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No Consideration Of Marriage Can Avoid A Discussion Of Gender Issues

No Consideration Of Marriage Can Avoid A Discussion Of Gender Issues

No Consideration Of Marriage Can Avoid A Discussion Of Gender Issues

Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u Various reasons for marriage PAGEREF _Toc379203577 h 2Marriage in the Victorian age PAGEREF _Toc379203578 h 3Marriage in a modern society PAGEREF _Toc379203579 h 4Same sex marriages PAGEREF _Toc379203580 h 5Marriage in a polygamous setting PAGEREF _Toc379203581 h 6

Marriage is the union between man and woman that is solemnized by members of the community and blessed by God. This is the definition of marriage that the founding fathers are raised by and thus practiced (Lewellen, p. 152). The present definition differs from the former due to the change in cultural aspects of the society. The society continues to change on a daily basis due to the high rate of globalization across the communities. Globalization increases the rate of interaction thus exposing individuals to a different sort of cultural practice. Culture is a way of life; each person belongs to a particular culture that acts as a source of identity (Haviland and Haviland, p. 105). Culture determines the way they approach and perceive different situations. One of the most essential cultural aspects is the right of passage from singlehood to marriage hood. All the cultures around the world embrace this process due to its significance in the sustainability of the society. All cultures view marriage as an essential aspect of life. These same cultures however, have different reasons for marriage. The relationship between two parties involves a set of rules that are ideal for the survival of the marriage. This creates the need for social roles that define the role of both individuals. There are different types of marriages which are brought about by the different cultures in the society. These marriages have different rules that dictate on the way members of the community should behave. Despite the different rules that the marriages have, one factor that they have in common is that they all cannot avoid a discussion on gender issues (Ferraro and Andreatta, p. 341).

The focus of this paper is to present an analysis of gender issues in marriage. There are different types of marriages that are a direct result of the cultures that people belong. The paper seeks to provide an opinion on the notion that states that “No consideration of marriage can avoid a discussion of gender issues”. These arguments will be supported by selected ethnographic illustrations to support the research.

Various reasons for marriage As stated earlier, different cultures have their own definition and perspective of marriage. These cultures dictate on the rules of marriage thus providing the basis upon which marriages are formed. There are different reasons that make a couple choose to get married. One of the reasons people get married is to produce offspring’s. The society requires the reproduction between man and woman for its sustainability. If a society has a low birth rate, it faces the risk of having a diminishing population (Sweetman, p. 351). Any community has to ensure that their population maintains the normal average so that their offspring’s can inherit the community in the future. Another reason that people choose to get married is to have companionship. Companionship is essential for the health an individual. A person is likely to live for a longer time when they are in a relationship compared to a person who is not. This is one of the modern approaches to marriage. Some people opt not to have children due to the fact that it is not priority in their marriage. Some choose to get marriage due to their need to be elevated in their social status. This can be classified as a marriage of convenience. These types of marriages are influenced by political social and economic aspects of a society (Lewellen, p. 122). These marriages were commonly practiced in the ancient times. An example of the modern application of this marriage is the marriage for citizenship.

It has been established that there are various reasons that individuals choose to get married. The formation of a union however, has some principles that the couple has to follow in order for the marriage to work. Social roles are an arrangement that have been put in place from the ancient days to present day. The traditional social roles are defined by the division of labor between male and female. Traditionally, the man is supposed to go into the world and fend for his family. This leaves the woman with the responsibility of child bearing and raising the family. The introduction of education changed the dynamics of the society. As women were exposed to different ideologies and principles, they began to identify with the notion of independence. This disrupted the social arrangement in that women no longer place marriage as the main priority in their life (Dumont and Robert, p.107).

Marriage in the Victorian age The Victorian age is one of the periods that comprises of the mid ancient civilizations. During this time, the cultural norms are traditional in nature. There is a distinct difference in the role of both men and women. Men have the role of being the breadwinner in the family. The rest of the family is thus depending on the male for financial related issues. Women on the other hand are expected to get married and have a family of their own. This is a defining moment in a woman’s life in that it is the only achievement expected of her. The role of a woman consists of bearing children and raising the family (Coontz, p. 128). Women are thus not expected to be ambitious in all areas financial due to the reliance on their husbands. This practice is reflective of the way that children are raised in this society. Children are supposed to behave a certain way so that they can channel their male and female counterparts. Boys are thus expected to concentrate on education in preparation of the future of their family. Girls on the other hand, learn how to be the perfect home makers. This involves learning how to keep a home by taking care of their younger siblings. The different allocation of roles is essential for this type of society in that these cultural aspects are normal to the society. The observing this type of society shows the traditional form of marriage that is practiced in different parts of the world at this period (McLean and Hurd, p. 362).

Marriage in a modern society The modern arrangement of marriage consists of marriages that are practiced in the modern setting of the society. The world is prone to change due to the introduction of different ideologies. One of the areas that have been affected due to change in the societal situations is the institution of marriage. The switch from the agrarian to the industrial revolution changed the way in which the society interacted. During the world wars, men were expected to live their homes so that they could defend their country (Haviland and Haviland p. 245).This left a vacuum in the family in that the female took the role of the breadwinner. Women realized that they can perform the same jobs as their male counterparts. This is a significant part of the country’s history in that the change in social roles influences the argument for equal education. The emphasis of education gave rise to the demand for equal treatment in all aspects of life. The rise of feminism is a significant determinant of the modern family setting (Koktvedgaard, p.278).

Women now have access to the same level of education as men. This means that they do not place priority on starting a family as opposed to the Victorian days. The rise of feminism and the demand for equal treatment between both men and women is a monumental time for women in the current society. This however, affects the natural arrangement of the family setting. One of the most challenging times of the life of a woman is deciding the route to take in terms of career or marriage. This factor affects women more than men in that the majority of the women aspire to have a career and a family. It is difficult to avoid the issue of gender roles. Both the man and the woman are expected to get a job when they complete their studies making it difficult for a couple to raise a family (Hirsch and Wardlow, p. 89). The attempt to create equal opportunities has been established in regard to financial, economic and political areas. The changes however do not dictate the natural order that gives women the opportunity to bear children. A family thus has to discuss gender roles due to the need to balance between work and raising a family. Some mothers have chosen to go back to the traditional ways by choosing family over career. This shows that there is no way around this issue in any marital arrangement (Dumont and Robert, p.147).

Same sex marriages One of the latest forms of marriage that directly results from the change in society is the same sex marriage. Same sex marriage is the marriage between two people who are the same sex. The fight for same sex marriage has reached its peak in that affected persons and their supporters are demanding of more rights. More states are demanding the right to get married to their partners. This privileged is reserved for couples who are heterosexual. The observation of a same sex marriage situation is ideal to indicate that no consideration of marriage can avoid the discussion of gender roles. This is a different condition in that a lesbian couple does not have a male present vice versa (Croll, p. 261). One of the first gender issues that such a couple face the inability to get an offspring amongst each other. If the couple is lucky enough to get a donor, one of the two have to decide who takes the role of the nurturer and the role of the father figure. The couple cannot ignore this situation in that it is natural for a child to demand the presence of both a male and female figure. Another situation that places challenges for the couple in terms of gender roles is the discussion of finances. A couple can choose to both pursue their career and take a back seat for the sake of the children. This type of arrangement indicates the level of masculinity and femininity that is present in both male and female (James and Garrick, p. 452).

Marriage in a polygamous setting Another form of marriage that is present to date is the practice of polygamy. Polygamy is the marriage of one man to more than one woman vice versa. This type of marital arrangement is practiced all over the globe including the United States. Polygamy is different from the rest if the marriages in that more than one relationship are involved. This is a unique example in that it emphasizes the diversity of marriages that exist. Polygamy is not so common in the United States. This makes the society stigmatized when the thought of the ideology is mentioned (Cahill, p. 126).

One of the basic principles of polygamy is the acknowledgment of the supreme head of the family. This person can be male or female depending on the polygamous person in each case. The society is however more exposed to polygamous men as opposed to women. People who practice polygamy recognize the divisions of roles in the family. The man in this case has a lot of authority due to the fact that he is married to more than one person. Most of the cultural practices of polygamous individuals lean towards the traditional marriage setting. The women are expected to procreate so as to increase the number of the members of the family. This thus makes procreation one of the basic principles of polygamy. The gender issues in this case are highly questionable. Women in this type of arrangement are said to be at a disadvantage because of a number of issues (Coontz, p. 98).

One of the issues is the fact that two or more women are forced to share one man vice versa. This limits the level of companionship making the women get less attention compared to man. The man on the other hand experiences all the perks in that he receives an immense amount of attention from each wife. One of the strains of the polygamous marriage to the male is the financial strain that he experiences as a result of maintaining more than one household (Ablow, p. 235).

In conclusion, gender issues account for a significant portion of a human beings life. People are either born male or female in most cases. Both sexes have body parts, genes and hormones that establish how they conduct themselves in the surrounding environment. One of the unions that showcase the gender issues in the society is marriage. Marriage creates a bond between the parties involves in the union. Different marriages face a number of gender related issues depending on the culture that identify themselves. The gender issues vary making some marriages face more issues compared to others. Marriages are traditionally not supposed to be broken. One of the reasons that lead to the increasing number of divorces across the globe are gender related issues. It is thus essential to analyze these issues so as to create an environment that is not ignorant of this matter. Increased awareness of these factors improves the situation in all types of marital unions. This in turn, reduces the rate of divorce that the society has become accustomed to as a result of ignorance in the society.

Works cited

Ablow, Rachel. The Marriage of Minds: Reading Sympathy in the Victorian Marriage Plot. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press, 2007. Print.

Cahill, Sean. Same-sex Marriage in the United States: Focus on the Facts. Lanham [u.a.: Lexington Books, 2004. Print.

Coontz, Stephanie. Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy or How Love Conquered Marriage. New York: Viking, 2005. Print.

Croll, Elisabeth. The Politics of Marriage in Contemporary China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Dumont, Louis, and Robert Parkin. An Introduction to Two Theories of Social Anthropology: Descent Groups and Marriage Alliance. New York [u.a.: Berghahn Books, 2006. Print.

Ferraro, Gary P, and Susan Andreatta. Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010. Print.

Hirsch, Jennifer S, and Holly Wardlow. Modern Loves: The Anthropology of Romantic Courtship and Companionate Marriage. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan press, 2006. Print.

Haviland, William A, and William A. Haviland. Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Haviland, William A, and William A. Haviland. Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsword, 2008. Print.

Koktvedgaard, Zeitzen M. Polygamy: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Oxford [etc.: Berg, 2008. Print.

Lewellen, Ted C. The Anthropology of Globalization: Cultural Anthropology Enters the 21st Century. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Bergin & Garvey, 2002. Print.

