Nonparametric Methods Case scenario

Nonparametric Methods Case scenario

Nonparametric Methods/ Case scenario

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Part I: Nonparametric Methods

Sign test

A sign test is a nonparametric method used in statistics for comparison of a single sample with a hypothesized value. The test is commonly used in situations where a paired t-test is traditionally applied. In the study, a sample of n patients is used in determining the preference for central nervous system saturation. The main objective of conducting the test was to determine whether a difference in preferences between the central nervous system saturation and the time of oxygen admission existed. Sign test was explored in paired data whereby central nervous system saturation data from ten patients was collected on admission and 6 hours after admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A plus and a minus sign were used to record the preference data. The plus sign was used when the difference between the time of admission and 6 hours after admission was positive while the minus sign was used when the difference was negative (Walley, 2011).

On the other hand, the sign test is commonly used where the researcher had initially placed study hypotheses. From the study, the null hypotheses suggested that there could be no effect of 6 hours of ICU treatment on central venous oxygen saturation treatment. The null hypotheses suggested that the difference between the time of admission and time after 6 hours would be zero. The sign test method used was to achieve 50% of the differences below zero (negative) and the other 50% above zero (positive). The results indicated otherwise because only 2 differences recorded a minus sign and this led to a 0.11 probability of occurrence in case the null hypothesis was true. From the normal distribution table, the P value of 0.02 was observed from the paired t-test conducted. The two tests provided different results that concluded that, for sign test the differences should be independent of one another while for t-test the differences should follow a normal distribution (Mendenhall & Beaver, 2003).

Part II: Cancer Case Scenario

Various regression and correlation constructs were used in the scenario. Firstly, the study used P-value and r-value for hypotheses test and correlation of coefficient respectively. The following correlation values used to find the relationship between variables by determining the preference of the results observed. In addition, the correlations determined the association between the measure of adiposity (BMI, WHR) and serum estradiol. To determine the relationship between various variable, an X-Y graph should be constructed. These forms the regression constructs of the study. The linear regression of (Y, X) is equivalent to (r2, P).

In analyzing the cancer case scenario, the sign test would be the most appropriate followed by the hypothesis test (the t-test). To start with, I would get the difference between BMI and serum estradiol values from the excel sheet to determine the data preference. Using a null hypothesis that states that, there is a crude association between the two measure of adiposity (BMI and WHR) and serum estradiol. If more than 50% of total people tested show negative results, the null hypothesis is true. From table 1, the positive signs exceeded the negative signs showing that the null hypothesis is false. This indicates a crude association between either measure of adiposity (BMI, WHR) and serum estradiol. The following method is recommendable because it avoids complex calculations and easily arrives at the answer. Secondly, I would carry out a t-test to determine P-values and r-values. The following constructs will be used because the study compares only two variables at a time. Only 49 out of 151 samples tested had negative nalues. This is a probability of (49/151) = 0.3245. Thus; P = 0.3425. From the normal distribution table, r = 0.633 (Ahsanullah & Nevzorov, 2013). The following results show aa lack of correlation between the measure of adiposity and serum estradiol.


Ahsanullah, M., & Nevzorov, V. B. (2013). An introduction to order statistics. Amsterdam:

Atlantis Press.

Mendenhall, W., & Beaver, R. J. (2003). Introduction to probability and statistics (11th ed.).

Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson-Brooks/Cole.

Walley, K. R. (2011). “Use of central venous oxygen saturation to guide therapy”, Critical Care

Research Laboratories. Vol. 184, No. 5.

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Noncompetition and Nondisclosure

Noncompetition and Nondisclosure

Noncompetition and Nondisclosure for Sandra

Student’s name

Institutional affiliation


Professor’ name


Noncompetition and Nondisclosure

During the enforcement of this agreement and upon its termination or expiration Sandra XX agrees to desist from disclosing Too Strange to Eat’s trade secrets, customer lists, or other classified material. Sandra XX agrees to take necessary and reasonable security measures to curtail potential accidental disclosure and industrial espionage.

During the enforcement of this agreement, the employee consents to use her best efforts to analyze the market for new products, create new pasties, push the sale of new and existing products, and follow the noncompetition and nondisclosure of this agreement. Upon termination or expiration of this agreement, Sandra XX concurs not to compete with Too Strange to Eat Bakery for a period of (10) years within a 100-mile radius of Too Strange to Eat Bakery, Tampa, Florida. This ban ceases to apply if the agreement ends because Too Strange to Eat Bakery dishonored the terms of the contract.

Competition hereby means working or owning a company of the following type: a bakery, a coffee shop or business, a baking truck, a home baking business, a catering business, or a food blog.

Sandra XX agrees to cater for the liquidated damages in the amount of $ (20,000) for any breach of an agreement not to compete contained in sub-section/paragraph (b) of this clause.

Sandra XX concurs not to employ the research conducted in the duration of the time they worked for Too Strange to Eat Bakery while working for a competitor company of Too Strange to Eat Bakery.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, (Too Strange to Eat Bakery) and (Sandra XX) have signed this agreement.


