Question
1. You are a scholar writing a review of the textbook by L. Maffi and E. Woodley,

Biocultural Diversity Conservation: A Global Sourcebook (Earthscan 2010). Write a
200-250+ word review that addresses the following aspects:
a. What is the main thrust of the book? Which key scientific concepts does the

book address?
b. How does the book serve as a “global sourcebook” to biocultural diversity
conservation?
c. Citing two case studies from the book that particularly impressed you,
describe how these case studies specifically exemplify biocultural diversity
and the demonstrate feasible ways to conserve it.
d. Who would you recommend read this book? Why? How is it applicable to
real life conditions or professions?
ANS:
2. You are competing for a new competitive writing fellowship offered by the American

Anthropological Association. The theme of the fellowship is “Endangered Species,
Endangered Cultures”. Your entry to the competition is a 250-300 word abstract on
this topic.
Within your abstract, consider the following questions: how can both species and
cultures be endangered? What are the connections between endangered species and
endangered cultures? How could we conserve both biological species and ethnic
cultures at the same time, or in the same location? Throughout your abstract, you need
to clearly link your assertions (hypotheses) with real-life examples, drawn from the
class films, class readings, internet sites, or from your group’s term paper.
ANS:
+ Endangered species are populations of animal or plant that is considered seriously at risk of
extinction. The causes for species extinction are climate change, change in sea levels, disease,
invasive species, and us (human). Endangered cultures are group of indigenous people who lived
off with wild life and are in danger of losing their certain culture traditions. Both of cultures and
species are connected together. If one is missing, the other will eventually become extinct. An
example
+ In order to converse both biological species and cultures, we need to understand the connection
between them. We read many of the readings in our class, and most of the books have proved
that a lot of people don’t understand the connection between species and cultures. For example:
From the readings on Hopi culture, they all talked about how Hopi people connected with their
nature and how they conserve their cultural traditions with planting, cultivating, harvesting,

dancing, and preparing corn. Their life, spirits are linked with every single species. Some of
westerners think that land is always free to use, and they don’t realize what is currently
connected with the land or who is currently using it. When the westerners want to invade and
expand the land, the local tribes are suffering and losing their cultural knowledge, traditional
practices, and even their ancestry. They should do some researches about the culture, history, and
use of the land, then species would not go extinct and we could also save endangered cultures
from extinction as well.
3. You are a freelance writer blogging about Nature and Culture for a major online

magazine. You are writing a blog reviewing the readings and films from Module 7-8
and 10-12. Your blog focuses on common themes that emerge from the different
authors/film protagonists, stemming from their widely varying experiences with
redwood trees, lichen, wolves, bears, parrots, swallows, etc.. Taking SIX of the
readings or films, cite verbatim a key phrase from each reading or a key scene from
the film, and write a 200-250 word blog of how these different authors/film
protagonists demonstrate interconnected themes.
+ Ken Lamberton (2000) – “Their nature, like many things in the world, is cyclic; they live inside
the regular heartbeat of the land. Ebb and flow, flex and flux, rise and fall. It’s a pattern I can live
with, one that gives me hope. As long as the swallows come in the spring and go in the fall,
come and go and come, I’ll feel their rhythm, measuring it out as a change of seasons.” (pg 31)
+ Reene Askins (2003) – She is of her own nature and yet I recognize my own impulses in her
action. I see reflected in her my hungers and fears, my curiosity and contentment through her I
begin to fathom an ancient relationship with the wild. My strength, for this moment, is greater
than hers. Nonetheless, her senses surpass mine. Her diminutive presence connects me, includes
me, and I recognize that I am, like her, merely a pulse in the rhythm of the world.” (pg 15)
+ Julia Butterfly Hill (2000) – “One day, as I was climbing around Luna and the fog slipped back
to the coast, sunlight hit a spider web still glistening with drops of moisture. It shot these
beautiful spectral colors in every direction. The diversity of life is like those strands of the
spider’s web: the strands weaving together make the web strong and balanced and, even more
amazing, make it beautiful as well.” (pg 16)
+ Kimmer (2003) – “In indigenous ways of knowing, we say that a thing cannot be understood
until it is known by all four aspects of our being: mind, body, emotion and spirit. The scientific
way of knowing relies only on empirical information from the world, gathered by body and
interpreted by mind.” (pg 211)
+ Gonzalez (2001) – “ Maize is not a mere crop, but a powerful being living in the midst of
humans at all times: present at festivals, baptisms, weddings, and funerals, inside churches,
homes, and human bodies, surrounding ranch houses and villages. Maize is a wonderful plant
person with a long memory, a strict moral code, and an unshakable will.” (pg 106)