McLean, Daniel D, and Amy R. Hurd. Kraus’ Recreation and Leisure in Modern Society. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011. Print.

Meade, Teresa A, and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks. A Companion to Gender History. Malden [u.a.: Blackwell, 2006. Print.

Peoples, James G, and Garrick A. Bailey. Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Sweetman, Caroline. Gender, Development and Marriage. Oxford: Oxfam GB, 2003. Print.

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No Child Left Behind In Florida Looking At The Socioeconomic Aspects Of The Act And How It Relates To Minorities Dropout Rate

No Child Left Behind In Florida Looking At The Socioeconomic Aspects Of The Act And How It Relates To Minorities Dropout Rate

No Child Left Behind In Florida Looking At The Socioeconomic Aspects Of The Act And How It Relates To Minorities Dropout Rate And Crime

Abstract

Today too many of our lower income children are being left behind in spite of a law that that was crafted to help them succeed. The No Child Left behind Act was put in place to help prepare these children for an easy transition into college. Nevertheless, Elementary school age students are unable to read at the basic level evidenced by the standardized test administer in Florida called the Florida (FCAT). Further, high school seniors drop out of school because they are unable to pass the FCAT. Although, the government has spend millions of dollars on education but the system has still failed in meeting the goals of education excellence in Florida. The educational success disparity between the wealthy and the underprivileged, minority and Anglo is not only wide, but is alarming. Because of the unsatisfactory results of the No Child Left behind Act coupled with the standardized FCAT, educators have stated unequivocally that the federal government should have no further involvement in education. This study explored the education performance of Florida students from 2007 to 2012. The statistics showed that Whites and Asian are performing better with higher graduation rates and low dropout rates than African American and Hispanics. This is mainly because of differences in socioeconomic backgrounds.

Table of Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u Chapter One PAGEREF _Toc372983856 h 61.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983857 h 61.2 Problem Statement PAGEREF _Toc372983858 h 81.3 Purpose of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983859 h 91.4 Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983860 h 91.5 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983861 h 101.6 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc372983862 h 10Chapter Two: Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc372983863 h 112.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983864 h 112.2 No Child Left Behind Act PAGEREF _Toc372983865 h 112.2.1 Weaknesses of no child left behind act. PAGEREF _Toc372983866 h 132.3 School Dropout PAGEREF _Toc372983867 h 142.3.1. Categorization of school dropout factors PAGEREF _Toc372983868 h 142.3.2 Socioeconomic factors affecting dropout PAGEREF _Toc372983869 h 142.3.3 School related factors. PAGEREF _Toc372983870 h 172.3.4 Groups of school dropouts. PAGEREF _Toc372983871 h 182.3.5 Effects of dropping out. PAGEREF _Toc372983872 h 192.5 The No Child Left Behind Act Waiver Application PAGEREF _Toc372983873 h 213.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983874 h 233.2 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc372983875 h 233.3 Population PAGEREF _Toc372983876 h 243.4 Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc372983877 h 243.5 Research Ethics PAGEREF _Toc372983878 h 253.6 Assumptions PAGEREF _Toc372983879 h 253.7 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc372983880 h 25Chapter Four: Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc372983881 h 274.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc372983882 h 274.2 Descriptive Statistics PAGEREF _Toc372983883 h 274.3 Testing Association PAGEREF _Toc372983884 h 34Chapter Five: Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation PAGEREF _Toc372983885 h 355.1 Discussion PAGEREF _Toc372983886 h 355.2 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc372983887 h 375.3 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc372983888 h 39References PAGEREF _Toc372983889 h 40

List of Tables

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1: Federal Graduation Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12 ………….27

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2: Federal Graduation Rates by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through

2011-2012 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….29

Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3: Federal Graduation Rates by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12, continued…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

Table 4: 9th-12th Grade Single-Year Dropouts by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….31

Table 5: 9th-12th Grade Single-Year Dropouts by Gender within Race/Ethnicity, 2007-08 through 2011-12, continued ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….32

Table 6: Percentage of Students Eligible for Free/Reduced-Price Lunch Race2007-08 through 2011-12, continued ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….33

Table 7 : Florida crime rates 2007-2012…………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………. 34

Chapter One

1.1 IntroductionThrough the Elementary and Secondary education Act (ESEA)of 1965, and the federal grants to districts and state schools the US government have supported the education system both financially and legislatively (U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2004). In 2001, the U.S. government enacted the No Child Left Behind Education Act NCLB) to reauthorize ESEA (U.S. Department of Education, 2001). The NCLB act was anchored on the principles of increased flexibility by district and state schools in use of federal funds, and to increase and strengthen accountability, and enhance the emphasize on teaching methods that have been successful (U.S Department of Education, 2001). In the spirit of expanding education and ensuring increased access, the Act was to expand the choices of disadvantaged children. The NCLB act aims to increase accountability and improve achievement of students in all public schools it emphasizes the accomplishment of student with disabilities, students from minor racial ethnicities, English language learners, and economically disadvantaged. The Act also established funds for improving reading instruction and acquisition of English language proficiency. Further, the Act required that all states make certain only highly qualified teachers handle students.

The NCLB Act required each state to frame its own education accountability systems. The systems were to include rewards such as recognition and bonuses, sanctions, evaluation, methods, and a framework to hold each school accountable of student achievement. Accordingly, the state of Florida developed a plan to enhance student accomplishments and implement higher standards within the education sector through the Florida Comprehensive assessment Test (FCAT). The FCAT to covers grades three to ten (Florida Department of Education, 2013). The FCAT focuses on criterion-referenced tests (CRT),which evaluate reading, mathematics, science, norm-referenced tests (NRT),writing from sunshine state standards and mathematics, which benchmark individual performance against national standards (Florida Department of Education, 2013).

The central government and states have enacted laws besides provide support to see the expansion and improvement in the education sector. The focus drawn to minority ethnicities, student who need special attention and those who lack English proficiency has seen development of improvement in accomplishment of such students. However, this has not been 100% successful as anticipated. School dropout is being registered even with NCLB in force. The tight tests that students are required to pass cause grade retention that has been linked to dropout. The requirement of highly qualified teachers has caused disparity between high and low income backgrounds.

Research has shown that school dropout is an outcome of various factors. Family type and income, parental involvement in education and level of education and occupation of parent affect arte of dropout (Sanchez, Reyes & Singh, 2006). Social economic factors influence student dropout in schools. South, Baumer and Lutz (2003) conducted a longitudinal study to establish the effects of social economic factors in student dropout. The study found that students from more well off localities have a lower dropout rate than those from low earning neighborhoods.

In 2006 Bridgeland, DiIulio and Morison conducted a study to establish factors causing dropout and the consequences of dropping out. In the study, a third of the students dropped out because they had to seek employment to support their low family income while a fifth became parents and similar percentage dropped out to look after a family member. An examination of these dropouts revealed they were doing well in school (Bridgeland, DiIulio Morison, 2006). In the study, there were students who dropped out of high school because of their poor preparation (Bridgeland, DiIulio Morison, 2006). As such, they had low achievement in high school, which led to the dropping out. However extra tutoring and after school aid could have helped them. The effect of repeating was reported to have dropout by a third of the students in the survey. These students said they could not have graduate even after putting necessary effort.

1.2 Problem StatementWhile the NCLB act and the FCAT aimed to expand, education access to all and improve student achievement; nevertheless, this was not always the case especially regarding performance and reduction of dropouts. There are stringent requirements in place by NCLB and by extension FCAT that students have been have to asp before progressing to nest garder. However, this is not always the case ahs students fail the tests and are retained in same grade. in same grade. By causing school disengagement, grade retention has been linked to school dropout. The failure to pass the FCAT test causes increases in dropouts and many scholars suggested this correlation has implication in the increased crime rate (Lochner, 1999).In Miami South Ridge Senior high school, where the population of students is 4141 has a dropout rate of 5.4%; this means that 220 students are dropping out of school.

Student dropout has been a concern among parents, employers, educators and for the government. Dropout rates are not uniform across ethnicities and economic background. Dillow (2003) notes that, it is challenging for male students from ethnic minorities and more specifically those from low-income families completing school for minorities. This is further underscored by (Balfanz & Legtres, 2004) who observe that Whites have a lower probability of dropping out than colored students do.

In Miami South Ridge senior high school, there have been 330 crime incidents. The crime incidents involve fighting and harassment weapon possession, alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, violent acts against persons, property, and other nonviolent incidents and disorderly conduct. Burrus and Roberts (2012) studies crime prevalence and rate of high school dropout and found that crime incidents increase as high school dropout increases. A report by Christeson, Lee, Schaefer, Kass and Messner-Zidell, (2008) note that public safety risk will increase risk as a result of increased dropout and the phenomenon affects cities with minority populations. The authors of the report further note that high school dropouts are three and half times more likely to be arrested. A 10% point increase in graduation rates reduces assault, murder by approximately 20% (Christeson et al., 2008). However, there is little research done on the relationship of dropout rates of minority groups and their respective causes in Florida. This paper will focus on socioeconomic aspects and how they relate to dropout of minorities and the contribution to crime.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to explore the no child left behind in Florida and examine the socioeconomic aspects of the act. Additionally the study explored how socioeconomic aspects of the act relate to minorities dropout rate and crime.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The following objectives guided this study.

To explore the no child left behind in Florida

What socioeconomic factors of affect dropout

How do socioeconomic aspects of the act relate to minorities dropout rate and crime.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Student dropout has been a concern among parents, employers, educators and for the government. The central government has enacted laws besides providing support to see expansion of education. However, there are students dropping out of school despite their effort. As such, the finding of this study will be useful to parents, educators and the central government in understanding how socioeconomic aspects of NCLB affect minorities’ dropout rate. By focusing on the state of Florida, the state education agencies will find this study useful in understanding how FCAT affects minorities’ dropout rate and any association to crime.

1.6 Limitations of the Study

This study explores the no child left child left behind in state of Florida and performance statistics of Miami South Ridge high school. States have different education acts as required NCLB with different standards. Further sates differ in economic empowerment and population of ethnicity. Studies shows that set standards, economic empowerment and ethnicities affect education performance. As such, the findings of this study cannot be generalized to other states unless they bare resemblance to Florida. School organization and locations affect dropout rates. In this line, the findings of this study that utilize of Miami South Ridge high school performance can only be generalized to schools with similar statistics.

Chapter Two: Literature Review2.1 Introduction

This chapter presents relevant literature about the research variables. The chapter discusses in depth past studies in line the research objective. The literature is objectively outlined.