Too Strange to Eat Bakery

______________________________ _____________________

Sandra XX Date

About the Resources Employed

I employed various sources to draft the noncompete and nondisclosure clause for Sandra’s management role at Too Strange to Eat Bakery. Of the three resources used, I found the information from to be handy. The information here served me best as it was comprehensive and precise. According to the piconepress website, the information was compiled from different sources in the ITCS at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. I trusted it because the data was derived from an academic institution, the University of Minnesota. The templates here were derived from the website. What makes the data reliable is the fact that an academic institution compiled the data. The University of Minnesota is an accredited institution of higher learning that prides itself in undertaking qualified research and reporting correct findings. As such, the data from this source qualifies as credible because verifying such kind of information is possible. Additionally, data from educational websites such as the University of Minnesota are a safe bet to get correct information because such institutions barely have any hidden agenda. They do not have any ulterior motive besides informing readers of the truth. Furthermore, the individuals who undertake the research are professionals in specific fields, making them a good fit. In essence, I found the source to be thorough, well thought, well discussed, and argued. The information is also credible because it was objective, accurate, less confusing, and has wide coverage. It was only after wading through tons of information that I encountered this source.


Non-Compete Sample Clauses: 6k Samples. (2021). Law Insider.

Picone, J. (2021). The Institute for Signal and Information Processing. Piconepress.Com.

S. (2018, November 14). Non-compete Provision. SHRM.

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Non-stationary Model

Non-stationary Model

Non– Stationary Model


Corporations and financial institutions as well as researchers and individual investors often use financial time series data such as exchange rates, asset prices, inflation, GDP and other macroeconomic indicator in analysis of stock market, economic forecasts or studies of the data itself (Kitagawa, G., & Akaike, H, 1978). To apply data refining data is the key as it enables one to isolate the data points that are relevant to your stock reports. The data points have covariance, variances and mean that changes with time that is the data are non – stationary. Non – stationary behavior can be cycles, random walks, trends or the combination of the three. Non – stationary data are unpredictable and cannot be forecasted or modeled. The result achieved by using non – stationary time series may indicate relationship between two variables where one does not exist so they may be spurious. In order to receive reliable result and also consistent the non – stationary data need to be transformed into stationary data. In contrast to the non – stationary process that has a variable mean and a variance that does not remain near or returns to a long run mean over time, the stationary process reverts around a constant variance and has a constant long term mean independent of time.

A stationary time series has a constant variance, a constant mean and the variance is independent of time. Without stationery is important for standard econometric theory and is also crucial for one to obtain consistent estimators. Plotting the series against time is the quickest way of telling if a process is stationary. Chances are that the series is stationary if the graph crosses the mean of the sample many times. If the graph does not cross the mean is an indication of persistent trends away from the mean of the series. A variable whose it mean grows around a fixed trend is a trend stationary variable. This enables a classical way of describing an economical time series which grows at a constant rate. A trend series generally tends to evolve around a steady, up warding sloping curve that does not have big swings away from that curve. De trending the series give a stationary process.

The following types of non – stationary processes are the possible candidates:

The examples of non – stationary processes are random walk without a drift, random walk with a drift and deterministic trends.

Random walk without a drift or pure random walk (Y t = Yt-1 + ε t )

Random walk predicts that the value at a time “t” will be equal to the previous period value plus a stochastic component that is a white noise. Stochastic component is identically and independent distributed with mean “0” and variance “σ²”. Random walk can also be named as process or unit with stochastic trend or a process integrated of some order. The process can either move in a negative or positive direction from the mean hence it is a non-mean reverting process. Random walk goes to the infinity as the time goes to the infinity and also evolves over time; this make a random walk cannot be predicted. In a purely random process every element is independent of every other element and each element has an identical distribution.

Random walk with drift (Y t = α + Yt-1 + ε t )

The random walk with a drift predicts that the value at a time “t” will equal the last previous period’s value plus a drift or a constant and a white noise term. Random walk with a drift does not revert to a long run mean and has variance dependent on time. Stochastic process in this case area defined in terms of its behavior at time t where t is an integer value. Since t is a quantity that can be mapped to the integer then there is no problem but essential difference occurs if t is a continuous variable. One considers the value of the time series at a given time to be continuous random variable. Many times series mostly those from volcanology take other kind of values, for example the kinds of discrete events or count values such as those recording number of eruption.

Deterministic trend (Y t = α + βt + ε t  )

Deterministic trend predicts that the value at a time “t” will equal the last previous period’s value plus a drift or a constant and a white noise same as random walk with a drift. The value at time “t” in the case of a deterministic trend it is regressed on a time trend (βt) while in the case of a random walk is regressed on a time the last period’s value (Yt-1). Deterministic trend is a non – stationary process that has a mean that grows around a fixed trend, which is independent of time and constant.

Random walk with drift and deterministic trend (Y t = α + Yt-1 + βt + ε t )

Random walk with drift and deterministic trend is a non – stationary process that combines a random walk with a deterministic trend and a drift component. The process specifies the value a time “t” by the drift, a stochastic component, a trend and a last period value.

Trend and difference stationary

A random walk without or with a drift can be transformed to a stationary process by differencing (subtracting Yt-1 from Y t, taking the difference Y t – Yt-1) correspondingly to Y t – Yt-1 = ε t or Y t – Yt-1= α + ε t and then the process becomes difference-stationary. The process loses one observation each time the difference is taken and is the disadvantage of differencing stationary. A non – stationary process with a deterministic trend becomes stationary only after removing de trending or the trend. For example, deterministic trend is transformed into stationary process by subtracting the trend (Cowpertwait, P. S., & Metcalfe, A. V, 2009). When one transfers non – stationary to stationary through de trending no observation is lost. In the case of a random walk with a deterministic trend and a drift, de trending may remove both the drift and deterministic trend but the variance will go to the infinity. Due to this the differencing must also be applied to remove the stochastic trend.

