regarding(cultural(differences.
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A(second(option,(polycentric(management,(involves(hiring(someone(from(the(target(host(country.(These(individuals(have(the(natural(advantage(that(comes(from(knowing
the(culture(of(the(host(country.(They(will(need(to(be(trained(to(understand(how(the(home(country's(business(operates,(including(managerial(practices.(They(might(discover
that(the(leadership(style(is(different(and(that(the(company(will(need(to(respond(to(motives(and(incentives(that(differ(from(those(that(drive(local(companies.(In(polycentric
organizations,(people(in(the(firm(may(communicate(differently.(In(essence,(they(do(not(have(to(adapt(to(a(new(country,(but(rather(to(a(new(company.
Some(companies(employ(geocentric(management,(in(which(thirdKparty(nationals(are(often(hired.(These(employees(are(not(citizens(of(the(home(or(host(country.(At(times,
someone(with(a(truly(international(point(of(view(has(the(greatest(advantage.(They(can(adapt(to(a(wider(range(of(cultural(variations.
Cultural&Differences
Business(is(conducted(in(diverse(ways,(depending(on(the(culture(of(the(country.(Successful(business(people(investigate(these(differences(prior(to(visiting(a(foreign(land.
Some(examples(of(cultural(nuances(include(the(following:
building(relationships(before(talking(business
dining(and(meals(as(part(of(the(business(interaction
giftKgiving(protocols
use(of(titles(and(surnames
presenting(a(business(card
The(first(requirement(for(any(international(assignment(is(acceptance(that(there(will(be(differences(in(culture.(Culture(shock(often(occurs(when(an(individual(first(arrives(in
a(new(country.(Many(customs(will(seem(different,(beginning(with(something(as(simple(as(a(greeting((a(bow(versus(a(handshake).(Cultural(sensitivity(is(the(ability(to
understand(and(accommodate(those(from(other(cultures.(Those(who(do(not(or(cannot(accommodate(other(cultures(exhibit(ethnocentrism,(or(the(belief(that(one's(culture
is(inherently(superior(to(others.(Such(individuals(will(experience(major(problems(in(international(assignments.(Cultural(sensitivity(includes(being(aware(of(differences(in
religion,(manners,(dining(and(foods,(and(other(matters(associated(with(everyday(living(and(business.(Table(1.5(displays(five(common(elements(of(culture,(as(identified(by
Geert(Hofstede((1984).
Table(1.5:(Dimensions(of(culture
Power(Distance how(individuals(respond(to(differences(in(status
Individualism/
Collectivism
the(degree(to(which(society(values(personal(goals,(autonomy,(power(over(group(loyalty,(commitment(to(norms,(social(cohesiveness,
and(social(interaction
Uncertainty(Avoidance the(extent(to(which(a(society(places(a(high(value(on(reducing(risk(and(instability
Masculinity/Femininity the(degree(to(which(society(views(assertive,("masculine"(behavior(as(important(to(success(and(encourages(traditional(gender(roles
Time(Orientation the(extent(to(which(values(are(oriented(to(the(short(or(long(term
Another(key(aspect(of(cultural(difference,(ethics(awareness,(means(being(aware(that(cultural(values(and(methods(of(conducting(business(vary.(What(might(be(considered(a
gift(in(one(country(will(be(viewed(as(a(bribe(in(another(nation.(Many(countries(allow(bribery(and(allow(the(amounts(given(to(serve(as(tax(writeKoffs.(Gender(roles(are
substantially(different(in(various(parts(of(the(world.(In(some(cultures,(women(may(not(be(allowed(to(speak(or(take(part(in(business(transactions.(Labor(laws(do(not(protect
workers(in(many(nations,(which(means(child(labor(is(used,(living(wages(are(not(paid,(and(safety(procedures(are(limited(or(do(not(exist.(Each(individual(and(company
decides(what(is(acceptable(and(what(is(not((Baack(&(Baack,(2009).(Many(companies(employ(a(cultural(assimilator(to(assist(in(these(matters.(The(assimilator(is(someone
well(versed(in(the(local(culture(who(helps(others(adapt(to(the(foreign(situation.
International&Trends
In(2011,(a(series(of(nations(in(the(Middle(East(experienced(upheaval.(Egypt,(Syria,(Bahrain,(Iran,(and(other(countries(underwent(protests(and(attempts(to(transform(local
governments.(At(about(the(same(time(in(the(United(States,(antiKMuslim(sentiment(rose(to(new(heights,(as(evidenced(by(the(reaction(many(had(to(the(construction(of(an
Islamic(activity(center(in(New(York,(near(the(site(of(the(World(Trade(Center.
Any(political(or(economic(event(that(influences(another(country(has(a(potential(impact(on(international(business(relationships.(Effective(global(managers(note(these(events
and(try(to(understand(how(their(company's(interests(may(be(affected.(Political(knowledge(includes(keeping(up(with(current(events(and(seeking(counsel(to(understand(how
those(events(affect(business(operations.(Many(times,(political(conflicts(result(from(cultural(misunderstandings(and(ethnocentrism.
