Deconstructive Analysis Of Dubliners

Deconstructive Analysis Of Dubliners

Deconstructive Analysis Of Dubliners

Dubliner is a collected works containing short stories that were written by James Joyce. The short stories are a major boost to today’s play writers as well as essay writers. The first publication of the collection of the stories was first done in the year 1914. The stories were meant for the middle class of the Irish people in Dublin. Joyce’s stories were published at the time when nationalism of the Irish was leaning t its peak (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). At that time identity of the nationalists was at rage and also in its peak as well as with cultural backgrounds and history. This led to several influences been converged at Ireland. Joyce’s idea was mainly for epiphany was about experiences of a certain character and self understanding (Bowen & Zach 1974).

Actors of Dubliners

Several characters that are found in the Joyce’s Dubliners later appeared acting as minor actors in the famous novel of Ulysses which was liked and admired by many people all over the world. Stories found in the Dubliners today are a source of encouragement to many play writers. Child protagonists narrate the stories very well. The stories have passion for the lives of the older generation and their concerns. That was because Dubliners is in a collection of young generation, adult and the most mature generation.

The tale of the ‘The dead’

In the collection of Joyce’s Dubliners, the dead is final story but the longest and the most liked for its sweetness while reading. Gabriel Conrol finds himself in the center of the story. This is at the night when sisters of the Morkan were preparing for the annual dinner which was been celebrated annually, Gabriel surprises himself for discovering that he never understood much about the past experiences of his beloved wife

How and when- he discovers this by just making a joke hen he arrived at the party. The joke not towards his wife but towards the prediction of the maid’s marriage but in the process he is seriously and funky poked by his wife by bringing an old conversation that concerned about wearing of clothes hen the weather is very bad. This leads Gabriel to find himself in a pathetic situation but to show that he is a strong gentleman, he overcompensated some of his statements that he had dedicated to miss Ivors who was a citizen of the Irish origin (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). The two were dancing together at that evening.

Gabriels conventions led to Miss Ivor escaping away from the celebration before serving of dinner. Gabriel had talked issues that praised Irish nationals at the same time considered to hearing the past story on experiences of his wife. He never noted that his wife was standing far away from the staircases when he was talking all that. He got surprised at the last minute when he noticed her deep in thought. This was so amazing; he couldn’t believe it was her. What could he do next, just to stare on her as a real stranger? But Gabriel gains courage goes to her and envisages her as a real model in his illumination of distant heavy music.

Mrs. Gabriel was later so much diverted to a mood of sexual attention towards him but later becomes unresponsive when Gabriel confronted her to a private room. Gabriel notices that her wife had heard the song sung by D’arcy. Gabriel presses on his wife Gretta to openly tell him the reason she was that much affected by the Arcy’s song. Gretta agreed to tell her husband the whole story from her childhood when she fell in love with Michael Furey, a boy of her close age mate at the time when she was staying at her grandmother’s home. Later afterwards she was send away to Dublin and this led to distraction from her beloved boyfriend (Bowen & Zach 1974). Michael was so in deep with her such that regardless been very sick and bedridden he walked a long distance while raining to Gretta’s home whereby he climbed to the window and wished her all the best in her future. In one week’s period, Michael passed away. Michael’s death in the story of ‘the dead’ is like the death of Evelines mother’s death in the story of Eveline. Deaths of the two characters in these symbolize how they brought much effect to the lives of the main characters: that is Gabriel and Eveline. Gabriel was not aware of his wife’s past experiences and when he came to understand to notice, his life was not the same again. There is an indication in Gabriel’s mind that he believed his wife loved someone who was dead more than she loved him. In Evelines case, she realizes that she has to keep the promise of a dead mother rather than that of her boyfriend Frank.

Most of readers claim James Joyce wanted to prove to the world about the power of love (Bowen & Zach, 1974). The love in two dimensions-towards the parent and love towards the boy-girl relationships. The confession of Gabriel’s wife took him to another world of imagining about himself as well as of his wife, does he really feel insecure? This is what many readers ask themselves. Gabriel is also left imagining more about the living and the dead.

The tale of Eveline

This is a story of a young lady who passes through many experiences. She experiences the death of her mother as well as his older brother called Earnest. She tries to imagine how life has treated her poorly to an extend of thinking about leaving home. But will she really make it. The other brother of hers is busy with church activities that concern decoration. The girl is so much full of fear that her father will punish if he came to realize that she had a keen interest on jobs that do concern sales. She too like Greta in the story of the dead falls in love with a young man called frank. Frank has promised her girlfriend that they will tour Buenos Aires (Bowen & Zach 1974). The girl was much anticipating for that time and she hoped Harry, her boyfriend will keep the promise. Eveline hears music on organ grinder been played outside and this takes her memories back to the time her mother passed away. Eveline had promised her mother that she will always protect the home with due respect (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). The situation is very confusing to her. The sad memories over calm her, but will she leave her home and go away with harry.