Table 1 Differencing as shown in the table 1 there is difference between the curve of random walk with drift and the difference stationary. The advantage of the difference is that the method removes the trend in the variance, stochastic trend and also differencing is simple to use. The disadvantage is that differencing process losses one observation each time the difference is taken.

Table 2 de trending or removing the trend

After removing the trend, non – stationary process with deterministic trend becomes stationary the process is also known as de trending. The trend βt is subtracted from the non- stationary process α + βt + ε t to be transformed into a stationary process α + ε t. When removing trend to transform a non – stationary process to a stationary one no observation are lost. Removing trend can remove the drift and the deterministic trend, whereas the variance will continue to the infinity. For one to remove the stochastic trend the differencing must also be applied.

In financial model, using non – stationary time series data produces spurious and unreliable result and leads to poor forecasting and understanding. The problem to be solved is to transform the time series data so that it becomes stationary. Differencing is used to transform non – stationary process with a drift or a random walk without or with a drift to stationary process. If the time data being analyzed contain a deterministic trend, the spurious result is avoided by de trending. The non – stationary series may combine a deterministic and stochastic trend at the same time and to avoid obtaining misleading result both the de trending and differencing are applies. De trending removes the deterministic trend and the differencing removes the trend in the variance.

One should always check whether two variables are integrated the same way to obtain meaningful result. Stationary stochastic process is the one where given t1 , . . . ., t l the joint statistical distribution of Xt1, . . . . . . . , X tl is the same as the joint statistical distribution of Xt1+r, . . . . ., X tl + r for all l and r. this means that all moments of all degrees that is variances, expectation, third order and higher of the process anywhere are the same. This also means that the joint distribution of ( X t + r , X) is the same as the ( X t, X s ) and hence cannot depend on s or t but only on the distance between s and t that is s – t. This stationarity is too strict for everyday life a weaker of weaker stationarity or second order is usually used. Second order means that variance of stochastic process and mean do not depend on t.

Global non- stationarityThe random walk is example of a global non – stationarity. The parameter and process of global non-stationarity process are fixed some time ago generally infinity and then the process itself evolves whereas the rules of evolution does not change.

AR, MA and ARMA models

This segment considers some primary probability models that are extensively used for modeling a given time series.

Moving Average models.

Probably the next simplest model is that constructed by the simplest linear combinations of dawdled elements of a totally purely random process, {ǫ t} with Eǫt = 0. A moving mean process, {Xt}, of the order q is then defined as .

………………………………………………………………… equation 11.5

And the abbreviated notation is noted as MA (q). Normally, with a newly redefined procedure it is of interest to note that all its statistical properties. For an MA (q) process, the average is simple to compute, since all the expectation of a given sum is the sum of all the expectations):

……. equation 11.6

This is simply because E(ǫ r) = 0 for any and all values of r. A totally similar argument can be applied for the divergent calculation

……………………………………………………….. equation 11.7

Since var [(ǫ r ) = σ 2] for all values of t

The sample distribution of the autocorrelation can be calculated as [r (τ ) = c (τ ) / c (0)]. If, when one calculates the sample auto covariance, it chops off at a particular lag q, for example it is effectively and adequately zero for lags of [ q + 1 ] or higher, then one can contend the MA(q) model in above equation as the implicit in probability model.

The only most quantity that we should concern ourselves with is only the auto covariance. A cheapest way of seeing what the auto covariance is to take into assumption that the procedures is stationary and multiply in both sides of (figure 11.17) by Xt−τ and take expectations:

This equates to Qt is independent of [X t− τ] and hence [E(ǫ t X t− τ ) = E ǫ t E X t− τ = 0] since the totally purely random procedure here has zero average. Thus (equation11.35) turns into

The formula (equation11.3) is a simplest example of a well-known Yule-Walker equation, more complex versions can be used to obtain a formulae for the auto covariance of more universal AR (p) procedures.

There are several checks and try outs that one can easily make but the absolute comparison of the try outs auto covariance with source values, such as the model of auto covariance given in equation below, is a major first step in model identification.

Also, at this point one can question what one means by the term “effectively zero”. The try out auto covariance is an empirically and statistically computed from the random sample distribution at hand. If more informational data in the time series were to be collected, or another try out stretch used then the sample auto covariance would be greatly different (although for extremely long samples and stationary time series the probability of a huge difference should be much smaller). Hence, try out auto covariance (autocorrelations) are significant random quantities and hence is “effectively zero” render into a continuous statistical hypothesis tests on whether the true auto correlation is equivalent to zero or not.

Finally, while we are still on the subject of sample auto covariance we notice that at the extremes points of the range of τ

……………..equation 11.4

Which also a times happens to be this sample variance and

……… equation 11.5

The horizontally oriented dashed lines in the bottom plot of the above figure [Figure 11.1] are approximately 95% significance bands. Any function which is outside any of these bands (like the ones shown in the figure at specified lags 1 and 2) are viewed as very important, or at least worth further rumination. It is also interesting to realize that although [ρ (τ ) = 0 ] for [ τ > 2] the sample autocorrelations for all lags 10 to 14 inclusive all look quite huge: This is merely an demonstration of the point out that the sample ac f function is a totally random quantity and some extensive care and a large enough experience is required to prevent excessive reading into them.