2.2 No Child Left Behind Act On January 8, 2002, President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (the ACT). The Act was meant to identify educational accomplishments and report accountability. The Act provided investment goals in the education system with an aim of expanding education to all. The Act emphasizes the importance of completing school and the roles of teachers, parents and government duties in the process. The main aim of the Act was to see that every American child despite its income or ethnicity successfully is educated. (U.S. Dept. of Ed., 2003).The act required all states to have accountability systems that keep track of education achievements and evaluation compared against national standards. Further, this requirement stated that all the states were to evaluate each and every student from the third to eighth grade in mathematics and reading on an annual basis. Additionally, states were to provide an adequate yearly progress report (AYP) that was required to measure improvement of disadvantaged children. In addition, states were required to ensure that by 2014, all students have a proficient score in the standardize tests. Schools that were not able to exhibit adequate yearly progress would be accorded assistance and they would be subjective to corrective measures. Such measures included complimentary and supplementary resources, student transfer and possibility of compulsory restructure.

In order to ensure continuous improvement in education standards, all states were obliged to provide a plan that outlined their accomplished standards, assessment procedures, reporting process and accountability measures. This requirement made sure that states vested with greater responsibility in shaping education standards, had more control and flexibility in using federal funds. In this mandate, schools were encouraged to use funds for professional development, teacher retention, and technology related training that fit their needs without having to seek federal approval. The Act gave parents an option to transfer their children for security reasons or if the children seemed to be under performing and a school transfer if that would help the child improve. In improving the quality of education, the act provided support for instruction programs by availing funds to train teachers on the same and equip them with necessary skills to deliver (U.S. Dept. of Ed., 2003b).

The Act accountability provisions entailed applying performance management in the education sector. The accountability provisions account for performance and the outcome of failure or success. Education accountability emphasizes holding education personnel such as administrators, teachers, and students responsible for educational achievements, albeit success or failure. School personnel are held accountable for student accomplishment by district or school accountability systems. Graduation rates or test scores defined this measurement (Kane & Staiger 2002; Hanushek and Raymond 2001). Some states set standards using outside factors such as proverty. (Meyer et al. 2002).

All states are required to ensure that all students l have a proficiency score by 2014. The Act gives states performance measurement so determine the proficiency score (Kim and Sunderman, 2004). As such, states have an opportunity to set low proficiency performance requirements then backload the requirement of proficiency in the following years (Ryan 2003). Greater emphasize is placed on minority students, such as those who come from low-income backgrounds, those with limited English proficiency and those who need special attention because of their learning disabilities. This has fostered methods and efforts to improve academic performances. This has been one of the achievements of the Act.

2.2.1 Weaknesses of no child left behind act.

Researchers argue that implementation of the act has affected the development of incentives for state schools (Irons & Harris, 2007). This is because the act requires schools to execute accountability systems that are anchored on student test scores. As such, it becomes intricate for states to employ value added accountability measures. In fact, the act stipulates that all teachers must be highly qualified in order to meet the high academic achievements that are required. Further, the act requires that in addition to demonstrating knowledge of the subject they teach, all teachers must have degrees in field (Irons& Harris, 2007).However, this requirement has its shortcomings. Given that one of the main provisions of the act is to expand education access to children from low-income backgrounds, many highly qualified teachers do not work and have degrees in the fields outlined by the act. A finding by the National Partnership for teaching shows that inexperienced teachers are more likely to teach in poverty areas (Irons & Harris, 2007).This finding is attributed to difference in pay, which attracts highly qualified teaches to economically endowed schools.

The act lays more emphasize on teacher training on core subjects but neglects teaching quality and the personal aspect of teaching (Amobi, 2006). In its bid to measures progress, the act subjects schools to adequate yearly progress. However, there are weaknesses in this measure as noted by the Federation of American Teachers. The Federation observed that adequate yearly progress measured different students. Accordingly, some students did adequately make progress. As such, AYP cannot be used as an indicator of progress and cannot distinguish if a school has the required proportion of students with proficient score (Fisanick, 2008).In this view, the system is unreliable and treats school unfairly where some will be structured they do not deserve.

2.3 School Dropout2.3.1. Categorization of school dropout factors

Failure to complete school is because of various factors that in combination increase the likelihood of a student dropping out. Factors include the individual, which may be caused by education and truancy, family factors, such as level of parental involvement and income (Gleason & Dynarski, 2002).There are also school related factors, which include the school organization and level of teacher involvement and expectations. Communities where students live and schools that are located in lower income areas play a large part by to contribute to the crime rate. Balfanz and Legtres (2004) group factors causing dropout into two parts: the first category is personal student demographics that consist of ethnicity, gender, and the social economic factors. The second category consists of institution-related factors such as school systems, qualified teachers, and learning conditions.

2.3.2 Socioeconomic factors affecting dropout

Academic performance and progression are developed from a number of factors, which among them are socioeconomic factors. Scholars agree that family play a role in education achievement (Sanchez, Reyes & Singh, 2006; Garg, Kauppi, Lewko, & Urjnik, 2002). Family size, parental involvement, socioeconomic status, occupation of parent, family type and education attainment of siblings and parent are among the family factors that affect education accomplishments. Parental principles and needs toward their children influence the moderation, consistency, and responsiveness of the children’s social development and achievements. This implies that a child’s cognitive growth is greatly shaped by the parents’ practices. Children from educated parents have a higher likelihood of getting enrolled in better schools and progressing further in their education path (Holmes, 2003). Holmes further notes that the effect of parent’s education level differs with gender. A father’s education level will affect boys while a mother’s education level will affect girls (Lokshin, 2001).

The probability of dropout differs across subgroups such as ethnicity and economic background. The national centre for education statistics 2011 report shows that students who enrolled in private or public high school in 2008, had a dropout rate of 3.4 percentage before 2009. The report further identified that there are no significance dropout rates within gender but there is a significant difference within ethnicities. Whites had the least dropout rate of 2.4% while Latinos had the highest rate at 5.8%. African Americans dropout rate was approximately 4.8%. The report established a strong link between dropping out and poverty especially, those children who come from low income backgrounds. In fact, the report showed that these children are five times more likely to drop out. Jordan and cooper (2003) examined the challenged and social conditions African American male student encountered in public schools. The researchers found that cultural significance and teacher student cultural harmonization played an important role in educating students and reducing the dropout rates. Thus, conviction about long and short-term effects are related to the perceived teacher, family and friend influences, which directly relates to the goal to finish school among African American students (Davis, Ajzen, Saunders, & Williams, 2002).

Similar characteristics exist in schools that record high number of dropouts. Balfanz and Legtres (2004) examine the distinctiveness of schools that registered high number of dropouts and found that the schools are located in low-income areas have high crime rate and unemployment levels. In addition, such schools have high number of colored students. This finding is similar to that of Alliance for Excellent Education (2011) report, which shows that 60% of colored students school in areas dropout, where more than half of the population lives in poverty. Accordingly, only 18% of white students in similar areas drop out. The report also found that grade retention is higher among colored students where 43% and 42% of Hispanic and African American student respectively have delayed graduations compared to 17% Asian and 22%- white.

Communities where the students and parents reside influence student retention by providing a positive or enabling environment for educational progress. Studies have shown that communities that provide little employment opportunities have high dropout rates (Russell, 2001). Study demonstrates that students from low-income neighborhoods feel that education will not improve their status much hence are more likely to dropout when they encounter obstacles.

In Florida dropout has not been eliminated despite the efforts by the state education agencies. The data by Florida shows that the dropout rates of minority groups (African American and Hispanics) is higher than that of Whites (Florida Department of Education, 2010). On the other hand, the graduation rates of Whites are higher than that of African American. This shows that ethnicity might be an influencing factor in probability of graduating and completing school. In a bid to support students from disadvantaged economic background, the government initiated a free or subsided lunch program. In Florida, most students on free lunch program are from minority groups (Florida Department of Education, 2010). This is an indication that more minority student are economically disadvantaged than majority groups. This can partly explain the difference in academic performance.

2.3.3 School related factors.Research has shown that progression from one grade to another affects the dropout rate. Jimmerson, Anderson and Whipple (2002) note that there has been increase of student repeating the same grade because of emphasize on standards and accountability. The researchers reviewed 17 schools where they found evidence that repeating a grade increases the chances of dropping out of school. The researches further noted that the effects of repeating a grade combined with socioeconomic factors, ethnicity and emotional disengagement, affects students’ self-esteem, peer relations, socio-emotional relations that increase the chances of dropping out. Grade retention fails to solve the problem but only makes students feel like failures, which deflates self-esteem causing disengagement from education, which ultimately increases the probability of school dropout.

The school organization in terms of facilities, standards and manners of handling students affect the dropout rates. In 2003, Lee and Burkam investigated the effect of school organization on the dropout rate. The researchers examined 3840 students from grades 10, 11 and 12 from suburban and urban areas in the U.S. The researchers found that school organization affects dropout. School organization includes such factors as instruction, mentoring, retention to alternatives. They recommend that having personalized instruction methods, having mentoring programs and developing retention alternatives will increase student engagement that in turn reduces the dropout rate. Lee and Burkam (2003) note that students are more likely to stay in school when have constructive relations with their teachers.

2.3.4 Groups of school dropouts.

There are different ways to describe dropouts as noted by Morrow in 1987. Morrow posited that there are “putouts” (pg.153)-dropouts who drop out of school because of their undesirable characteristics. These students never connect with neither the school nor its environment and do not want to be in school. Morrow classified them as disaffiliate as they dropout mainly because they are disengaged. Student ability to comprehend academic content affects completion process. As such there are “education mortalities” (pg 153), those students who dropout because as they are incapable. Kronick and Hargis (1998, pg. 256) expanded Morrow’s theory and proposed that high school dropouts are a process. The researcher noted that there are “quiet dropouts” (pg 257), who fail to finish school because of their low academic achievement and grade retention and this consists of the largest group of dropouts. Another group of dropouts related to the first category is “under achieving push out” (pg 257). This group of dropouts has low achievement and behavior troubles and a high-grade retention. They react to their low achievement and grade retention, which causes disengagement and eventually dropping out. Highly achieving “push outs” are students who fail to finish school mainly because of their behavioral problems that the school administration cannot tolerate despite having good achievements. Common characteristics among dropouts are low family income, parent participation process, grade retention, underachievement and employment while in school (Kronick & Hargis, 1998).

Research has shown that progression from one grade to another affects dropout. Jimmerson, Anderson and Whipple (2002) noted in their study that there have been increases in students repeating the same grade, which attributed to emphasize on standards and accountability. The researchers reviewed 17 schools where they found evidence that repeating a grade increases the chances of dropping out of school. The researches further noted that the effects of repeating a grade combine with socioeconomic factors, ethnicity and emotional disengagement. Retention affects students’ self-esteem, peer relations, socio-emotional relations that increase the chances of dropping out.