Love that hurts

When ones love someone and he gets hurt, painful feelings come across. Frank was hurt by Eveline decision to remain at her own home; Gabriel was hurt by his wife’s confession- ‘Michael loved me to an extend of been rained on his way to visit me I was in love with him since childhood’ A difficult situation indeed. Frank was ready prepared for the journey but after been let down by her girlfriend will be a very hurtful situation. Gabriel was hurt by hearing the confession of his beloved wife that before him, he loved someone else. Greta’s love was for her first love Michael while in the tale of Eveline, the love is towards memories of her beloved mother who had died a few days ago. The big question several readers of the Eveline tale ask themselves is that; did Eveline really love frank?, why do they ask this? Its because after she declined to accompany frank in their adventurous journey, she never showed any emotions at all. She knew the situation will be so painful to frank but why did she not show any feelings. In the tale of the dead the readers can confirm that Michael truly loved Gretta! Why? This is because at one point he is seeing travelling all the way to the home of Gretta while it was raining and at the same time very sick, he goes to an extend of climbing to the top of the window to as to talk with his love. Eveline finds herself in an indecisive situation been confused on which way to go. After Michael passed away, Greta had no otherwise other than just to accept the fact and go ahead with his life. Another aspect that leaves readers of the dead tale with suspense is whether truly Greta loved Gabriel? Why? Because after Greta listened to Arcy’s song, his mind went back to the memories of his long time love, Michael. This shows that her true love was not Gabriel but Michael. The situation put Gabriel in an awkward position because he started becoming unsecure of his wife. Maybe he himself asked many questions starting with whether his wife’s heart was really for him or somebody else who passed a long time ago.

Gabriel may also have wondered why in all those years he never understood the life of her wife. In the tale of Eveline, frank may also wonder why he requested Eveline for an adventurous journey a few days after passing away of her mother. The confusing issue is that in the story of Eveline we are not told any other man she had fallen in love with. This to some readers can create a feeling that Eveline loved frank but due to the promise she had whispered to her mother at the time she was dying, her conscience can’t allow. Also in the story of the dead, Greta may have not had any option other than getting married to someone else despite her love death.

These two tales on James Joyce, elaborate on the decisions one may be able make when finds himself in a confusing situation, Greta is pressured by his husband to say why he was so emotionally affected by Arcy’s song. She never knows whether to confess the truth or to ignore, but she takes courage and tells her whole truth about her past. At some point Gabriel was put in a pathetic situation whereby he never knew how to quote one of the poem from the poet of browning Robert. This was mainly because he never wanted to be seen as just pretending. Gabriel gave himself courage and the audience believed on him (Jeri & Johnson, 2000). Eveline is confused whether on whose promise to keep. She gains confidence and decides o keep the promise of her dead mother over the promise of her man in love.


There is involvement of journeys in the two stories. Frank was to take Evelina to the Buenos Aires, for an adventurous tour while Greta was to be sent off away from Galway to Dublin at the time her love Michael visited him on the window of her house (Bowen & Zach 1974).

Emotional moments

The story of the dead and Evelina is full of emotional moments- Evelina tries to think of her mother’s death as well as that of her brother and feels sorry for herself and the life before her ahead. When Greta confesses her love for Michael, Gabriel is over calmed by an epiphany of artistic and emotions. Greta is also filled with emotions of Michael’s death. The tale of the ‘the dead’ and ‘Evelina’ sympathize so much on the feelings of love of the Irish nationality.

Works cited

Bowen, Zach, Musical Allusions found in the Works of James Joyce: Early Poetry Through Ulysses Albany: Suny Press publishers, 1974.

Jeri Johnson, “Composition and Publication History”, in James Joyce, Dubliners, Oxford University Press, 2000.

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Deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly

Deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly

Deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly

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Deconstruction refers to a technique which brings into a discussion what the same discussion expels in its formation. Deconstruction generally helps us to have an understanding of a text through identifying its dependency on what is excluded. This means that deconstruction is used to provide more information about information that is not clear in a text. This paper seeks to deconstruct an image and tell more about what the artist failed to bring out clearly. In this case, the paper will focus on Newcastle and Gateshead. The main aim is to deconstruct the scene of the Newcastle and Gateshead which was viewed from the rope works on the Newcastle bank of the River Tyne. This is a drawing which was taken from a distance and the artist drew what was seen from that particular point. In this case, there are some details which were omitted because the clarity was not attained.

As the drawing is constructed in relation to a long distance, it is clear that some features can be seen but it is not clear what they represent. The picture is drawn being viewed from rope works. This means that many features are expected because within this region there are various activities that take place. This is not the case because the artist does not show everything. There is information which is omitted which makes the viewer not to have a clear understanding of what the artist is trying to put across. There is an old stone Tyne Bridge which is seen at a distance. It is not clearly drawn as it is seen from afar. This gives a clear impression that the artist would have done something more to make certain that the bridge is seen as one (Norris, 2002, 112). To effectively do this, naming can be done on the drawing to show all features by names. Since the bridge is seen from afar, denoting it by name will help the viewer know exactly what the feature is. This ought to be done because viewers are different sighted. Labeling the drawing would be advisable because every viewer would then be able to notice it.

The artist also shows a church which is on the left at the top part of the hill. This church is St. Mary’s Gateshead. There is smoke seen billowing from the Windmills Hill. The artist in this case has not clearly shown what it is that is producing smoke. This becomes quite hard for the viewer to understand the drawing (Royle, 2000, 213). It is hard to understand what the viewer is trying to put across. There are a few buildings seen at the scene. It is not therefore clear if the smoke is really originating from the buildings or elsewhere. The artist ought to have clearly separated the buildings from the smoke or shown the origin of the smoke for clarity. This is meant to make the viewer have a clear view to avoid confusion. A paddle steamer is also in the centre of the river. This is quite hard as a viewer who does not have knowledge of the place is not able to understand the feature (Parker, 1969, 12). They are a bit mixed up making it hard to understand what the artist is trying to put across. In this case, the artist should have used order to avoid confusion. Arranging them in an understandable manner also helps them to produce neat work which is attractive to the eye. All artists should have in mind that clarity of work does not only benefit the viewers but also benefits them because they get to market their products and make more sales hence earn more as their goal is to earn more.


Norris, C. (2002). Deconstruction: theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

Parker, H. P. (1969). Henry Perlee Parker Exhibition. New Bridge Street: Laing Art Gallery.