Autoregressive models.

The other primary development from a totally pure random procedure is the autoregressive model, which, as its name suggests, models a procedure where future values somehow will depend on the recent epoch. Moreover, {X t} follows an AR(p) model which is qualified by

Where {ǫt} is a totally pure random procedure. For the sake of this discussion we shall adopt time-honored history and firstly put into consideration the most simplest AR model: AR(1). Here we simplify notation and define {Xt} by

Since we the ǫt are different and independent

Then with respect to other equations not necessarily indicated above allude that final quantity that we need to worry ourselves with is the only auto-covariance (Schneider, R., & Weil, W, 2008). The simplest way of seeing what the auto covariance actually is, is to assume that the whole process is totally stationary and multiply both sides of (equation 11.17) by [ X t – τ] and take expectations:

We have simulated in total two AR (1) processes each of 200 different observations. The first [ar1] processes is a realization insinuating that [α = 0.9] and the second,[ar 1neg] is an actualization where[ α = −0.9]. Plots of each subsequent actualization and their autocorrelation coefficients in the functions appear. The total exponential decay nature of the auto correlation of [ar1pos] is clear and one can easily note that [ρ (1) = α = 0.9] from the plot section. For [ar1neg] similar considerations do apply except that [ρ(τ )] has an extra [(−1) τ] factor which results in the oscillation

ARMA Models.

It is by a fact that both AR and MA models expresses different behaviors of stochastic interdependence. AR procedures encapsulate a Markov-like quality such that the future events depend on the past, whereas MA processes bring into combination of both elements of randomness from the past events using a non-static moving window. An evident step is to combine all both types of behavior into one ARMA (p, q) model which is found by purely simple concatenations. The procedure [X t] is ARMA(p, q) if

Fitting ARMA models.

By now, we have just identified the probability models implicit in ARMA processes and some other mathematical quantities that are related to them. Of course, once one has enough real data one would like to correctly know the answers to questions such as “Are all these models suitable for my data?”, “Can I accommodate all these models in my data?” “How do I fit these models?”, “Do the first model fit to the data well?”. These kind of questions lead directly to the Box-Jenkins procedure, see Box et al. (1994). Part of this procedure involves analyzing the sample autocorrelation coefficient functions (and are related the function is usually known as partial autocorrelation function) to settle on the order of any AR or MA terms. However, there are several other prospectors such as getting rid of deterministic courses, removing occupants, or/and checking residues. Actually, a full intervention is way beyond the length restrains of this article so we prefer referring the any interested reader to The Chatfield (2003) in the first and preceding instance.


Differencing transforms non – stationary process with a drift or a random walk without or with a drift to stationary process. If the time data being analyzed contain a deterministic trend, the spurious result is avoided by de trending. The non – stationary series may combine a deterministic and stochastic trend at the same time and to avoid obtaining misleading result both the de trending and differencing are applies. De trending removes the deterministic trend and the differencing removes the trend in the variance.


Kitagawa, G., & Akaike, H. (1978). A procedure for the modeling of non-stationary time series. Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 30(1), 351-363.

Cowpertwait, P. S., & Metcalfe, A. V. (2009). Non-stationary Models. InIntroductory Time Series with R (pp. 137-157). Springer New York.

Schneider, R., & Weil, W. (2008). Non-stationary Models. Stochastic and Integral Geometry, 521-556.

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Non Truth Telling News Sources

Non Truth Telling News Sources

Non Truth Telling News Sources




Non Truth Telling News Sources

Cases of news journals or article that do not seem to give complete information has been on the rise in the 21st century. Getting the right and accurate information out there is no longer a big deal as getting a news piece or article that will get more reading and clicks which translates to more money is far much important. The press has often been seen as a corrupt entity just as much as how the government is corrupt. News press accept bribes not a physical way but in a systematic sense. The news should often report the truth as they owe the public however we see that the government and the media are entwined in a circle of mythmaking and manipulation. Certain news articles are often written to propagate certain agendas or to pass a misleading information out there. This essay will look at three news stories that have non truth telling context.

CNN in 2017 reported a story that linked Antony Scaramucci to a Russian investment firm. The story reported that the Congress was investigating a Russian investment fund that had ties with Trump officials. According to the reporter, the information came from an anonymous single source. The story was not really wrong but it did lack enough facts for it to be published. The article reported that a meeting had taken place between Antony Scaramucci and Kirill Dmitriev (Farhi, 2017). This news led to resignation of three CNN journalist who were part of an investigative team that had been created in CNN to look into investigative stories that will be run by the news network. As news network it is important to get the facts right on a story before publishing especially if it involves hefty matters that are likely to get the attention of many. Many news sources know that any link between Trump and Russia is likely to get a huge reading thus there was need to get all the facts right before publishing the story. The fact that a reputable news network would publish a news article based on a single anonymous source without proof is quite saddening and goes against the ethics of journalism. Plato and Aristotle have often been seen as post-truth philosophers. Plato in terms of truth and governance he talks of how to set up a just society and one way of setting it up is having a divided view on what one should let people know. Plato in his argument believes that the kind of knowledge a society needs is the one that is necessary for their lives. In our case, the meeting by Antony Scaramucci and Kirill Dmitriev should probably have been more verified before being published.