School organization in terms of facilities, standards and manner of handling students affect the dropout rates. In 2003, Lee and Burkam investigated the effect the effect of school organization on dropout. The researchers examined 3840 students of grade 10, 11 and 12 from suburban and urban areas in the U.S. The researchers found that school organization affects dropout. School organization factors such as instruction, mentoring, retention to alternatives affect student dropout. Lee and Burkam (2003) note that, students are more likely to stay in school when they have constructive relations with their teachers.

2.3.5 Effects of dropping out. Given the vital role education play in the quality of life one will lead, failure to complete school will only have negative consequences at both individual level and society. There is an increased chance of unemployment that in turn increases the probability of committing crimes. Dropouts experience increased mental health- related problems because of stress and lack of sufficient income and low self-esteem. School dropouts are more likely to indulge in drugs and alcohol (Bridgeland, DiIulio & Morison, 2006). They use of alcohol and drugs to “handle” feelings of underachievement that lead to depression, stress and low self-esteem. Given the increased rate of crime there is prison expenses increase, such expenses will reduce if number of dropouts is eliminated (Kaufman, et al., 2000). The government has created training programs to help dropouts ‘lead better lives. However, those funds will be used for other projects, if the dropout rate is reduced. Given the lack of employment among dropouts and low income adult dependence are high. This strains the scarce resources available for the adult and continues – the poverty cycle.

The Dropout experience economic problem has escalated, whereby, they have little chance of getting employed and when they do they earn less than high school graduates .On average, high school graduates earn $9200 more than dropouts annually and approximately more than $ 1million in their lifetime (Bridgeland, DiIulio & Morison, 2006). Dropouts are two times more likely to end up in poverty than high school graduates given the level unemployment probability is three times that of graduates. The negative effects of dropouts are felt in society because of the lost revenue and higher health costs. Bridgeland, DiIulio and Morison (2006) note that the overhead costs incurred on a dropout

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NIST Investigation on Collapse of WTC Building

NIST Investigation on Collapse of WTC Building

NIST Investigation on Collapse of WTC Building 7

The discussion around the official NIST investigation team on the WTC building 7 collapses shows their findings as emphasizing on the fact that the fires and plane crushes were the main cause for the collapse of the buildings. They continued further to explain that once the initiation of collapse had been initiated the global collapse of the structure was unavoidable. However other analysts have deferred with this notion and they have categorically stated that the NIST investigation was incorrect since in their report there was no explanation on how the total collapse of the building occurred. As a response to the criticism NIST tried to provide a more technically advance explanation of their initial proposed theory that explained the collapse of the towers initiation while completely trying to remove the fault from the construction of the buildings. In their report they stated that the impact from the planes dislodged the steels insulations, and due to this the steels succumbed to the extreme fires. Portions of the perimeter walls were then pulled by the sagging trusses which resulted in a rapid spread of the perimeters columns being unstable, and in addition contributed to the increased strain on the core columns which had already been weakened by the extreme fires, lastly the floors above the collapse zone produced a tremendous energy that eventually led to the global collapse of the structure.

With the above review of the NIST investigations final report it is clear that their analysis was not confined within the perimeters requirements of an engineering investigations since they exhibit exclusions and biasness on some of their research. Due to this their explanations that mostly revolve around probable collapse sequence do not address any of the relevant issues since it steers clear of the main topics while also stopping at the critical moment of the buildings collapsing, and with this the report avoids explaining the overlap with the time span in which the demolition-like features appear and the longer timeline of the truss-failure theory. Due to these loopholes within their explanations it is right to state that their theory help spark more questions and conspiracy theories on why the building collapsed rather than highlighting the facts like why the collapse had more characteristics of a controlled demolition which are not common in steel framed buildings as was the case of the WTC building 7.

NIST’s report on the event has been challenged as incorrect by many organizations that have viewed their explanations as eluding the truth of conspiracies and evident features of controlled demolitions in the buildings collapse; the independent organizations mainly challenge the NIST theory on its proposal of fire damage and crash effects as the main cause of the collapse, since they see no direct connection between the global collapse and the collapse initiation making the NIST report unrealistic. Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth is an example of organization that is critical of the NIST theory. In their counter argument they point out the fact that it is not possible for the WTC building to have fell at the accelerated speed that was observed without having had several of its columns that support the buildings structure being torn apart by using strategically placed explosives.

In order for the Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth to support their claim they used free fall acceleration point to mid-air pulverization of concrete and lateral ejection of steel during the buildings collapse as their main explanation basis. In addition their explanation continues to clarify that due to the absence of large deformations that often form gradually during a normal collapsing process it is clear that the building was without a doubt destroyed through controlled demolition and from this perspective, the fact that the three WTC buildings fell through what they term as the path which should have had greatest resistance further helps support their explanation of using controlled explosions to remove the critical columns which couldn’t have been achieved through the use of fire as a medium.

Lastly they states that the fact that the north tower’s top got blown outwards during the collapse left no other explanation for buildings collapse if not from a controlled demolition from the inside. Some other evidence that the organization presents to support their case is for example the found un-ignited nano-thermite which is known to be highly flammable and can be used also on explosives. According to my view the credibility of the Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth organizations should not be in question considering the lengths they have gone to uncover the truth, i honestly think their voices should be heard since they might be on to some truth that others would want overlooked.

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Nissan Way Vs Brazilian Jeitinho Culture

Nissan Way Vs Brazilian Jeitinho Culture

Nissan Way Vs Brazilian Jeitinho Culture

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The Nissan Way and the Brazilian Jeitinho culture must have some differences and similarities due to the geographical features and the fact that the two are run by different management/ Similarities might arise because both cultures aim at serving people thus have to do it in the best way possible. A blend of the two cultures can be interesting. The Japanese are always business driven and are strict and very rigid unlike the Brazilian Jeitinho culture.

There are a lot of differences between the “Nissan Way” organizational culture and the Brazilian Jeitinho cultural. To start with, the Nisan way focus on customer satisfaction as a measure of profit and success whereas the Brazilian Jeitinho are of aware of the profit value and need their companies to have maximum profit but do not follow the correct procedures to attain success. The Nissan way appreciates all the procedures in attempt to minimize complains for clients. Jeitinho allows for using shortcuts which are full of errors in order to attain an objective while the Nissan way who have adopted the true Japanese culture prefer taking ages to attain a goal but follow the outlined rules and directions. Nisan way does not involve favors or any bias while doing recruitment. The human resource managements shortlists candidates fairly and conduct their interviews in order to attain highly qualified personnel (Ariss, 2014). The Jeitinho culture is full of favors and corruption to an extent one can be favored to get a job yet not qualified.

Despite the two having differences, they show empathy and welcomes different diversities. Both cultures welcome different opinions thus they can enhance partnership. When the two cultures are joined together, they might clash and conflict can arise because for the Nissan Way the workers need to achieve maximum results and maximize resources unlike the Jeitinho where comfort comes first . Nissan Way culture is good for international or larger business while the Jeitinho is good for smaller business which do not interact with many people.

References

Ariss, A. A. (2014). Global Talent Management: Challenges, Strategies, and Opportunities. Springer. [Skillsoft eBook]. Retrieved from https://snhu.skillport.com/skillportfe/main.action?path=summary/BOOKS/76719#summary/BOOKS/RW$15341:_ss_book:76719.

`NISSAN MOTOR CORPORATION – GLOBAL CAREER WEBSITE – LIFE AT NISSAN – CULTURE. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2016, from http://www.nissanmotor.jobs/life/culture/

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Nissan USA Marketing Campaign A SMART Analysis

Nissan USA Marketing Campaign A SMART Analysis

Nissan USA Marketing Campaign: A SMART Analysis

Nissan USA is continuously trying to improve in a market space that is full of competitors. The automobile sector in the US is one that is highly competitive including old market players such as BMW, KIA, VW, Toyota, Audi, Mercedes Benz, Ford, and so on. The market is also getting new entrants including Tesla, SABA, and Rimac. As a result, Nissan USA is trying all marketing angles to capture variant markets using different targeting strategies and groups. The Nissan Presents: Thrill Driver ad on YouTube is among the most successful advertising campaigns using social media and viral marketing to reach a variety of markets globally.

Situation

Nissan USA is communicating to its target markets due to a need to beat the competition. Marketing includes a variety of aspects, one of which is advertising. Unlike marketing, which is the whole strategy to communicating with people about a brand, advertising is typically a paid kind of message that is intended to generate sales for Nissan USA. Developing opportunities for reaching out and communicating with clients is made possible through marketing communication for businesses. It is possible to promote products and services while also increasing brand recognition by keeping a communication line open at all times. Every point of contact the company has with its consumers helps to solidify the connection with them, which may result in increased total income creation and business stability in the future. This explains why Nissan USA uses familiar faces in order to persuade buyers in their decision to consume.

In order for Nissan USA to market its products, marketing communication techniques must be employed. Product, service, and idea transfer from producers to end users is aided by marketing communication. Nissan USA understands the value of communicating its products to consumers. It intends to beat the competition by succinctly providing a description of its product, thus increasing sales and revenues. It also intends to sell its brand as among the best in the world. Here, marketing will assist Nissan USA in the establishment and maintenance of relationships with existing customers, prospects, and other important stakeholders. From the ad, Nissan USA hopes that the marketing strategy is interlinked with communication since it ensures that everyone is on the same page. Being receptive to the clients’ concerns helps in building long-term solutions to their issues (Mihart, 2012), an aspect that Nissan USA highlights in the ad using the new automobile that has a futuristic appearance yet subtle and meets the needs of the modern car buyer.

Message

The advertisement uses the product as the central and core character. The ad wants to communicate a message of versatility. The product is quick, goofy, futuristic, elegant, well-designed, sporty, and noticeable. The message that the ad passes across is that of a product that is not shy but one that is brave and paving the way for the future car. In short, Nissan USA is trying to market its Nissan brand as one that is ahead of the competition curve. The ad passes a notable message that a thrilling drive has the power to change everything. By putting the all-new Nissan Z 2023 and the all-electric Nissan Arya 2023 in the market, Nissan USA hoped that the big stage will showcase its mission and vision for the future. The new Nissan has a bit of modesty and thrill in equal measure depending o the driver’s mood.

Audience

Nissan USA targets the modern age consumers. Specifically, it targets Gen Z target market that is characterized by thrill. The psychological targeting is simply based on passion and a thrill to drive the next fastest and coolest looking vehicle. The product, Nissan Z 2023, targets the enthusiastic sports car lovers looking for a thrill and a dynamic performer. The product has the Gen Z in mind, looking forward to a future connecting the car to the modern consumer. It intends to create a bond between driver and car, something that Gen Z consumers would appreciate in a product.