Royle, N. (2000). Deconstructions: A User’s Guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

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Decision Support Systems

Decision Support Systems

1. Identify the problem the DSS will help decision makers solve

Implementation of the Decision Support Systems in running of organizational management needs will target specific problems in order to increase efficiency and eliminate poor performance. The most important elements of the DSS that every management setting aims to achieve are mainly driven by the need to remain vigilant on quality service delivery as well as cost benefit analysis results. While profitability may not be a reason good enough to facilitate appropriate performance reviews, certain industries must represent quality service delivery in their effective decision making processes. One of such industries is the healthcare industry whose sensitive interaction with human life dictates focus on quality ahead of profitability (Malhotra, 1989). It is imperative therefore that the effective DSS in such industries include some of the most important healthcare issues on the system blueprint to assist in tackling both quality and profitability in a single agenda. Patients’ needs are important in the system as human resource needs encompassed under the DSS. Some of the problems that will be targeted in the designed DSS will include various departmental issues that need management input in different respects such as;

Management of patients’ health records in terms of entry and retrieval

Provide an efficient patient progress tracking procedures

Consolidation of various facilities under the institution’s capacity for enhancement and elimination of idle capacity

Following up specific patient care through real time caregiver’s activities tracking systems

Collection of patients’ satisfaction scores for application in performance enhancement through efficient customer experience backed service delivery reviews

Assist in control and management of staffing needs through staff monitoring data

Drugs and equipment procurement management systems

Facility administration and related allocation and delegation of responsibilities to track performance

Human resource monitoring, performance appraisal and motivation management

2. Build: Describe the major steps in developing the DSS and define the various types of testing the DSS will need before implementing the prototype


Initial stages of the building process of a customized DSS will involve the internalization of the organization needs and outline in the basic structure. This will include determining the needs of the organizational decision making process and integrate them in the structural component of the DSS. The organizational and management structural designs will be dissected for integration in the DSS structural design to make it compatible with the computer based system. Various management areas that require focus and input through the decision making highlight will be pointed out and roles attached for enhancement through DSS (Dahm and Wadensten, 2008). Functional units of the entire organization will also be pointed out for easier monitoring via the computer system.

Using this functional and structural integration, it will be easy for the DSS to pick up various decisions making needs and prompt the management to act on a number of options that the system has. This will be the case for patient care processes, employees monitoring and welfare needs as well as the facility control and management decision making inputs. Connecting all the decision making needs to a central detection system will facilitate the building phase to be completed.


Testing the workability of the DSS will include various phases of implementation to avoid a system failure or clash disabling the operations of the entire organization. The three basic areas of input will be implemented and tested differently while the current management systems are still in place. Once the desired results are received, the new system will be full implemented and the ineffective system laid aside. Performance efficiency in coverage of the important input areas will be compared between the current system and the new DSS application.

Buy: Define the type of DSS you will buy and describe the major steps and criteria you will use in selecting the DSS vendor and software


The Horizon Expert system will be implemented as it befits the healthcare system as observed by McKesson (2007). Horizon Expert DSS application is a management program that enables the management of the healthcare facility needs with a side range of specificity and optimization opportunities. Some of the most important data sources that enable the implementation of Horizon Expert cover patient care needs, employee management as well as various facility monitoring and control needs making it an important tool in healthcare.

Selection Criteria

When determining the DSS vendor and type for buying, it was important to consider the cost element and the quality of the product with an aim of determining the best package in the market. Besides the quality and cost, the implementation aspects, ease of operation as well as compatibility with the organizational setting became very instrumental in the purchasing process. Based on the internal needs that need to be included in the decision making framework, it was inevitable to include the most important targets list that the effective DSS must cover. It came out clear that the Horizon Expert is better than most other healthcare DSS packages that the market had.

3. Describe the user and management involvement in the implementation approach, goal development and implementation and evaluation planning and how you will obtain management and user “buy-in?”

Implementation Approach

In order for the DSS package to meet the intended needs, both the users’ and the managements’ attention in the implementation program is irreplaceable. Cooperation and assistance from all sections of the organization are needed in the implementation of a new system that brings in changes to old ways of carrying out business. In respect to a healthcare needs that the management ought to streamline in a comprehensive management plan, the need to facilitate the appropriate understanding must be well served (Dahm and Wadensten, 2008). Some training may be needed to ensure that there is cooperation among the various stakeholders in the DSS implementation program.

Goal Development and Implementation

It is imperative that initial implementation targets are outlined in advance to enhance the realization of the desired changes. Various management levels and staff must set out their targets to be met through the DSS, to act as implementation yardsticks. Goal development regarding the implementation will need to be focused on the new management capacity created by the DSS application likely to factor in enhancements.


The evaluation of the DSS performance will be evaluated on the performance enhancement criteria that will focus on the changes brought in upon implementation. Since the DSS has clearly defined areas of management where input is needed in terms of enhancement, it is easy to monitor changes.

Obtaining Buy-In

Where some aspects of outsourcing are needed for the implementation of the DSS, it will be identified on the technical implementation needs against the current internal capacity. In case there are aspects of implementation that demand a buy-in arrangement, the necessary implementation outsourcing will be procured from the program supplier.