Language&Skills
Language(skills(are(useful(in(many(international(business(relationships.(At(the(least,(knowing(how(to(greet(someone(in(his(or(her(native(language(often(begins(a
transaction(on(a(much(more(cordial(note.(Those(who(know(a(second(language(have(a(distinct(advantage(in(today's(employment(marketplace,(and(in(general,(international
business(includes(adaptation(to(foreign(languages.(Someone(from(France(conducting(business(with(a(person(from(the(United(States(will(need(to(find(a(language(that(both
can(understand.(Slang(complicates(the(issue(of(language(barriers.(Even(someone(trained(to(speak(French(will(soon(discover(that(natives(use(a(great(deal(of(terminology
not(taught(in(formal(classes.(Additional(barriers(to(international(communication(include((Baack,(Harris,(&(Baack,(2012)(the(following:
not(knowing(if(it(is(appropriate(to(address(someone(directly(or(to(speak(in(a(deferential(manner
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A(diverse(work(environment(cultivates(new(perspectives(and(creates(an(enriching
workplace.
not(knowing(whether(it(is(culturally(acceptable(to(make(eye(contact(or(avert(one's(eyes
displaying(ethnocentrism(and(stereotyping(of(other(cultures
failure(to(understand(differences(in(the(meanings(of(nonverbal(cues
not(knowing(how(to(deal(with(personal(space(issues
not(comprehending(the(use(of(symbols(and(cultural(icons
Successful(international(managers(are(aware(of(differences(in(communication(patterns.(They(then(adapt(in(ways(that(make(business(transactions(comfortable(while
reducing(the(potential(for(conflict(and(misunderstanding.
Other&Elements
Organizational(behavior(can(be(expected(to(change(with(increasing(globalization.(A(greater(amount(of(research(will(be(dedicated(to(understanding(cultural(differences.
Project(GLOBE(is(a(research(program(in(the(area(of(leadership(that(addresses(cultural(nuances.(The(project(is(made(up(of(scholars(from(61(different(cultures(who(are
working(together(to(develop(a(theory(of(how(cultural(variables(affect(leadership(and(organizational(processes(throughout(the(world.(Other(programs(will(undoubtedly(be
designed(to(help(employees(cope(with(international(assignments((Hill,(2003).
Diversity
In(2011,(more(than(50(million(people(of(Hispanic(descent(were(living(in(the(United(States.
Managers(in(the(21st(century(will(be(expected(to(supervise(individuals(from(an(increasing(number
of(backgrounds.(Diversity(presents(opportunities(and(creates(potential(problems.(A(diverse
workforce(may(offer(new(perspectives(and(make(the(workplace(environment(more(enriching(for
all.(A(company(that(identifies(market(segments(based(on(race,(national(origin,(or(other
characteristics(associated(with(diversity(may(find(rich(opportunities(to(sell(more(goods(and
services.(At(the(same(time,(fear(of(others,(conflicts(based(on(cultural(differences,(and(other
challenges(can(harm(a(firm.
Many(of(the(challenges(associated(with(globalization(are(also(present(domestically(with(a(diverse
workforce.(Language,(slang,(customs,(methods(of(communication,(and(political(divisions(are(part
of(the(landscape.(The(factors(associated(with(diversity(that(are(the(same(in(international(markets
include(race(and(national(origin.(Other(elements(of(diversity(are(the(following:
age
gender
education
income
The(new(workplace(may(contain(older(workers(who,(faced(with(financial(difficulties,(are(unable(to(retire.(Others,(knowing(that(they(will(live(longer,(may(not(be(as(eager(to
leave(the(workforce.(Each(generation(has(characteristics(and(common(bonds(that(make(it(distinct(from(others.(Managers(are(expected(to(adjust(to(these(differences.
Women(continue(to(break(the(glass(ceiling(in(the(corporate(world(and(are(working(in(jobs(that(were(formerly(only(held(by(men.(Female(supervisors(are(a(major(part(of
today's(business(setting.(An(educational(divide(currently(separates(the(workforce(into(those(who(have(finished(high(school(and(those(with(diplomas(and(college(degrees.
Company(leaders(work(to(provide(interesting(and(meaningful(work(to(both(groups.(The(income(divide(has(become(a(political(factor(and(cause(of(debate(in(U.S.(society,(as
top(executive(salaries(keep(rising(while(worker(income(remains(stagnant.
Organizational(behavior(research(can(provide(guidance(in(understanding(the(impact(of(diversity(on(individual(workers,(managers,(and(companies.(Studies(of(negotiation
and(conflict(should(account(for(cultural(variances(in(methods(of(bargaining(and(resolving(disputes(as(part(of(the(study(of(diversity((Arvey(et(al.,(1996;(Baba,(1995).
The(New(and(Evolving(Workplace
The(rate(of(change(in(the(world(of(business(continues(to(increase.(Only(a(few(decades(ago,(overnight(package(delivery(was(not(possible.(Contracts(and(documents(traveled
via(the(postal(system,(making(any(transaction(take(longer(to(complete.(Air(travel(was(the(fastest(mode(of(transportation,(but(now,(with(teleconferencing(and(other
devices,(interpersonal(meetings(with(people(around(the(world(take(place(in(real(time.(Terms(such(as("tweet"(and("going(viral"(did(not(exist.(Managers(in(the(21st(century
are(expected(to(complete(their(functions(while(coping(with(a(series(of(trends(and(changes(in(the(workplace,(including:
innovation(and(change
connectivity(and(networked(organizations
employment(of(temporary(workers
Innovation&and&Change
Technology's(impact(tends(to(be(widely(discussed(and(evaluated.(New(technologies(have(changed(everyday(lives(of(people,(both(at(work(and(offKsite.(An(evaluation(of
technology(would(suggest(that(technological(innovation(comes(in(many(forms,(including(those(displayed(in(Figure(1.4.
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Technology(has(had(a(profound(impact(on(the(workplace(environment.
Managers(are(expected(to(adapt(the(increasing(number(of(changes(such(as(these.(At(the(same
time,(in(terms(of(change,(technology(only(represents(part(of(the(equation,(especially(in(the
workplace.(Dramatic(changes(continually(take(place(in(four(additional(areas:(political(and(legal
forces,(social(trends,(economic(shifts,(and(competitor(actions.
The(political(and(legal(environment(is(in(a(constant(state(of(flux.(Laws(regarding(privacy,(identity
protection,(and(other(personal(matters(influenc