In 2016 during the Presidential campaign, a term Pizzagate theory emerged. This was a fake story that had been created on Hillary Clinton Presidential campaign. According to the story, John Podesra who was Hillary Clinton campaign manager had his email hacked. There were speculations that he among other top Democratic officials ran a human trafficking ring. Although this information was not founded there were several mainstream medias that took up the story. According to them two restaurants Pizzagate and DC, Comet Ping Pong pizzeria were where the meetings were held. This story did quickly spread to all social media platforms and even top officials most from the Republican party were engaging in it. Alex Jones who was among those who helped spread the propaganda even in his radio show offered an apology (Rosenberg, 2017). With a lot of engagements, it was getting it quickly did spread although every single accusation was false. This false story caused a lot of damage to the two restaurants and while the news stories were running they were losing profits because were avoiding the place. There was also a shooting as a man walked into Comet Pizzeria with an assault rifle and fired shots because of the non-truth telling news that were being spread.

Mainstream medias have fallen victims of reporting half-baked news that seem to have little lies. Recently Fox news offered an apology on their fake news that was targeting Cal Poly. There was a news headline after they interviewed a conservative student on the plight of conservative that said “CAL POLY PLOTS TO REDUCE WHITE ENROLLMENT” (Sheeler, 2018). This was actually untrue as it was claiming that Cal Poly was using a race-based admission process v which was against Proposition 209 passed by Californian voters in 1996 that prohibited the public universities from using race to increase either the number of Latinos, African American or other underrepresented students. This caused a lot of anger that Fox eventually had to apologize for this mistake. When one got to read the article, the headline might have been misleading but the content gave a little bit of an understanding of what they were saying. With the lie on their headline, they were more likely to get the clicks and more people were likely to read the article as opposed to if they actually used the correct news headline.

When Martha Stewart was linked to the crime of Insider trading at Imclone. In 2001, she sold her shares of the company and just two days later the stock values dropped. By selling her shares before the value dropped she had saved $45,673. However, she was not the only one that had benefitted as the CEO had also sold his shares thus they were faced with the case of illegal insider trading. From Stewart’s case, prosecutors worked hard to try and prove that Steward had sold her shares from nonpublic information. According to Martha Stewart, individuals should never be ashamed of their achievements and achievements are only possible when the right standards are maintained. Stewart is remembered for being an over-achiever and emphasizing that standard should be kept high always. Therefore, for the right information to be communicated to the population, standards should be kept high. As a public figure most thought that she should not have committed the crime and should not have concealed information from the law enforcers. We are often too tough on celebrities and the standards we hold them are too high that we do not often want them associated with any wrong doing. If a celebrity name comes up in a crime people are likely to conclude he is guilty although he may be innocent. This standards are not the same as those we hold news sources.All over the world, there is stiff competition over the very limited resources available. in this overheated atmosphere many media firms may tend to compromise their standards as they try to get an audience and a share of the market. Standards can only be maintained if the organizations strive to develop concrete internal structures that respect good governance, transparency and editorial independence. On Standards in journalism are the values and chords that guide and safeguard the profession. Truthfulness is a standard that should be maintained by any medial house. Accuracy and independence should also be upheld at all cost. The acquisition and the dissemination of the news or information by the media house should be free from bias and fair in every means possible. Public accountability is a standard and a code of ethic that should be respected and should guide any media house or newsroom activities. Professionalism, reliability, and public accountability of any media organization stand out as the three main ethical standards. When the standards are implemented and consistently maintained, the organization will be recognized and will have a strong reputation hence influencing the position of the firm with the public and in the journalism industry.


Farhi, P. (2017, June 27). CNN’s Russia story debacle came at the worst possible time for the network. Retrieved from, E. (2017, March 25). Alex Jones Apologizes for Promoting ‘Pizzagate’ Hoax. Retrieved from

Sheeler, A. (2018, July 13). Fox News falsely reported that Cal Poly is plotting to cut white enrollment. Retrieved from

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Non traditional petroleum resources

Non traditional petroleum resources

Non traditional petroleum resources

Traditionally, petroleum geologist has been concerned with the exploration of natural gas and crude oil as the sole source of energy. However, other non traditional petroleum resources hold large amounts of energy and include coal-bed methane, shale gas, oil shales, gas hydrates and tar sands. Their extraction has been difficult mainly since the cost involved in production petroleum from the traditional sources is low therefore inhabiting technological research on their extraction. With the increase in the production cost of the traditional petroleum resources, focus has shifted to development of production methods for the non traditional methods.

Solid and plastic hydrocarbons

These are mostly found as in sedimentary rocks of varied ages. They are mostly viscous but their viscosity would decrease as temperature increases. The hydrocarbons come as pools or lakes on the surface of the earth and distributed in pores and veins on the subsurface. They may occur as secondary deposits or inspissated deposits. Inspissated deposits refer to heavy hydrocarbons which are devoid of the light fraction. This happens where a combination of erosion, uplift and migration brings liquid oil accumulation to the earth’s surface. Secondary deposits may arise when oil flows extensively from oil leak. Secondary deposits are a combination of heavy degraded oil and sediment.

Solid hydrocarbon comes about with dissipation of crude oil at the earth’s surface where its composition progressively changes with the loss of lighter components. There are two types of solid hydrocarbons including waxy solid hydrocarbons and asphaltic solid hydrocarbons. Waxy solid hydrocarbons result from paraffinic crude oil insipissation. Generally, they are plastic substances with their colors ranging from dark brown to waxy yellow. Asphaltic solid hydrocarbons result from naphthenic crude oil insipissation. Both of these are composed of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen as well as inorganic compounds. Their only difference is in the molecular composition.