Dahm, M. & Wadensten, B. (2008) “Nurses’ Experiences of and Opinions about Using Standardized Care Plans in Electronic Health Records – A Questionnaire Study,” Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(16):2137-2145. <Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02377.x>

Malhotra, N. K. (1989) “Decision Support Systems for Healthcare Marketing Managers,” Journal of Healthcare Marketing, 9(2):20-28

McKesson, (2007) Making Care Planning Relevant. Retrieved from: HYPERLINK “”

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Decision on Expanding Medical Surgical General Unit

Decision on Expanding Medical Surgical General Unit

Question One: Decision on Expanding Medical Surgical General Unit

Situation Definition

In general medical care service provision, patients who need specialized and sensitive treatment and operation are held in a separate wing for extra care before being discharged completely. This implies that the patients for instance from the Intensive care Unit (ICU), need to extra care at the healthcare facility in a specialized wing referred to as Medical Surgical General Unit. It is important that the short duration of time is facilitated for monitoring and specialized care. The current situation is that there are more patients in need of neuro-intensive medical care than before. On the other hand, there are more medical conditions arising from failure of the intensive care treatment sooner after patients’ discharge. Failure has directly been linked to, little or lack of extra care after intensive medical services. It is a concern that urgent measures be taken to avoid intensive treatment failure.

Available Options

There are a few intervention options that can be used to correct the challenge. Due to the significance of healthcare services to the society and the nature of complications observed in neurological operations, it is important that extra caution is taken while handling the challenge. Due to the magnitude of healthcare in the society, various alternatives must be explored despite the implementation difficulties. Firstly, patients can be discharged as the current program does with an improvement in patent follow-ups instead of expanding the Medical Surgical General Unit. Alternatively, patients can be discharged with special transportation to and from their homes for specialized care. Discharge can also be followed by referral to a nearby facility that can handle Medical Surgical General Unit services better than at our current capacity. Lastly, expansion of our Medical Surgical General Unit can also be explored for possibilities.

Choice and Action

The best choice for the inadequacy in light of the circumstances is expansion of the specialized facility. This implies the current capacity in the facility needs to be enhanced to handle the increased cases. Action in form of constructing extra facility segment and space maximization will necessitate construction and procurement of extra facility equipment. This will be better than other alternatives due to the efficiency improvement in terms of cost and benefit analysis. Healthcare will also be well handled at the facility before discharge, which increases chances of recovery. However, this is on the assumption that long term costs and benefits are factored in, instead of short term analysis.


The expansion project must deliver the projected targets in line with healthcare objectives. This will be ensured by a comparison of current inadequate capacity with new operations under expansion. Continued failure will necessitate exploration of other options.

Question Two: Roadblocks and Overcome

There are different challenges that will act as challenges and roadblocks towards the implementation. In light of the current inadequacy at the facility, it illustrates how vulnerable the project will be to further challenges which must be confronted once and for all. The improvement plan which has adopted the expansion project will begin by highlighting the specific challenges and coming up with tenable solutions. Among the challenges, the following are perhaps the most potent and that are likely to act like roadblocks to the implementation will include the following.


Constructing a modern medical facility to take care of the medical needs of patients from intensive medication will need funding that can withstand all financial constraints in an economy faced by the current constraints. It follows that funding from the internal sources must be sought first to ascertain how far the facility is capable of facilitating the entire project. External sources will also need to be sought for purposes of ensuring internal constraints do not completely disable the project. Specialized construction attention will be ensured for neurological medical attention that the project seeks to enhance, bearing in mind that it is one of the most expensive elements of medical care.


Besides the construction elements of the project, other costs such as equipping the facility will also be considered, posing as a challenge due to the specialized nature of neurological healthcare needs. Modern equipment might not only be difficult to find but will also be difficult to procure due to financial consideration involved. Outsourcing for best quality will be sought within fund limits.


Staffing challenges for modern neurology facilities will find a challenge in necessary manpower and the costs of sustaining the staff needs. Current capacity will be enhanced by making additions and training within reasonable limits.


The initial phase of maintenance of the equipment might be easy to be factored in the installation program, but future operation issues will be uncertain until extra planning is ensured.


There will be a special necessity of specialized equipment and technology for the specialized care to capture the missing link between treatment and full recovery. Extra technology costs will be factored in the budget to cater for the gap in terms searching for the best

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Decision Making

Decision Making

Decision Making

As a judge with a reputable name in the US to warrant consideration as a future candidate into the Supreme Court, decision-making procedures are clearly defined by the constitution as well as by court precedents on similar decisions. In line with the premise that constitution is the supreme law and any other law is rendered invalid to the extent of its inconsistence with the constitution, the work of a judge is cut out. For judicial rulings sought by the public where they are not clearly spelt out in the constitution, a judge is free to make rulings setting precedents that may not bind the courts. In view of the flexibility of a judge to rely on judicial precedents, it follows that the freedom to make reliance on past rulings is reserved to the judge. Based on the above facts, it is correct to state that all the rulings delivered as highlighted below pass the test of legal definitions.

In the case of farmers from a different state being barred from selling their wares in Oklahoma, it is against the constitution to exclude someone on a state-related reason. The inconsistence with the constitution renders the law enforced in Oklahoma null and void. In the second case, Oklahoma and Texas are inconsistent with the constitution since enforcement of the order that they are requesting does not serve the best interests of the public as protected by the constitution and the Statute assented to by the president. In the case of Julie Abrams, seeking to compel the Utah state to allow her to operate by circumventing around the laid out state laws is inconsistent with state laws. The election date case in Colorado is consistent with the constitution as it complies with the provisions of the constitution. In the case of Texas having a commemorative coin against the provision of the constitution regarding legal tender, it is inconsistent with the law therefore void to the extent of that inconsistence.