Response

The ad wants its audience to appreciate the product, recognize the state-of-the-art design and build, and create a connection with the vehicle similar to the sports cars of the 60s-80s. Nissan USA wants the driver to be fully connected to the vehicle, not just physically through modern connectivity tools, but also mentally through a thrilling and exhilarating drive. The ad show that the Nissan USA team engineered a vehicle that delivers predictable as well as responsive handling that is unique for every driver. The overall expected response is buying the vehicle in large numbers as an icon of the future.

Tool

Video marketing is the best way for Nissan USA to get its message out to its target markets. In the automotive sector, video content reigns supreme. A lot of automobile consumers believe that seeing is believing, therefore they have to be able to comprehend the whole aesthetic appeal of an automobile before they can see themselves driving it (Liu et al., 2019). The current Nissan USA ad best fits this description. The actors and influencers used to drive the campaign come out as regular people driving the car with modesty and are able to adapt to its capabilities, versatility, and dynamics within a short period of time. The video marketing strategy helps a consumer to picture themselves driving one of the products marketed.

References

Liu, G. F., Gao, P. C., Li, C. Y., & Zhang, Z. P. (2019). Research on the influence of social media short video marketing on consumer brand attitude. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 336, 784-789.

Mihart, C. (2012). Impact of integrated marketing communication on consumer behaviour: Effects on consumer decision-making process. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(2), 121.

Nissan USA. (February, 3, 2022). Nissan Presents: Thrill Driver. [YouTube]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bu56KAaIcac&t=60s

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Nineteen Eighty-Four The Quintessential Negative Utopia

Nineteen Eighty-Four The Quintessential Negative Utopia

Nineteen Eighty-Four: The Quintessential Negative Utopia

(Or How to become really depressed about the future of the human condition in 267 pages or less.)

1984 is George Orwell’s arguably his most famous novel, and it remains one of the most powerful warnings ever made against the dangers of a totalitarian society. George Orwell was primarily a political novelist as a result of his life experiences. In Spain, Germany, and Russia, Orwell had seen for himself the peril of absolute political authority in an age of advanced technology; he illustrated that peril harshly in 1984.

Orwell’s book could be considered the most acknowledged in the genre of the negative utopian novel. The mood of the novel aims to portray a pessimistic future. This prospect is to show the worst human society imaginable and to convince readers to avoid any path that might lead toward societal degradation. Orwell’s world of post-atomic dictatorship, in which every individual is ceaselessly monitored through the telescreen seemed just possible enough to terrify. When Orwell postulated such a society it was only 35 years into the future that made the horror depicted by the novel seem more relevant and real.

While the year 1984 has long since come and gone it is more than obvious that the world Orwell describes has not materialized. But the message of 1984 remains relevant enough to frighten, and accurate enough to feel possible. War is used as a device for political manipulation on television—a concept presented strikingly in the recent film Wag the Dog. The governmental forces have historical records rewritten to match the political ideology of the ruling Party. This is a technique has been used by the Soviet Union and is still all too common in some parts of the world. The warning remains significant: the world has not completely escaped from the dangers Orwell describes.

The novel is based on the experiences of Winston Smith, an insignificant member of the ruling Party in London, in the nation of Oceania. Everywhere Winston goes, even his own home, he is watched through telescreens, and everywhere he looks he sees the face of the Party’s omniscient leader, a figure known only as Big Brother. The Party controls everything from history to language. The Party is currently forcing the implementation of an invented language called Newspeak, which attempts to prevent political rebellion by eliminating all words related to it. Even thinking rebellious thoughts is illegal. Thought crime is the worst crime of all.

One of the most convincing aspects of 1984 is Orwell’s understanding of the roles that thought and language play in rebellion and control. In Newspeak, Orwell postulates a language that will make rebellion impossible, because the words to conceive of it will cease to exist. With doublethink—the ability to hold two contradictory ideas in one’s head simultaneously and believe in them both—Orwell conceives of a mental mechanism that explains people’s willingness to accept control over their memories and their past. Doublethink is crucial to the Party’s control of Oceania, because it enables the Party to alter historical records and pass off the altered records as real to a populace that ought to know better; because of doublethink, the populace does not know better, but is able to accept the Party’s version of the past as real.

The protagonist is Winston Smith; a minor member of the ruling Party in near-future London, Winston Smith is a thin, frail, 39 year-old-man who wears blue Party coveralls. Winston is sick of the Party’s rigid control over his life and world, and begins trying to rebel against the Party. By writing defiant thoughts in a secret diary and starting an illegal affair with Julia, Winston is guilty of these societal crimes.

Julia is a beautiful dark-haired girl working in the Fiction Department at the Ministry of Truth. She enjoys sex, and claims to have had affairs with dozens of Party members. Winston is a fatalist, harboring no illusions about his chances of rebelling successfully: the moment he begins to write in his diary, he knows he has condemned himself to death at the hands of the thought police. Even as he joins the legendary anti-Party order called the Brotherhood, Winston considers himself a dead man.

Winston is 39, Julia 26. Winston’s childhood took place largely before the Party came to power around 1960; Julia is a child of the Party era, and many of the regime’s elements that seem most frightening and evil to Winston fail to upset or even faze Julia. Like Winston, she hates the Party and sees through many of its techniques—she understands, for instance, that it uses sexual repression to control the populace. She even has a better intuitive grasp on the Party’s methods than Winston does, planning their affair and often explaining the Party to him. The Party’s control of history does not interest her as it interests Winston, because she does not remember a time when the Party was not in control.

In stark defiance of Party doctrine, Julia enjoys sex and rebels against the Party in small ways. But growing up under the Party regime has made her unconcerned about the difference between truth and falsehood, and she has no patience for Winston’s desire for a categorical, abstract rejection of Party doctrine. Julia seems to mistrust doctrine and abstract philosophy. She even falls asleep when Winston reads to her from Emmanuel Goldstein’s book, a powerful sign of her simple, sensual approach to life.

The beginning of the novel Orwell introduces the major characters and themes. He acquaints the reader with the main character Winston Smith’s world. The primary plot development in this section is Winston’s writing in his diary, his first overt act of rebellion. Evidently, Winston’s hatred of Party oppression has been festering for some time, possibly even for most of his life; his story begins on the day that hatred finds an active expression. As Winston realizes, once he opens the cover of his diary and writes, his life is irrevocably altered. Never again will he be simply another citizen of Oceania; now he is a thought-criminal, and he considers himself doomed from the very start. As he thinks, “Thought crime was not a thing that could be concealed forever . . . Sooner or later they always got you.”(Page 9)

Winston’s fatalism—his belief that the Party is so powerful and Big Brother so omniscient that any act of rebellion, any expression of individuality, is doomed almost before it begins—becomes a central component of his character. Throughout the story, he allows himself only occasionally to feel any hope for the future. Winston feels extraordinarily oppressed by the Party’s control: he cannot think for himself or act for himself, and he must repress his sexual desires almost entirely.

Winston feelings can only emerge in his dreams. Within his repressed psychological state he has dreams of a golden country and making love to a dark haired girl. Winston’s dream is prophetic—he will indeed make love to the dark- haired girl in an idyllic country landscape. The same is true for his dream of O’Brien, in which he hears O’Brien’s voice promise to meet him “in the place where there is no darkness.”(Page 25) At the end of the novel, Winston will indeed meet O’Brien in a place without darkness, but that place will be nothing like what Winston expects. The phrase “the place where there is no darkness” recurs several times throughout the novel; it orients Winston toward his future, and works as one of a number of recurrent motifs that reappear throughout the book.

Winston’s world is a nasty, brutish place. His London is dilapidated and crumbling; the electricity seldom works, living conditions are uncomfortable, and everything is constantly monitored and controlled by the Party through tele screens. Winston’s encounter with the Parsons children is an example of the Party’s influence on the family—children are reminiscent of the Hitler Youth of Nazi Germany The fear Mrs. Parsons shows for her children foreshadows Winston’s encounter in jail with her husband (who was turned in for thought crime by his own child).

Winston’s repressed sexuality— one of his key reasons for despising the Party and wanting to rebel— becomes his overt concern when he remembers his last encounter with a prole prostitute. The dingy, nasty memory, made even more unpleasant by the sight of the ugly prostitute in the lamplight, makes Winston even more desperate to have an enjoyable erotic experience. He thinks that the Party’s “real, undeclared purpose was to remove all pleasure from the sexual act.” While Winston thinks about his encounter with the prole prostitute, he realizes that his own nervous system has become his enemy. Under constant oppression, forced to repress every feeling and instinct, a person might lose control, even if only for an instant, and show some visible sign of tension or struggle—even a facial twitch could lead to arrest. This emphasis on the physical aspect of the Party’s oppression is continued throughout the novel, and culminates with Winston’s realization toward the end of the book that nothing in human experience is worse than the feeling of physical pain.

Winston’s work in the sprawling Ministry of Truth shows the Party in operation. Everything presented is part of calculated propaganda, altered records, or revised history. The idea of doublethink (the ability simultaneously to believe and disbelieve in the same idea, or to believe in two contradictory ideas simultaneously) becomes very important. Doublethink enables the workers at the Ministry of Truth to believe in the false versions of the records that they have altered, and with their belief, for the Party’s purposes, the records become the reality of the truth. Even Winston cannot quite trust his own memories—he too believes the «official» falsified records. This is doublethink, the psychological key to the Party’s control of the past. It allows the citizens under Party control to accept slogans like “War is peace” and “Freedom is slavery.”(16)

Life in the prole district is animalistic, filthy, and impoverished. Only Mr. Charrington seems to share Winston’s love of the past—he sells him the paperweight and shows him the upstairs room. In the context of 1984, this room’s lack of a telescreen is quite remarkable; it becomes one of the few places in Winston’s world in which the Party is not watching. Like Winston’s dream phrase “the place where there is no darkness,” the picture of St. Clement’s church hanging in Mr. Charrington’s upstairs room becomes a symbolic motif, reappearing throughout the novel. (Page 47)

Like the paperweight, another symbolic motif, it represents Winston’s desire to make a connection with a past he cannot recover. The rhyme associated with the picture ends on an ominous note—”Here comes a chopper to chop off your head”(page 86) —that foreshadows the picture’s role in destroying Winston’s private rebellion: he does not know that a telescreen is hidden behind the picture. He will eventually be caught by this telescreen, left there by Mr. Charrington, a secret member of the Thought Police.

Winston’s paperweight symbolizes the past, and also comes to represent a kind of temporal stasis in which he can dream without fear, imagining himself floating inside the glass walls of the paperweight with his mother. The phrase “the place where there is no darkness” works as a symbol of hope throughout the novel, as Winston recalls the dream in which O’Brien tells him about the place and says they will meet there one day. The phrase therefore orients Winston toward the end of the novel, when the phrase becomes bitterly ironic: the place where there is no darkness is the Ministry of Love, where the lights remain on in the prisons all day and all night.