Tar sands

These are heavy, gluey oil deposits that occur near or at the surface of the earth and have API ranging from 5-15o. They generally occur in highly permeable sands. They undergo a gradational change from the typical crude oil, through heavy oil and to tar becoming heavier and incorporating higher amounts of inorganic impurities. They are more aromatic and sulfurous compared to the crude oils. They have less saturated hydrocarbons but more asphaltenes and resins.

In most cases, tar sands occur where the major basin cross over the Precambrian shields. They either occur in traps that are erosionally breached or migrate to surface seepages from the deep traps. Major deposits of tar sand may be found in Malagasy, Trinidad and Alberta. In extracting oil from the tar sands, subsurface extraction or surface mining approach may be used. After quarrying the tar sands, the constituent oil is extracted using steam or hot water to disaggregate the sand and separate the oil. In case the traditional open cast extraction is not possible due to a thick overburden, in situ extraction must be done either by dissolving oil through solvent injection or heating to reduce the viscosity of the oil.

Oil shales

These are small-grained sedimentary rocks that when heated yield oil. Unlike tar sands, their oil is contained in complex kerogen structures from where it is distilled. Oil shales contain organic components such as kerogens and bitumen as well as inorganic components like quartz, mica, feldspar, carbonates, accessory minerals, pyrite and clays. Oil shales come in two types with well known biological origin. These are Torbanite available from Scotland, and Tasmanite available from Tasmania in Australia as well as in North Alaska.

Oil is extracted from the shales through in-situ extraction method when underground or surface quarrying. Crushed shale is heated in a retort at 425 to 475o centigrade. Kerogen pyrolysis drives of the gas and oil while spent shale would collect the retort’s bottom.

Coal-bed methane and shale gas

Rarely would you have well-defined fields having gas in shales rather it comes in crooked fracture systems and siltstone bands. This gas has over 10% ethane, is commonly wet and has high calorific value. Coal-bed methane differs from shale gas in that it has lower calorific value thanks to the production of dry gas only by the coals. In most cases, coal beds are more permeable than the shales due to easier artificial or natural fracturing.

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Coca-Cola Case Study

Noca-Cola Case Study

Coca-Cola Case Study

The company is known for its flagship product, Coca-Cola, and other brands, such as Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite. Coca-Cola also manufactures and sells bottled water, coffee, and tea. In terms of environmental sustainability, Coca-Cola has a mixed record. The company has been criticized for using water in its manufacturing process and relying on plastic bottles. Coca-Cola has also been criticized for its marketing practices, which some say target children and contribute to obesity.

On the other hand, Coca-Cola has taken some steps to address its environmental impact. The company has set a goal to recycle all its bottles and cans by 2030. Coca-Cola has also invested in renewable energy, such as solar and wind power. Regarding social responsibility, Coca-Cola has been criticized for its labor practices. The company has been accused of using child labor and paying its workers low wages. Coca-Cola has also been criticized for its marketing practices, which some say target children and contribute to obesity. Coca-Cola has taken some steps to address its social impact. The company has set a goal to provide safe water and sanitation to all its employees by 2020. Coca-Cola has also established a foundation to support education and economic development in its communities.

An international psychologist can provide several benefits to the Coca-Cola Company. They can help the company to understand the psychological factors that influence consumer behavior in different cultures. It can help Coca-Cola tailor its marketing and product offerings to better meet the needs and desires of consumers in different countries. Additionally, an international psychologist can help the company develop and implement employee training and development programs sensitive to employees’ cultural differences in different countries. It can help to improve employee productivity and satisfaction and to reduce turnover. An international psychologist can also help Coca-Cola create a work environment that supports employees from different cultures. They can guide how to create policies and procedures that are fair and equitable for all employees, regardless of their cultural background. Additionally, an international psychologist can help to resolve conflicts that may arise between employees from different cultures. It can help to create a more harmonious and productive workplace.

Coca-Cola Strategic Plans

Networked Organization

Networked organizations connect to other organizations and individuals through social media and digital platforms. Being a networked organization has several advantages, including connecting with potential customers and partners, sharing information and ideas, and receiving feedback in real-time. Networked organizations are often more agile and responsive to change, as they can quickly adapt to new market conditions and trends. Being part of a network can provide employees with a sense of community and belonging, increasing morale and engagement. Being a networked organization has helped Coca-Cola company in several ways. First, it has allowed the company to connect with a larger pool of potential customers and partners. It has helped the company expand its customer base and find new business opportunities. Being a networked organization has helped Coca-Cola improve its communication and coordination with its partners. It has assisted the company in operating more efficiently and avoiding misunderstandings. Finally, being a networked organization has helped Coca-Cola company share best practices and learn from other companies’ experiences. It has helped the company improve its operations and become more competitive.