In view of the basic compliance with the constitutional provisions, all the rulings were correct. There were no major contestations on the application of contentious judicial interpretation such as in judicial precedents. Where the constitution is expressly clear on the position of a legal impasse, there are no discussions within the circumstances of the presenting legal challenge other than to implement the constitutional provisions. Apparently, I achieved the goal of a judicial officer under the oath to protect the constitution of the US. To this end, public opinion and ratings leading to proposals as a federal judge does not have an impact on the independence of my judgment. This would affect my duty to discharge my judgment as impartially as possible and without bias originating from conflict of interest.

I have learnt that the decision making process in certain independent positions may face obstacles such as conflict of interest. However, following the laid out procedures is always important in upholding professional values and protecting and national interests. In certain instances, independent judgment may call for extra strength of mind and character by rising above conflicting positions. Understanding the rules and guidelines for a specific job is important in the delivery of expected input, which calls for deliberation on all the available options and choosing for the most appropriate one. As an illustration, it would be embarrassing for a judge of a junior court to continuously make decisions that are contested in an appellate court and having all decisions reversed. This can be avoided by making accurate estimation that can be adopted by appellate court judges.

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Decision Making Models

Decision Making Models

Decision Making Models

All people need to make decisions from time to time. Given the limited time in formulating policies and addressing problems, people have to enjoy a particular degree of discretion and good judgment in planning, revising and implementing their own course of action. That is, they must engage in decision-making (Giannakos, 2004; Verma, 2009). Over the years, scholars have come up with different decision-making models to account for the course of action taken.

The various decision making models which have been put forwards include, the rational models, the intuitive models, the rational-iterative models and the 5, 6, 7 as well as the 9 step decision models among others.

Rational decision-making model

This model allows decision-makers to make the best decisions and judgments and subsequently realize maximum efficiency and competency out of inadequate time and resources as well as knowledge in generating decisions. This model presumes that there exists only one most ideal and best outcome, thus at times it is referred to as the optimizing decision-making model. The model presumes that it is practicable to take into account every option available to a problem and also be knowledgeable of the future consequences of each.

Presented with the critical need to select the best alternative solution to a significant challenge, decision makers are confronted with the need to make the best possible decision. If that decision can maximize an individual’s rewards and meet his goals and objectives, there is an incentive to seek out information that will enlighten the decision and thereafter execute it. (Swoboda & Georgalu, 2008, p. 77)

It comprises of a structured four step sequence, these steps being; the identification of the problem, the generation of alternative solutions, the selection of a solution and finally the implementation and evaluation of the solution

One of the disadvantages that are associated with this model is that they require a great deal of time and a vast deal of information (Verma, 2009, p. 225). Other impediments are; the impossibility of distinguishing facts from values and of analytically separating ends from means, the improbability of obtaining consensus among decision makers on predetermined goals, pressure of time to make a decision when it is needed and the ability of decision makers to handle only a partial amount of information at any particular time. Other disadvantages associated with the rational approach include, the difficulty of giving one’s undivided attention to a single problem or decision, the cost of information acquisition, failure to secure all possible data because of time constraints, excessive costs or oversight and the inability to predict all the consequences of a given option among others (Milakovich & Gordon, 2008, pp. 209-211)

7step decision making model

This model was conceived and meant for those individuals who sought after a decision-making model which would assist them in making a decision about which career path to take or in deciding what action to take in regards to a job offer. Therefore, several steps are designed to achieve this.

The 7steps involved are; identification of the decision to be made, knowing your strengths, weaknesses, skills, values and interests, identifying your options, gathering information, facts and data about each alternative, evaluating the options that are likely to solve the problem, selecting the best option and the seventh step being to develop a plan of action and implementing it.

This model has the disadvantage of being extremely cumbersome, and information overload may actually inhibit the decision-making, that is, it is tedious especially when trying to figure out which information is relevant and which is not. Moreover, this model is not practical as it does not demonstrate how human beings naturally make decisions.

Other lesser known models include,

The Simon’s Normative Model. This model is founded on the assertion that the decision-making process is not rational. Herein, decision making is characterized by, limited information processing, excessive use of rules of thumb and, or shortcuts and satisficing

The 9 step decision-making model was proposed by David Welsh in his book ‘Decisions, Decisions’. This model allows the individual to consistently aim to maximize his pleasure and will be beneficial in the long run than in making decisions in any other way.

The intuitive decision-making models, herein decisions are considered to be lucky guesses, unlikely coincidences or a sort of hocus-pocus.


Milakovich, M. E., & Gordon, G. J. (2008). Public Administration in America (10, illustrated

ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.

Swoboda, D., & Georgalu, S. (2008). Managing Nonprofit Financial and Fiscal Operations.

Management Concepts.

VERMA, D. (2009). Decision Making Style: Social and Creative Dimensions. Global

India Publications.

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Decision making is fundamental

Decision making is fundamental



Institution affiliation



Decision making is fundamental in order to have successful public administration. However, there could be an uphill task to choose the most suitable model for policy choices. Decision making is important and one must be ready to face consequences of decision made

Root decision making has following advantage and disadvantages. Advantage is that there is increased accuracy and efficiency of decision making because of comphrensive analysis of decision and considers also appropriateness of decision. Disadvantages include ignorance of inability to take action as result of comphrensive analysis. It does not also favor community participation hence has centralized bias. Root decision making is not also adapted to sufficiency of information and costliness analysis.

Branch decision making has the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include it encourages democratic politics and also avoids colossal mistake which happen due to inappropriate decision making. Interest of both parties involved is catered for due to comprehensive analysis. It is elastic and can accommodate changes before implementation. Disadvantages include lack of innovativeness in finding suitable decision to problems. It may also underestimate policies which have not been proposed by successive chain policies.