+ Laduke (2007) – “A cultural community that persists in its farming tradition does not simply
conserve indigenous seed stock because of economic justifications. The seeds themselves
become symbols, reflections of the people’s own spiritual and aesthetic identity, and of the land
that shaped them.” (pg 8)

I chose these six phrases because I feel that they are interlinked the readers with nature. Each
phrase shows that nature is something that we can feel, and touch it just like humans. All six
readings prove to us that we (human) share the planet with every single species. We need to
connect and feel their life, just like any other humans. We live together in the planet, and we all
have special roles and meaning. In order for every living species to survive and keep moving, we
must live and share. Do not against each other.

4. You are a research associate with a branch division of a United Nations agency

focusing on humans and invasive species. You have been charged with researching
an example of a culturally invasive species that has not already been described in
the two studies on file in the agency library: the case study by Pfeiffer & Ortiz
(2007) on California native plants and traditional basketry; and the review article
by Pfeiffer & Voeks (2008).
Your job is to research your own UNIQUE case study [via Google or Google
Scholar] of a culturally invasive species (plant, animal, fish, insect, fungus, or
microorganism [bacteria, virus, etc.]) that is:

Ecologically impacting a culturally important native species (such as a
cultural keystone species), and in turn, affecting cultural practices and cultural diversity;
AND/OR
a.

Leading to the creation/adoption of new cultural traditions, and in turn,
affecting cultural diversity.
b.

(Question 4, continued)
Write a 100 – 150 word case study of a culturally invasive species and the cultural
traditions/practices it has, or is, impacting. Include the URL address(es) of the
website(s) you used in your answer.
+ Brown tree snake (Boiga Irregularis) – in the last 60 years, it has become a major problem in
the Pacific island of Guam. This invasive species was accidentally brought over from a ship
cargo just after World War II. Since the appearance, it has killed many native bird species in the
island. It has also caused the extinction to some of the birds. These native birds play some very
important roles in the forest such as spreading out the seeds, pollinating flowers and controlling

insects. The trees in the forest are also relied on these birds to disperse their seeds far beyond
their normal range and the range of seed predators and fungi.
+ http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/08/080808090313.htm
+ http://www.utsandiego.com/uniontrib/20080821/news_1c21guam.html
5. You have been invited to participate as a panelist at a public forum on climate

change. You will be speaking on how indigenous peoples are being impacted by
climate change. Because you only have ten minutes to speak, you have decided to
focus a synopsis of four case studies. In advance of your panel presentation, you are
providing a summary to the program organizer.
Write a 100-150 word summary where you discuss FOUR ways in which Native
cultures are experiencing significant impacts from climate change. You can perform
your own independent online research, AND/OR you can reference Dr. Pfeiffer’s
Elluminate webinar on this topic. Include the URL address(es) of the website(s) you
used, or other relevant citations, in your answer.
+ The most significant impact from climate change is drought in the areas where they
need rain for agriculture. It is really threatened food security. For example
+ Another impact is high temperatures in tropical rainforests. This can affect the patterns
of rainfall. So when there is not enough rainfall, it can lead to a lot issues such as fishing,
farming. For example: in the webinar, Dr. Pfeiffer explained how some tribes were not
able to catch fish because there were not enough rainfall. Also in the video “Fish Kill
2014, Yurok Seek Answers” it showed how salmon died because lack of rainfall

+ Also many indigenous people live within the rainforest, and most of them do hunting.
So with high temperatures in rainforest can also affect the species’ distribution. For
example
+ The fourth impact is global temperature change which rises surface temperatures. For
example: From the video Trust Alaska, it explained that the local people has been
affected by the climate change. Fruit harvest fell more than 20%. Also in the video
“Culture and Ecology in Micronesia: Plant Use and Forest conservation”, it shows that
the Pohnpei people had to farm in the mountain due to severe drought.
http://ourchildrenstrust.org/video/48/trust-alaska