Winston’s affair with Julia becomes an established part of each of their lives, leading up to Winston’s meeting with O’Brien. Despite the risk given the thoroughness of Party monitoring, Winston rents the room above Mr. Charrington’s shop so that he and Julia can have a regular place to meet. As the preparations for Hate Week cast a shadow of heat and fatigue on Winston’s life, a number of important minor details surface throughout this section, each of which has some bearing on later developments in the novel.

First, the return of the glass paperweight: A “vision of the glass paperweight”(Page 91) inspired Winston to rent the room above the shop. The recurrence of this symbolic motif reemphasizes Winston’s obsession with the past, and connects that obsession with his desire to rent the room; by renting the room for Julia, he hopes he can make their relationship resemble one from an earlier, freer time. After Julia leaves the room, Winston gazes into the paperweight, imagining a temporal stasis inside it, where he and Julia could float, free of the Party and free of time.

Second, the prole woman singing outside the window. Winston has already thought—and written in his diary that hope for the future must come from the proles. The prole woman singing outside the window, with her obvious virility, becomes a symbol of the hoped-for future to Winston; he imagines her bearing the children who will overthrow the Party eventually.

Third, Winston’s fear of rats: When he sees a rat in the room he shudders in terror; his worst nightmare involves rats in a vague, mysterious way he cannot quite explain. This is another moment of foreshadowing: when O’Brien tortures Winston in the Ministry of Love at the end of the novel, he will use a cage of rats to break Winston’s spirit.

Fourth, the recurrence of the St. Clement’s church song. The mysterious references the song makes continue to pique Winston’s interest in the past, and its last line continues to obliquely foreshadow his unhappy ending. A more pragmatic interest makes the song relevant in this section: Julia offers to clean the St. Clement’s church picture had she done so, the lovers would have discovered the telescreen hidden behind it.

The most important part of this section is Winston’s meeting with O’Brien, which Winston considers the single most important event of his life. The meeting is brief but establishes O’Brien as an enigmatic and powerful figure. At this point we cannot tell whether he is trustworthy or treacherous, whether he is truly on Winston’s side or simply wants to trap him for the Party. In the end, Winston will discover the answer to that question in the place where there is no darkness.

The most remarkable aspect of the capture of Winston and Julia is that it comes as a surprise. Even though Winston has predicted his own capture throughout the novel, Orwell manages to time the arrival of the authorities perfectly to catch the reader off-guard. The long excerpt from Goldstein’s book is the mechanism he uses to accomplish this shock effect, and in this sense, at least, the excerpt is fully justified.

Winston’s obsession with O’Brien (which began with the dream about the place where there is no darkness) was the source of his undoing, and it undoes him now as well. Throughout the torture sessions, Winston becomes increasingly eager to believe anything O’Brien tells him- -even Party slogans and rhetoric. In the last book of the novel, Winston even begins to dream about O’Brien in the same way he now dreams about his mother and Julia.

This apparent death wish is the key to Winston’s character is his fatalism—he rebels against the Party not because he desires freedom, but because he wants the Party to kill him. Given Orwell’s political aspirations for his novel, this seems an idle and unprofitable speculation. 1984 may include psychological imbalance among its list of ill effects caused by totalitarian government, but it seems clear that 1984 is not primarily about psychological imbalance. Winston no longer has any reason to think for himself: he loves Big Brother, and Big Brother will take care of him. His love of Big Brother has not cured his fatalism; Winston still envisions the day the bullet will enter his brain.

The causes of Winston’s shattered will. After months of agonizing torture and unrelenting brainwashing, Winston is nevertheless able to hold on to his love for Julia until O’Brien threatens him with the cage of rats. At this point, Winston is finally faced with a torment he would rather see Julia experience than feel, and he calls out her name to save him. Once he has offered Julia as a sacrificial victim to take his place, Winston has finally been destroyed.

The novel’s pivotal scene in which O’Brien straps the cage of rats onto Winston’s face seems an anticlimax. It has been argued that the cage of rats is not horrible enough to make the reader feel Winston’s torment, and that it feels arbitrary, as though Orwell were simply reaching for some horrible device with which to conclude his story. Winston’s collapse does follow hard upon his passionate restatement of his love for Julia and hatred for Big Brother

Throughout the novel, Orwell argues that physical pain and the sense of physical danger override human reason. When Winston is facing a writhing swarm of rats prepared to devour his face cannot act rationally. He is a prisoner to his nervous system. And betraying Julia is his instinctive salvation. Rather than the rats themselves, it is the awareness the Party forces on Winston, that he is a prisoner of his body that ultimately breaks him. Once he believes his body limits him, he has no reason to think, act, or rebel. Doublethink is equally crucial to Winston’s gradual process of conversion to love for Big Brother, because it enables him to accept his torturers’ words as true, even though his own memories contradict those words.

The Supplemental Paper: The Principles of Newspeak

1984’s Appendix contains Orwell’s ideas about Newspeak. Although Orwell felt that these ideas were too technical to integrate into the novel, they develop the novel’s stance on language and thought in the public’s acceptance of governmental control. And although this paper is to long it is important that the principals of Newspeak be addressed.

Newspeak is the official language of Oceania; it is scheduled for official adoption around 2050, and is designed to make the ideological premises of Ingsoc (Newspeak for English Socialism: the Party’s official political alignment) the only expressible ideology. Newspeak is engineered to remove even the possibility of rebellious thoughts by eliminating the words in which thoughts might be expressed. Newspeak contains no negative terms—the only way to express the meaning of «bad» is through the word “ungood.” Something extremely bad would be called “doubleplus ungood.” Newspeaks grammar is arranged so that any word can serve as any part of speech. There are three different vocabulary spheres within Newspeak.

“A Vocabulary” contains everyday words and phrases for such things as eating, drinking, working and so on. In comparison with Modern English, these words are fewer in number but more rigid in meaning. Newspeak leaves no room for nuance, or for degrees of meaning.

“B Vocabulary” contains all words with political or ideological significance. These words are especially tailored to provoke thoughtless acceptance of the Party’s doctrines. As example: «goodthink» means roughly the same thing as “orthodoxy.” The “B Vocabulary” is formed entirely of compound words and often squeezes words into smaller forms to attain abstract ease. The English phrase “Thought Police,” for instance, is compressed into «thinkpol»; “the Ministry of Love” becomes “miniluv.”

“C Vocabulary” is made up of words that relate to science and to technical fields. It is intended to guarantee that technological information remains segmented among many domains. Thus no one person would have access to too much knowledge. In fact, there is no word for science; «Ingsoc» already covers any meaning it could possibly bear.

The particularities of Newspeak make it impossible to translate older English (oldspeak) texts into the language; the introduction of the Declaration of Independence, for instance, could only be translated into a single word: crime think. Furthermore, each of the technical manuals must be translated into Newspeak; it is this bulk of translation work that explains the Party’s decision to hold off the full adoption of Newspeak to 2050.

Recommendation for Teaching

George Orwell’s novel is depressing and fatalistic in nature. There are parts that are difficult to read and are (for lack of a better description) boring. But this is one of those pieces that should be read. Some students will get it but as teaching tools it, although it might be meet with some derision.

The importance of Orwell’s message is an important lesson. The Negative Utopia concept he presents is essential to any understanding of the future. The questioning of governmental programs, what this generation leaves behind for future age groups are concepts that need to be addressed by the young, if not at least introduced to. The importance of technology and business are also a consideration. Does it control society or does society command it. Going hand in hand with the concepts of governmental power is the antithesis of Civil Disobedience. Which might make an excellent supplemental reading.

While the body of this essay did not (purposely) contain mention of Big Brother it is another reason for reading this novel. Big Brother is the figurehead of a government that has total control. The Big Brother regime uses propaganda and puts fear in its citizens to keep the general population in line. “Big Brother is watching you”(5) is just one example of many party slogans that puts fear in its citizens. Big Brother uses various ways to catch people guilty of bad thoughts and the term Big Brother is used though out other literature as well as other forms of media and communication.

Lesson Ideas

1. The entire class would have to comply with the societal rules that Winston has to. By either having the class have a discussion on how to make everyone completely equal. If one person has glasses they all would have glasses. Etc.

2. Write a paper in Newspeak, or have a class conversation in Newspeak.

3. How would they feel if their entire life was predestined? What if the only way to survive was to conform.4. What is freedom? What is this type of society born from? If a class of seniors is they involved with government or do they allow it to happen?

5. Might teach Civil disobedience along with this. At least a supplemental reading for a one-day discussion.

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Nimble Storage PESTEl Analysis

Nimble Storage PESTEl Analysis

Nimble Storage PESTEl Analysis

Name

Course

Date

Nimble storage is a technological company that majors in a flash storage solution. Nimble Storage organization is growing rapidly with its hybrid storage solutions and high capacity flash and drives that are integrated gaining market recognition. The drives are of all sizes and are characterized with better performance, storage capacity and come with affordable prices of company storage. Nimble storage has a mission, and a vision whereby earning global recognition and success is one of its goals. This cannot be achieved easily. An analysis of the external factors that affect the business will be crucial. Nimble needs to be successful with the employees in various locations having a good working environment to become productive. Since the organization aims at going global, it has to consider the external factors of each company that it will operate in.

From the company’s creation, Nimble has taken important steps to see itself at the top. The Smart Stack is the first implementation by Nimble which has seen it in being a global organization. It allows products to be created for the customer’s needs and proof of the testing and the initiation of their storage program is always proof tested and validated to ensure it has met the defined VDI storage workload. Also, with the Pan-European agreement with Ingram Micro, a global leader in IT supply chain, Nimble Storage is expected to grow rapidly since recently there was a Pan European agreement with Ingram micro (Bahrami, 2015). Nimble is expected to skyrocket in the competitor market.

Business Analysis

Many companies have decided to go international because of globalization which has been enhanced by improved technology, favourable legal factors, political stability, social-cultural trends, laws that are a favorable and stable economy. It is not easy to move a company from an ethnocentric setup to a geocentric setup.

Because it is hard, the first sted that Nimble storage needs to do is to conduct research. Researching on different cultures that exist in other countries will help the management to understand how to go with the different culture. Each culture has a preference be it on price storage among other factors. Understanding this will help nimble storage to penetrate new markets. Also learning the about the culture of other places will alleviate how employees will adapt to the new place since they have heard of the place. Focus groups in Nimble storage should be the one to give this information about the places they have been to, the experience there, and if the place is safe for the company to grow big,

It is also important for Nimble to learn about the location they are going to set up a new branch. For instance, if the place is prone to floods, drought and other natural calamities. The population of the are is also crucial since it determines the size of the company whether it is going to be big or small. Besides population also the economy of the place is important. There are some places with good populations but they become unfavorable for businesses similar to Nimble since the number of the poor is very high compared to the rich. According to Charmayne Smith, “A business’s location is key to successful operations and overall growth. When choosing your location, consider company needs, customers, employees and equipment needed to complete the services” (Smith, n.d.). Maybe the majority of the population do not understand what a computer is thus it won’t make sense of setting a company in such a place.