There are major differences between root and branch decision making. Firstly, in root decision making, there is clarification of objectives prior to marginal evaluation and empirical analysis. The end refers to goals and objectives to be pursued and not a particular is rational and aims at maximizing value of decision makers while branch decision making there is close intertwining of marginal evaluation and empirical analysis rather than being distinct as it is in root decision making (Henry, 45).Secondly, in root decision making, there is thorough analyzing comprehensively policies with relevant factor taken into account. While branch decision making depicts limited analysis(Stillman, 78).Branch decision making tends to ignore alternative possible and significant potential outcomes.Thirdly,Root decision making uses mean end analysis that entails isolation which is opposite to branch decision making where there is no isolation.

Hurricane Katarina disaster case was one of the most tragic encounter in USA history. Failure of government in managing disasters and poor response from Katarina led to this tragic occurrence. This was as result of poor decision making.

There were basic coordination problem. This caused disagreements on what is to be done at specific time and who is to do it. This led to delay in disaster management, recovery bodies and attending to those affected. For example FEMA tried to push for government to take control but the officials and locals were overwhelmed and disagreed accusing FEMA of slowness to act accordingly.(House report,2006:75).Although management literature suggest that large disaster are difficult to manage, the government should have been able to take full control of situation.

Unresponsiveness to early warnings. The disaster that happened cannot be classified as a surprise as scientists had already warned about that yet no action was taken. The consequences of major Hurricane had been long anticipated especially in New Orleans and there were fears of collapse of coastal city because it was built below sea level. But concerns about such danger were not met with required way of curbing them. It took 5 years for FEMA to file report of Hurricane hitting New Orleans which is extremely long time. Scientists warned people adequately consequentially convincing Governors of Mississippi and Louisiana to issue states of emergency three days before disaster. However some decided to stay because of previous false alarm and others due to lack of transport. Lack of urgency from federal government eventually led to disaster happening.

Failure of Government to understand system nature of risk led to delay. There unprecedented demand for services e.g medical attention, search for survivors, evacuation and setting temporary shelter proved impossible to cover fully. Reduction of response and communication due to scope of disaster made transportation of food difficult due to flooded roads. Many rescue and police vehicles were flooded and rendered unusable. Wireless phones were also affected and emergency calls were difficult

Problem of dealing with dispersed responsibilities. There was lack of clearly authority to guide through disaster in major organs of state. Federal responders waited for so long for certain Aid from the government. Lack of clear directing authority led to freelance hence coordination problem.

Organizational capacity. The size of disaster was so huge for ant network to control. However failure in deployment of personnel, not taking sufficient measures to deploy communication gadgets, not prestaging enough commodities and failure to unite and form joint office led to management of disaster so hard.FEMA for example had been run by political appointee with limited experience in natural disaster management.Furthmore under President bush administration FEMA had lost key functions political influence and resources. All this factors contributed to failure of Katrina


Natural Disasters can cause a lot of harm and we cannot be able to control them fully, however we can take anticipatory measures in order to curb with this menace. Many Lessons emerge from Katrina we must covert the failures into successes of the future. Taking responsibility, assigning roles, faster responsiveness of emergence lines are example ways to stir forward.REFERENCES

Stillman, R. J. (2005). Public administration: Concepts and cases. Boston [u.a.: Houghton Mifflin.

Henry, Nicholas. Public Administration and Public Affairs. New York: Pearson Education Canada, 2009.

Milakovich, Michael and George Gordon. Public Administration in America. New York: Cengage Learning, 2012.

Stillman, Richard. Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.

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Decision making in organizations

Decision making in organizations

Decision making in organizations


Decision-making includes an assortment of processes that are all amid thought and action. These processes are an antecedent to behavior; expressing ideas into tangible consequences. Decision-making as a concept is not well defined. This is as result of the aspects and the avenues through with different people view decision-making from. The scope of decisions that people make range from matters that would potentially affect them into their lifetime to mattes as trivial as what to wear for the day. These indicating why decision making as process is not well defined.

According to Bazerman, (1999), decision making in organizations. He points out that when individuals are faced with tough choices, their focus shifts to making the right choice and not making the choice in the right way (Bazerman, 1999). Further indicating that people tend to focus on securing:

More expertise

More inclusion

More resources

Better data regarding the issue

More time to come up with a conclusive decision

With a better decision-making process, individuals would have the best platform for stronger implementation for decisions made.

Decision Issues


This comes about due to the irrational nature of man. The decision made are often affected by social pressure, we often care of other people’s opinions, we have preconceived ideas regarding what is acceptable or not therefore making us prone to all kind of illogical thought. Decisions are often informed by emotional and cognitive backgrounds increasing the odds for a distortion free decision –making process.

Distortions in Decision Making

The distortions that come about in decision-making are brought about by distortions in perceptions and by distortions in choice.

Distortion in Perception

Confirmation Bias: distortion occurs because of using of information with the preconceived notion of its outcome. This is often influenced by other organization supporting desired outcome

Wishful thinking: Distortions arise due to seeing organizations prospects in an overlay optimistic light

Primary Effect: This is as a result of the use of recent materials only to aid in the decision-making process

Repetition Bias: This is brought about by the use of information that is favored by many of interested parties

Anchoring: basing a decision on an inappropriate reference point

Source Credibility: arises from favoring the use of information from sources that we like

Attribution asymmetry: occurs as a result of attributing our successes to talents and attributing our failures to circumstances.

Distortion in Choice

Incremental Decision-Making and Escalating Commitment: when individuals are faced by the choice of becoming a manager or a parent. They are probably going to make distortions in their decision-making as a result of choice

Groupthink: this occurs when decisions are arrived at as a result of consensus instead of the quality of the decision made

Authority : distortion occurs when the figure of authority are sensitive to allowing contributions that inform decision-making to come from their juniors

Sunk costs: Distortions arise when organizations choose to allocate less or no budgetary funds to aid decision-making processes.