Brand Building

A world-class marketing strategy is key to building a strong brand. By aligning your marketing efforts with your business goals, you can create a powerful brand that will resonate with your target audience. Coca-Cola’s brand identity is all about refreshment. Their products are designed to give consumers a refreshing break from everyday life. Their marketing collateral and digital presence reflect this, focusing on bright colors and fun imagery. Coca-Cola’s marketing message is all about refreshment and fun. Their products are designed to give consumers a refreshing break from everyday life. Their marketing collateral and digital presence reflect this, focusing on bright colors and fun imagery. Coca-Cola’s marketing collateral is all about refreshment and fun. Their products are designed to give consumers a refreshing break from everyday life. Their marketing collateral reflects this, focusing on bright colors and fun imagery. Coca-Cola’s digital marketing strategy is all about refreshment and fun. Their products are designed to give consumers a refreshing break from everyday life. Their digital presence reflects this, focusing on bright colors and fun imagery. Coca-Cola has a strong social media presence with over 2.5 million followers on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. The company uses social media to share news, product updates, and special offers with its fans and followers.

Coca-Cola also uses social media to connect with customers and answer their questions. Coca-Cola has a strong public relations and influencer marketing strategy. The company often partners with celebrities, athletes, and other influential people to promote its products. Coca-Cola also uses PR to share news and updates about the company with the media. Coca-Cola tracks, measures, and analyzes its marketing results regularly. The company uses data to improve its marketing strategies and ensure effective campaigns. Coca-Cola’s marketing efforts are designed to give consumers a refreshing break from everyday life. The company’s marketing message, collateral, and digital presence reflect this, aiming at bright colors and fun imagery. Coca-Cola is a successful company that uses various marketing strategies to promote its products. These strategies include advertising, social media marketing, events and sponsorships, and public relations. Coca-Cola also uses data to track, measure, and analyze its marketing results to ensure that its campaigns are effective.


Innovation is important for any company, but it is especially important for the Coca-Cola company for a few reasons. For one, Coca-Cola has been around for over 125 years and is one of the most recognized brands in the world. Coca-Cola must continue to innovate and evolve to maintain its position as a top global brand. Additionally, the soda industry is facing challenges, such as declining sales and health concerns. To overcome these challenges, Coca-Cola must innovate to stay relevant and top-of-mind for consumers. Coca-Cola also needs to innovate to stay ahead of its competitors. Pepsi, for example, has been investing heavily in innovation in recent years.

To keep up with Pepsi and other competitors, Coca-Cola must also innovate. Innovation has helped the Coca-Cola Company in a few ways. One way is that innovation has helped Coca-Cola develop new products. For example, Coca-Cola innovation created Diet Coke, which is now one of the most popular diet sodas on the market. Created diet coke was in response to the growing health consciousness of Americans. Another way innovation has helped Coca-Cola is by helping the company develop new ways to market its products. For example, Coca-Cola has used innovation to create marketing campaigns that are very popular with consumers. Innovation has also helped Coca-Cola to reduce its costs. For example, the company has developed new ways to recycle its bottles and cans. It has helped Coca-Cola to save money on packaging costs. Innovation has also helped Coca-Cola develop new production methods that are more efficient and use less energy. It has helped the company to save money on production costs.

Revenue Growth Management

Revenue growth management is critical for the Coca-Cola company because it drives top-line growth. It, in turn, enables the company to invest in other areas of the business, such as marketing and product development, which further drives growth. Additionally, revenue growth allows Coca-Cola to maintain its position as a market leader and continue to generate strong profits. Coca-Cola has a long history of success in revenue growth management, which has allowed it to become one of the most valuable brands in the world. The company has a disciplined approach to driving growth, starting with setting clear goals and objectives. Coca-Cola then develops comprehensive plans to achieve these goals, which are implemented across the organization. Revenue growth management is a key part of Coca-Cola’s success story and has helped to make it the global powerhouse it is today.

In conclusion, the Coca-Cola company has a lot of work to improve its ethical standards. However, their strategic plan is a step in the right direction and shows that they are committed to making changes. The ethical concerns for the Coca-Cola company are many and varied. From their use of child labor in their supply chain to their involvement in political lobbying and campaign finance to their impact on the environment, there are some areas where the company could improve its ethical standards. However, it is encouraging to see that the company has developed a strategic plan to address these concerns. It is hoped that this plan will lead to meaningful change within the company and help to improve its ethical reputation.

Noaa Vs Nasa On Budget

Noaa Vs Nasa On Budget

Noaa Vs Nasa On Budget


The national oceans and atmospheric administration is one of the most fundamental and active research organizations in America. This is because it is dealing with the one thing that no organism likes when it is hurt: the environment. Oceans are the places where animals live where the atmosphere is inclusive of the weather and the reactions of Mother Nature (Cameron, 2013). There is still more to be done especially with the current changes in the climate due to global warming. Not only are temperatures expected to increase but there will be differences in the climatic conditions and natural occurrences. This means that all the climatic data that has been collected since the 19th century is slowly being rendered useless.

Natural occurrences lead to increase in the deaths of people and loss of property with billions not to mention limiting the opportunities. The events include increase in hurricanes, tsunamis, tornadoes and wind directions and patterns. This means that more investment by the government because it is not a matter o if it is a matter of when. More money will aid in conducting better and more reliable pattern of occurrences. For instance people will be warned about earthquakes and tsunamis days before and not twenty minutes before it happens ( Eilperin, 2013). People will know how to be protecting themselves from the changes in the weather conditions and wind patterns.