Nimble should understand that every country, state and city as laws. For instance, there are laws on taxes and incentives, laws on age of retiring, regulation on what to sell and what not to sell. If nimble storage gets to understand the products that are illegal in the country of interest, the company will not authorize the selling of a given product in such a location. Maybe Brazil does not allow the sale of certain computer hardware then due to assumptions Nimble hoes there, and they are returned back.

The business culture of the United States differs very widely with that of Brazil. Brazil has a culture known as “Jeitinho Brasileiro” meaning The Brazilian Way,” that is doing a process or procedure process for someone to reach something desired in spite of contrary determinations (laws, orders, rules, etc.)” (Mello, 2012). In the book there is an example; “Far ahead, he sees a co-worker in the number two spot in the line… the guy will insidiously skip the line, pretending he will talk to his colleague” (Mello, 2012). According to Brazilians, there is always a way out, and it is not a must for one to follow the right protocol. It is important to understand this culture for the employees to identify themselves with the Brazilians.

There are political trends that will affect or dictate how a business runs especially a foreign business. Political instability is a key factor for a company to note when researching political factors affecting a country. For example, although far reached, an aggressive takeover could overthrow a government. It could lead to riots, looting and general disorder in the environment, which I return will greatly affect business operations. (PESTEL Analysis, 2015). This kind of behaviour can also affect a business’s day to day operations because some of the employees may be involved, hurt, or mentally unstable.

Recommendations

External factors have significant effects on an organization; thus one needs to understand them very well before setting up a firm. Among the factors have been listed above. Not all the factors will affect the organization since they vary from country to country. From the excel sheet, we can tell that there are some factors which are favourable for business growth including technological inventions and the hardworking culture of the Americans. Of all the factors that may affect business, the political trends are amongst the most important and the least predictable element of the business environment. Some countries are democratic; thus Nimble should consider such factors since people are used to deciding for themselves. Therefore, regarding a recommendation for surviving the natural calamities such as hurricanes in the U.S and political risk of a global company is to consider buying insurance because such insurance enables the business to rebuild after it has been exposed to risk. Also, the company should have agents employees from the community where the company is located to enhance interaction and building customer relations since they are aware of the place(PESTEL Analysis, 2015). It is good to take go global and take the risk in business.

Conclusion

Nimble is at a better place to go global since it has already established the markets domestically. If the company stays keen on the PESTEL factors in every region, then there are very high chances of gaining global recognition in many countries across the world. Some of the PESTELs can be changed whereas some cannot. Besides the external factors, the company should also look into internal factors since it affects the company.

References

Bahrami, H (2015, June 10). Nimble Storage: Scaling Talent Strategy Amidst Hyper-Growth. Retrieved from https://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cbmp/content/68864359.

Mello, J. (2012, March 26). The Brazilian way of doing things. Retrieved from http://thebrazilbusiness.com/article/the-brazilian-way-of-doing-things.

PESTEL Analysis. (2015, February 24). Political Factors Affecting Business. Retrieved from http://pestleanalysis.com/political-factors-affecting-business/.

Smith, C. (n.d.). Why Is the Location of a Business Important? Retrieved October 26, 2017 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/location-business-important-43239.html

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Nikola Tesla’s contributions to modern physics

Nikola Tesla’s contributions to modern physics

Nikola Tesla’s contributions to modern physics

This paper forms a theory based on Nikola Tesla’s contributions to modern physics. Tesla was an outstanding physician who revolutionized the worldwith his contributions. He had over 100 patents and numerous unpatented innovations(Burgan 2009). . His concepts are still applicable in the modern day world in electrical appliances such as radios and TVs. Besides, his idea on the Alternating Current (AC) formed the basis of safe home and public lighting. Tesla is one of the most renowned scientists in physics. It is on tesla’s contributions that this paper forms a contextual theory and establishes a causal and effect relationship.

According to Metcalfe, the overuse of some words has resulted to erosion of their meaning such that some words are necessary to clarify the meanings of these overused words. In addition, Metcalfe state that the meaning of the word theory depends on the contextual discipline or field. Interpretation of theory in one field is totally different from the interpretation in another field altogether. Similarly, different researchers have varying interpretations of theory. Metcalfe therefore concludes by stating that even basic words like theory lack a clear definition from researchers and those in authority. It is because of this reason that Metcalfe proposes establishing meaning of words based on the viewpoint of the phenomenon under scrutiny.

Tesla’s theories exhibited some of the characteristics of theories as defined by various scholars. According to Burgan (2009), Tesla’s Theory of Gravity explained the relationship between gravitational force and electromagnetism. This theory provided a model that unified all other fundamental forces such as matter and energy. This theory aimed by explaining and distinguishing the idea of space curving and space timing. Tesla proposal that gravity has field effects made researchers to critique his work. Tesla’ theory attempted to solve the problem of transmission of high frequency and voltage current. This theory provided knowledge on electromagnetic forces and mechanical movements caused by electromagnetic forces acting through the media. However, Tesla did not test this theory nor publish it by the time of his death. Tesla work on dynamic gravity epitomizes classical theories since it had all the characteristics of theories, though it never underwent the final enactment stage.

Theory

The word theory has various meanings depending on the phenomenon under consideration and the discipline. Weick (1999) explained a theory as a structure that describes relationships or connections in the phenomenon under consideration. According to him, a theory tries to solve a problem. Eisenhardt (1989) describes a theory as a reasonably coherent brief explanation of a phenomenon. She adds that a theory must be testable to provide evidence. Markus (2002) provided the most simplistic definition of a theory. He stated that a theory is a connection between two ideas. In addition, theory explains why/how things occur. According to Gregor (2002), theories are models, knowledge or frameworks. She argued that theories must include generalizations and a causal relationship between variables.

Praxis

According to Poizat (2000), praxis is the process through which a theory develops until its acceptance or enactment. Tesla developed his theories through the normal theorizing process and later became universally accepted. One such theory is his free power theory and the Tesla generator. Tesla developed this theory while working at the Westinghouse. The free power theory bases its framework on the meaning of theory as an explanation of a phenomenon or a group of facts that clarifies a phenomenon. According to this definition, theory is a hypothesis confirmed through observation. Tesla’s theory on free power provided explanations on air transmission without connecting to grid. According to his explanations, all that was necessary was a receptor that collected the power and transferred it to bulbs and electrical appliances in houses. The final stage of this theory praxis process occurred when Tesla transmitted millions of electricity volts over a distance of 26 miles. The electricity operated a bank of bulbs thus, confirmed Tesla’s theory.

Hypothesis

A hypothesis is aneducated guess of a phenomenon that is yet to be confirmed. Theories develop from a hypothesis or a model. A hypothesis tries to explain the effect of a variable on another or clarifies the current occurrence of a situation without proven solutions. A hypothesis can either be correct or incorrect. Hypothesis must be based on factual information about the phenomenon of interest. All models must have hypothesis since they aim to solve a particular problem.

Dependent variable

Dependent variable is a statistics of interest being influenced by the independent variable. These variables are also known as the endogenous variables since the model determines their values. The model structure must be accurate and based on logical theoretical framework in order to achieve correct results.

Independent variable

Independent variables are also known as the exogenous variables since they are statistics whose values are given outside the model. They are not of interest to the researcher but are critically important in achieving the desired results. The theory’s framework or model determines the number of exogenous variables used.

Antecedent variable

It is a variable used at specific time point that explains a variation in the dependent and independent variables. They explain the relationship between variables in a causal and effect relationships such as during a regression analysis.

Intervening variable

This is a variable that results due to the independent variable and determines the dependent variable. These variables act as intermediary variables between the dependent and independent variables.

Elimination of alternatives explanations

This refers to application of logical reasoning to rule out some explanations in order to remain with the correct details. It involves eliminating the most unlikely explanations then critically examining the remaining options. This method is important because it reduces the risk of arriving at a wrong conclusion or explanation.

Confounding Variable

These are variables that are not of interest to the researcher but that is correlated with the independent variables thus affects the independent variable. These variables may result to wrong conclusions since the obtained result may be due to changes of the confounding but not the independent variables.

Empirical generalizations

This refers to formation of conclusions based on the results obtained from the theory without finer details. Empirical generalization may involve the relationships between variables without finer effects of the causality of the relationship. The researcher makes generalizations from the results of the model.

Deductive reasoning

This refers to working from a general information then developing specific conclusions. It involves a researcher developing specific hypotheses from the general theory. The researcher then narrows down to making observations from specific data that leads to a conclusion of the general theory. This type of reasoning is often referred to as “top-down” approach.

Inductive reasoning

It is the opposite of deductive reasoning since it involves using specific observations to make general conclusions and theories. The researcher observes specific behaviors or measurements then detects patterns in order to formulate hypotheses that might lead to general theories. This type of reasoning is sometimes referred to as “bottom up” approach.

References

Burgan, M. (2009). Nikola Tesla: Physicist, inventor, electrical engineer. Minneapolis, Min: Compass Point Books.

Poizat, B. (2000). A course in model theory: An introduction to contemporary mathematical logic. New York, NY: Springer.

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NIKE. Managing Ethical Missteps

NIKE. Managing Ethical Missteps

NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps

Name

Professor

Institution

Course

Date

NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps

Introduction

While Nike is a giant manufacturing company specializing in the production of indoor and outdoor footwear’s and sweatshirt, it is also among the best managed companies in the world. However, this is from the economic point of view. There are many cases that might lead to the fall of the manufacturing giant, and these cases are mainly ethical despite the fact that the company has not been in the limelight for ethical and professional malpractices (Brian, 2009).

Discern How a More Effective Ethics Programs and a More Viable Code of Conduct Could Have Mitigated the Ethical Issues Faced by Nike.

Nike failed to implement internal programs aimed at detecting and preventing violation of laws hence is eligible for a significant increase in penalties. Therefore, had Nike developed a compliance program before the offenses, they would have averted most of the ethics related problems that the company faced. A viable code of ethics does not only act as a deterrent, but also as a guideline for ethical operations and activities within a company. If the company had a viable code of ethics, the employees would have been more aware of the impact of their practices on the environment as well as on the community. The management would have been more strict with its employment rules before absorbing employee and would have ensured that all the documents used by the company are genuine and up to date (Greenhouse, 2011).

Describe an Ethics Training and Communications Program that May Have Kept Nike from Encountering the Ethical Issues It Did in This Scenario Ethical Training Program.