Meta-Decision Making

These are the decisions that people make regarding decision-making. These decisions often go unnoticed as they are entrenched on a word, a glance and sometimes on an unintentional casing. For Meta-Decision Making processes to be exposed, we would have to analyze our more fleeting thoughts and slow down our thought process.


Decision making is often made difficult by the situation that individuals find themselves in. these is as a result of situations being characterized by challenges that further complicate the decision-making process.

Making Good Decisions

It is everyone’s intention to make good decisions. It is therefore justified to look at how to make decisions and how to improve the decisions that we make. The answer to better decisions lies in the content. We therefore have to adjust our decision-making style and understand the avenues and forums within which we base the decision.

Reasons for the decline in quality of Managerial Decision-making

Limited time frames due to the nature of contracting business cycles

Distorted data that is sometimes used in decision-making

The rate of change invalidates the data behind a decision before implementation

The Decision-making Process

Organizations are run by decisions that people in authority make. The soundness of the decisions adhered to is mirrored by the success of the organizations. This lays out the effectiveness and the quality of the decision making-process. The quality of the decision-making process often determines how flourishing a manager will be. Decision-Making is an ongoing process of evaluating circumstances and making choices. The process is dependant of reliable information made available at adequate and opportune moments. The decision-making process entails:

Defining the problem

The definition of the challenge is the first step in the decision-making process. The correct definition of the challenge is key; as it has the potential to affect the secondary steps. The most appropriate way to go about definition of the problem is identifying the problem separately from its indicators.

Identifying the Limiting Factors

Managers should ensure that they have adequate resources to preempt the likelihood of not having the facilities necessary for the adequate decision-making practices at his or her disposal. Identifying limiting factors is bore by the need of managers wanting to make the best decisions with regard to the running of the organizations (Bazerman & Moore, 2008).

Developing Potential Alternatives

Time constraints often-precipitate managers to using quick fixes for their problems and not fully exhausting the possible solutions at their disposal. Managers are encouraged to consider several solutions before settling on one. A practice such as brainstorming is recommended, as the group dynamic Propagates thinking (Thaler & Sunstein, 2008).

Analyzing the Alternatives

This process culminates with the benefits of each idea, giving a clear picture of the advantages and disadvantages that would follow the adaption of a certain decision. This can be done through:

Determine the pros and cons of each alternative.

Perform a cost-benefit analysis for each alternative.

Weight each factor important in the decision, ranking each alternative relative to its ability to meet each factor, and then multiply by a probability factor to provide a final value for each alternative.

Selecting the Best Alternative

This is achieved after carefully analyzing all the alternatives and deciding on the best choice. The choice is often informed by the alternatives that offer the most advantages and pose fewer potential regrets. Managers can also look at the feasibility of the alternatives, as well as the cost effectiveness of each of the alternatives (Cialdini, 2008).

Implementation of the Decision

It is the role of managers to make decisions and ensure that positive outcomes follow up their decisions. It is therefore up to the managers to delegate responsibilities efficiently to ensure the successful implementation of their decisions.

Establish a Control and Evaluation System

This system is important to continuously check on the efficiency of the implemented decisions. It provides managers with information whether to adjust decisions made to attain the objectives intended when selecting the solution.


Bazerman, M. H. & Moore, D., (2008). Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. 7th Ed. NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bazerman, M. H., (1999). Smart Money Decisions. N Y: John Wiley.

Cialdini, R., (2008). Influence: Science and Practice. 5th Ed. Prentice Hall.

Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C.R., (2008). Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, &Happiness. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

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Decision Making (Financial Resources)

Decision Making (Financial Resources)

Decision Making (Financial Resources)




Decision making is a fundamental component in entrepreneuship and affects a variety of elements in business including legal and regulatory issues, political agendas, cultural perceptions, demographic diversity and financial resources. This paper aims at describing how decisions are made and thereby suggest that decision making affects financial resources in business.

In order to achieve the goal, this paper is divided into three segments. The first segment defines key terms used end to end in the paper. In the second part, a description of how decisions are made is provided as well as perfect examples of decision making showing how they affect the financial resources in a business. The last segment restates the thesis as well as the main points as highlighted in the other two sections.

Keywords: entrepreneur, decision making, financial resources

Decision Making (Financial Resources)

According to the oxford dictionary, an entrepreneur is a person who makes money by starting a small business and more particularly, taking financial risks (Michael, 2008).

Decision making refers to a cognitive process of deciding to do something of paramount importance. In businesses, decisions are made concerning a number of issues including financial decisions as well as other decisions directly affecting the activities of the business (Michael, 2008).

In management, financial resources can be defined as, the inputs in the form of money and in most cases in liquid form that helps in the daily running of the business. In short, financial resources cater for the operation expenses in the business (Pandey, 2011).

How Decisions are made

The detrimental importance of financial decisions to a business is imperative to set up an efficient organization. In most cases, the financial decisions are made by the top financial managers in consultation with the professional, junior staff members in the business.

Decision making is possibly one of the most important catalysts in business. Businesses ranging from large to small enterprises have to make various decisions about their main activities with an aim meeting their ultimate goals and objectives.

At times, decision making can be such a difficult task in business since the resources are always finite while the needs are unlimited. On the other hand, businesses may make decisions but fail to implement such decisions due to the various constraints of the resources.

According to Harrison 2008, there are several steps, which are essential for an effective decision making process. The most important step is to set the business objectives which must be specific, measurable, reliable, and should be achieved in certain duration of time. Secondly, the financial manager searches for alternatives which may be used to meet the business’ ultimate objective. Thirdly, the financial manager compares the alternatives and chooses the most cost effective that would avail the goals of the firm. Fourthly, the financial manager applies the alternative chosen in the organization. After the decision has been implemented in the firm, it is crucial  the manager follows up activities and spot checks the weak areas that require improvements.

Most businesses have been successful by following Harrison’s steps in making various financial decisions in their organizations. One of such businesses is an American Company, Walt Disney, which clearly followed the Harrisons model in the purchase of its own television networks, which the top managers thought would continue to increase profitability of the company. The company set out clear objectives as being a market leader in entertainment thereby distributing its products in America. Over the years, it has been able to achieve its objectives and thereby expanding at an alarming rate in the entertainment industry.


Decision making is one of the most important activities in any business since; it assists the business to plan for its resources in an optimal way thereby achieving its objectives in a given period of time. The decision making process involves a sequence of steps as highlighted earlier on in the paper and has actually been fundamental in several businesses including the one pointed out in the paper (Harrison, 2000).


Harrison. (2000). Essence of Decision Making. Retrieved May 10, 2012. from

Michael, A. (2008). Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pandey, I. (2011). Financial Management. Mumbai: Vikas Publishing House.

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Decision Dilemmas

Decision Dilemmas

Decision Dilemmas


Case one – Reject the Offer

The fact that the employee was on demand was owed to the current company she was working for. This is clearly indicated in the argument that her training was sponsored by the organization. A contract should be entered defining the minimum period of time she can work for the organization before making a final decision to leave. It would be necessary for the organization to establish the improvement in performance of the employee as a result of the training they offered. Similarly, there is need to provide information on the sole intention for the training. One would reconsider reversing the decision in a situation where the efforts of the employee are not appropriately remunerated by the first organization and where they are not appreciated. Under different circumstances, depending on the relevant factors as mentioned above, the decision might have been different, for instance, where the company only provided experience but not the training.

Case two – Continue to advertise

The decision is based on the fact that each organization is believed to know its product best. Similarly, they have the right to design their advertisements as they deem fit provided the information is not misleading to the consumers. It would be appropriate if the question clearly indicated whether the results found by the organization, which claimed they had the juiciest products, were credible or biased considering they were self carried out. One might change their mind regarding the decision made if a situation contradicting the findings of the firm arises. This is where they will be presumed/proven to be less juicy than others. The decision is likely to be revered where the circumstances vary from the one presented. For instance, where there is sufficient evidence that the results are misleading to the clients and are not accurate. This could also be if the laws of the country do not allow for the advertisers to practise freedom in formulating their own advertisements.

Case three – Not proper, Should not sell

The relationship between the two parties was already manipulated and ceased being professional when the potential buyer company decided to send gifts since it personalized their transaction. To enhance certainty of the decision, information regarding the previous relationship between Bob and the potential buyer should have been indicated. A situation such as an evident professional relationship of the buyer in other business transactions and empirical evidence of an existing relationship between Bob and the potential buyer may lead to a consideration to reverse the decision. The above mentioned circumstances may lead to an automatic change in decision to not sell to the party since it changes the circumstances surrounding the dilemma.

Case four – Suspend them for several games

The decision is based on the coach’s critical demand for discipline and non acceptance of favours and benefits from outsiders. However, having been trained by him, it would be worth giving them a second chance where if breached, they could be kicked out of the team. There should be specification as to whether this has been happening continuously or over a short period. The conduct of the team members when stated should also be able to clarify whether they deserve a second chance or not. The change of circumstances such as a discovery that the team members had been previously warned of the same conduct would automatically reverse the decision. They would be better off out of the team since that would be a clear indication of lack of discipline.

Case five – Close the plant

The decision is based on the consideration that if the adjustments are ignored, the whole organization may end up collapsing. It would be more convincing however if the performance of the plant being closed was clarified. Certain circumstances such as the increase in prices of the opposing firm or reduction in cost of production would lead to reconsidering of the decision. a different answer would be obtained in a case where the plant targeted for closure makes more profits than most of the others, or where there is a guarantee that non closure of the firm will not affect the stability of the organization in the market.


The article, ‘Refugee Operations and Environmental Management’ is based on the important principles of decision making. The author in this case is focussed on the dilemmas that may arise in different situations that require timely decisions to be made. (UNHCR. 2001) argues that the principles are important since they enable a similarity indecisions made regarding similar situations. It is also possible that with the arising of relatively complicated situations, the responsible parties will be able to derive a possible solution regardless of the dilemma involved. For instance, the link between the problem at hand and the parties they involve should be clearly elaborated and defined before the ultimate decision regarding the matter is made. This will ensure that it will be fair, not biased in any way and the conduct of the individuals in sufficiently put into consideration. The author is also specific in stating that the relevant bodies for making decisions should have a rough idea of the possible circumstance that may arise such that in case they do, it will not get them unawares.

The author also brings about some interesting ideas surrounding the factors surrounding decisions to be made. These are very useful in a learning environment as well as for practise in the actual management field. This is so because the management is always responsible for making decisions that affect their subjects. These include the fact that every situation should have a monetary value attached to it. We realize that human beings place so much value on finances such that they rarely risk with it. Converting losses/profits that may come about with a bad/good decision encourages management to critically review a decision before implementing it.


Suhr, J. (2003). Basic Principles of Sound Decision Making. The Institute for Decision Innovations, Inc. Retrieved

Stormer, W. (1991). The Decision Dilemma – Cognitive Bias. Psychology. Retrieved from

UNHCR. (2001). Key Principles for Decision Making. Refugee Operations and Environmental Management. Retrieved from

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