An effective ethics training program offers a number of benefits that can be instrumental in detecting unethical behaviors that are likely to devastate an organization. For example, issues like child labor and corporate social unresponsiveness experienced in Nike are unethical activities that could have brought the giant company down.

An ethics and training program must communicate standards and the integrity visions of the company. In this way, the identified integrity risks are reduced, and open communication lines are created as well as a transparent work environment. A program must create a work environment that is free from any form of retaliation and intimidation. On the other hand, an ethics and communication program should set clear, expected standards of behaviors and the communicating channels to be used for conveying the integrity messages across the company. It should also set rules on how the stakeholders can become engaged in the process (Edward, 2010).

Determine and Discuss how Nike Could Have Benefited Early on from Ethics Auditing.

Ethical auditing is the process by which company’s measures internal and external consistency of their value base. This is a value linked process by which stakeholders are incorporated into the organization (Brian, 2009). For example, Nike incorporated the stakeholder into their value base and considered how their practices were aligned to their stakeholder. Nike stakeholders do not only refer to the shareholder but also the communities in which the company operates the employee, customers as well as suppliers. Ethical audit is intended to ensure accountability and transparency to all the stakeholders of the company. This process is also important in ensuring that the company meets its ethical objectives. Though this process is mainly an internal control measure, it focuses more on the external factors such as the community response, the social welfare as well as the stakeholder interest. Ethical audits are mainly meant to captures nukes ethical profile. Ethical profiles combine financial profile, service profile and employer profile to investors, customers and employees respectively (Edward, 2010). All the factors that might have an impact on the Nikes reputation are put into perspective by an ethical audit. If Nike had taken a picture of its value system in time, it would have:

1) Clarified the definite values to which it operates:

Nike has a number of flows in its supply chain; these flaws are easily identified if all the public views are considered. If the company had established an ethical audit before, the company would have streamlined its supply chain and clarified the actual value within which it operates and not just remain vague. These ethical audits communicates to the employees the ethical training objectives, ethical code of conducts, Hotline usage, Ethical issues, Conflicts of interest, Kickbacks, Accounting irregularities, Protection from retaliation, Internal theft as well as employee responsiveness (Brian, 2009).

Learnt how to establish and provide a better baseline for measuring the future improvement.

Factors such as corporate social responsibilities that Nike is facing, and is still likely to face in future, are some of the things that the company should give proper considerations to. The company is in fault for employing underage workers, having unpaid wages for employees and using falsified documents for worker permits. The company could have steered clear of all these by benchmarking and ensuring that all the regulations are met properly before implementing any program and ensuring that there are internal policies and ethics officers charged with ensuring that the policies related to employment and working conditions are always footed (Greenhouse, 2011).

Leant how to meet the societal expectation that it did not meet at that time:

Nike would have employed and trained more CSR specialists in all plants. This is to uphold compliance and societal focus into the company mainstream objectives, thereby increasing the company’s reach to the community and reducing the child labor. By establishing plants in poor areas, the company is set to exploit the cheap labor. Though this is seen as a positive move, the company could have established a proper salary scale for the workers. A realistic salary scale is much more effective in the reduction of employee unrest and the other related problems within the company.

Given the entire stakeholder the opportunities to clarify what they expected from the company.

Ethical audit involves the establishment of compromise between the company and the stakeholder, this process offers opportunities form collection of the stakeholder views, which can be instrumental in shaping the strategy goals of the company and setting direction with the stakeholders in mind (Edward, 2010).

Identified those problem areas that existed within the company.

Most of these problems include the wages, worker condition as well worker tight. Though this is limited in scope, the company could have joined the global alliance before their problem stated and achieved these goals before.

Learnt about the issue which motivated the employees as well as, the community?

The community is the backbone of the company in any setting, therefore, their concern is much more important than the company success. It is therefore, imperative for the company to ensure that the community has a positive attitude towards it to help the company prosper. A slight change in the attitude of the employees is injurious to the company’s reputation and success (Edward, 2010).

Identified the overall areas of vulnerability especially those areas related to transparency.

Attract more customers:

As the company’s customer base widens, the number of interested participants increases, the general perceptions of the customer as an ethical company increases the customers positive perception about the company. The number of male, female and fashion oriented customers would increase (Brian, 2009).

Create A High-Level Outline For What The Ethics Auditing Process Should Look Like At Nike.

References

Brian, A. (2009). The Natural Treads for Business: Ecology, Wealth & Evolutionary Corporation. British Columbia: Society Publishers.

Edward, G. (2010). Corporate Strategy & Exploration of Ethics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Greenhouse, S. (2011). “Nike’s Chief Rescinds a Gift over Screening of Sweatshops”. The New York Times.

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NIKE. Managing Ethical Missteps. Sweatshops to Leadership in Employment Practices

NIKE. Managing Ethical Missteps. Sweatshops to Leadership in Employment Practices

NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps

Name

Professor

Institution

Course

Date

NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps

Introduction

While Nike is a giant manufacturing company specializing in the production of indoor and outdoor footwear’s and sweatshirt, it is also among the best managed companies in the world. However, this is from the economic point of view. There are many cases that might lead to the fall of the manufacturing giant, and these cases are mainly ethical despite the fact that the company has not been in the limelight for ethical and professional malpractices (Brian, 2009).

Discern How a More Effective Ethics Programs and a More Viable Code of Conduct Could Have Mitigated the Ethical Issues Faced by Nike.

Nike failed to implement internal programs aimed at detecting and preventing violation of laws hence is eligible for a significant increase in penalties. Therefore, had Nike developed a compliance program before the offenses, they would have averted most of the ethics related problems that the company faced. A viable code of ethics does not only act as a deterrent, but also as a guideline for ethical operations and activities within a company. If the company had a viable code of ethics, the employees would have been more aware of the impact of their practices on the environment as well as on the community. The management would have been more strict with its employment rules before absorbing employee and would have ensured that all the documents used by the company are genuine and up to date (Greenhouse, 2011).

Describe an Ethics Training and Communications Program that May Have Kept Nike from Encountering the Ethical Issues It Did in This Scenario Ethical Training Program.

An effective ethics training program offers a number of benefits that can be instrumental in detecting unethical behaviors that are likely to devastate an organization. For example, issues like child labor and corporate social unresponsiveness experienced in Nike are unethical activities that could have brought the giant company down.

An ethics and training program must communicate standards and the integrity visions of the company. In this way, the identified integrity risks are reduced, and open communication lines are created as well as a transparent work environment. A program must create a work environment that is free from any form of retaliation and intimidation. On the other hand, an ethics and communication program should set clear, expected standards of behaviors and the communicating channels to be used for conveying the integrity messages across the company. It should also set rules on how the stakeholders can become engaged in the process (Edward, 2010).

Determine and Discuss how Nike Could Have Benefited Early on from Ethics Auditing.

Ethical auditing is the process by which company’s measures internal and external consistency of their value base. This is a value linked process by which stakeholders are incorporated into the organization (Brian, 2009). For example, Nike incorporated the stakeholder into their value base and considered how their practices were aligned to their stakeholder. Nike stakeholders do not only refer to the shareholder but also the communities in which the company operates the employee, customers as well as suppliers. Ethical audit is intended to ensure accountability and transparency to all the stakeholders of the company. This process is also important in ensuring that the company meets its ethical objectives. Though this process is mainly an internal control measure, it focuses more on the external factors such as the community response, the social welfare as well as the stakeholder interest. Ethical audits are mainly meant to captures nukes ethical profile. Ethical profiles combine financial profile, service profile and employer profile to investors, customers and employees respectively (Edward, 2010). All the factors that might have an impact on the Nikes reputation are put into perspective by an ethical audit. If Nike had taken a picture of its value system in time, it would have:

1) Clarified the definite values to which it operates:

Nike has a number of flows in its supply chain; these flaws are easily identified if all the public views are considered. If the company had established an ethical audit before, the company would have streamlined its supply chain and clarified the actual value within which it operates and not just remain vague. These ethical audits communicates to the employees the ethical training objectives, ethical code of conducts, Hotline usage, Ethical issues, Conflicts of interest, Kickbacks, Accounting irregularities, Protection from retaliation, Internal theft as well as employee responsiveness (Brian, 2009).

Learnt how to establish and provide a better baseline for measuring the future improvement.

Factors such as corporate social responsibilities that Nike is facing, and is still likely to face in future, are some of the things that the company should give proper considerations to. The company is in fault for employing underage workers, having unpaid wages for employees and using falsified documents for worker permits. The company could have steered clear of all these by benchmarking and ensuring that all the regulations are met properly before implementing any program and ensuring that there are internal policies and ethics officers charged with ensuring that the policies related to employment and working conditions are always footed (Greenhouse, 2011).

Leant how to meet the societal expectation that it did not meet at that time:

Nike would have employed and trained more CSR specialists in all plants. This is to uphold compliance and societal focus into the company mainstream objectives, thereby increasing the company’s reach to the community and reducing the child labor. By establishing plants in poor areas, the company is set to exploit the cheap labor. Though this is seen as a positive move, the company could have established a proper salary scale for the workers. A realistic salary scale is much more effective in the reduction of employee unrest and the other related problems within the company.

Given the entire stakeholder the opportunities to clarify what they expected from the company.

Ethical audit involves the establishment of compromise between the company and the stakeholder, this process offers opportunities form collection of the stakeholder views, which can be instrumental in shaping the strategy goals of the company and setting direction with the stakeholders in mind (Edward, 2010).

Identified those problem areas that existed within the company.

Most of these problems include the wages, worker condition as well worker tight. Though this is limited in scope, the company could have joined the global alliance before their problem stated and achieved these goals before.

Learnt about the issue which motivated the employees as well as, the community?

The community is the backbone of the company in any setting, therefore, their concern is much more important than the company success. It is therefore, imperative for the company to ensure that the community has a positive attitude towards it to help the company prosper. A slight change in the attitude of the employees is injurious to the company’s reputation and success (Edward, 2010).

Identified the overall areas of vulnerability especially those areas related to transparency.

Attract more customers:

As the company’s customer base widens, the number of interested participants increases, the general perceptions of the customer as an ethical company increases the customers positive perception about the company. The number of male, female and fashion oriented customers would increase (Brian, 2009).

Create A High-Level Outline For What The Ethics Auditing Process Should Look Like At Nike.

References

Brian, A. (2009). The Natural Treads for Business: Ecology, Wealth & Evolutionary Corporation. British Columbia: Society Publishers.

Edward, G. (2010). Corporate Strategy & Exploration of Ethics. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Greenhouse, S. (2011). “Nike’s Chief Rescinds a Gift over Screening of Sweatshops”. The New York Times.

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