Currently $20 billion has been invested in NASA for a project to make rockets to find space bodies. This is not a guaranteed project and there are even claims that even after sending all that money it may be fruitless, yet the government is willing to spend the money to try and satisfy curiosity instead of protection life on earth ( Achenbach, 2013). Most of the space trials are made in the water and even at times on land. If the government does not fund the organization that ensures the atmosphere is predictable enough for practice, then there will be nowhere for NASA to spend their money.

NOAA is the unsung hero and even from their slogan it is not heard of by many people. this is because most people think that it is obvious and given that before the government does anything else it ensures that the organization meant to take care of the environment is good to go.


Eilperin, Juliet, (January 22, 2013), NOAA’s proposed move raises questions about its role

Achenbach, Joel, (February 11, 2013), NASA’s science missions bring the universe into sharper focus even as agency struggles with manned flight

Cameron, James, (March 25 | Updated: Monday, March 26, 9:4 AM, 2013), Director James Cameron details 3 hours at Earth’s deepest spot, says it’s desolate, foreboding Associated Press

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Definition of globalization and aspects of globalization

Definition of globalization and aspects of globalization

Definition of globalization and aspects of globalization

There are a lot of definitions that have been ascribed to globalization. These definitions have a common base; that is the connectivity among different nations. The word globalization is coined from the word global that implies world over. Thus globalization is the interaction and the integration of people, governments, companies through increased accessibility and availability of a fast communication channel, transport network, internet connectivity and technology.

Globalization covers a wide range of aspects which are key to the human populace. They are the economy, politics and culture. There are several factors that drive the aspect of globalization and these are the technological, economic, political, socio-cultural and biological factors. However, trade and communication have impacted largely to globalization.

The economic factor has brought a lot of change in the world. There is no country that has no close relations to another in terms of commerce. This factor has been with us for a very long time. Trade has existed among neighboring countries. However, this trade was slow due to lack of a fast means of transport and slow communication channels.

In the past goods were being ferried by ships and large boats along water bodies. Commerce was going on but it belonged majorly between governments and big companies. In the same regard, trade has continued to unite more and more countries together as countries try to raise the standards of living amongst its citizens.

Globalization has also been propelled by the fact that there have been new inventions on quicker means of transportation. Not only do goods take a short time to reach their destination but also human beings now can travel across the world with so much ease. Businessmen as well as tourists can now enjoy the privilege of moving into other countries as conveniently as they can.

Travel across the world has been made very easy and this has caused a lot of interaction between cultures. This cultural interaction has led to globalization. People are now able to relocate and go to live in other places. There is now no place that has its culture intact without any influence from another one.

I believe that the technological factor is the one that has revolutionized the world. Over the past few decades, there have been a lot of advances in the technological sector. These great advances have made it possible for the world to become smaller. By this I mean that the world can now be connected faster and easier. Communication via satellite has been improved. Now one can talk to another person who is on the other side of the world simply by dialing a few numbers on the telephone.

Apart from that, there is the internet revolution which has transformed the entire world. Now by the click of a button, one can communicate with another person, who is very far away from him, via the World Wide Web. This translates to mean that it is not only salutations that can occur via the internet but also commerce.

Nowadays, transactions are being carried out through the internet on a computer. One need not travel to the market. What a person needs to do is to buy goods online. The same applies to the payment; due to technological advances, one can make payments online without any fear. The money will get to the seller and the goods will be delivered to the buyer in a specified amount of time.

This was not the case a few years ago, so the advancements in the communication and technological sectors have played a vital role in globalization. The world has been interconnected in such a way that we now refer to the world as a global village.

Islamic fundamentalism and globalization

Now this brings us closer to the topic at hand. ‘Does the rise of religious fundamentalism have anything to do with the globalization?’ I strongly believe that the Islamic fundamentalism has been propagated by globalization. Since communication has been made easier, this has been to the advantage of this group of Muslims to spread their ideologies more conveniently.


Muslim nations are rich in crude oil, therefore they have the ability to trade with this very important commodity. As a result some the nations have strong economies and can be able to do a lot with the money that they have obtained. As a result, the rulers of these nations have used the countries wealth to proliferate the Islamic fundamentalism.

The idea behind the Islamic fundamentalism is that the West has eroded and undermined the Muslim religion. These Muslims feel that they have been betrayed by westernization, more so by Americanization. Consequently, they are resisting anything that the West is doing. From their dress code to the way they conduct their salutations. They consider these as polluting the Islamic culture.


Muslims who are bent on spreading the Islamic fundamentalism have gone ahead to work together with other governments to ensure that this is achieved. For example the Iranian government has gone ahead to prohibit university lecturers from teaching tolerance with the west. Any lecturer found tolerating the ways of the West is sacked. The students are taught to believe that there can be no dialogue between them and the Americans.

I believe that globalization has made it possible for the follow up of the Islamic fundamentalism. These Muslims have made sure that they can monitor everything that is happening in their environment. This has been made possible by the fact that technology has been enhanced and now communication can be made very fast and action taken promptly.

I am sure that with globalization, a country like Iran can quickly influence other countries to take the same stand as it has towards the intolerance of the West. Academicians in Iran can connect with other lecturers from other countries and make sure that no case is found in which a lecturer is teaching the students on tolerating the ways of the western world.

Sharia law

Globalization has indeed spread religious fundamentalism. Since it is not difficult to know what is happening in another are, there has been the desire to follow up in the activities that are happening there. Muslims live together and are very supportive of each other, therefore, when an issue arises there is the urge in them to be united. One thing that the Islamic fundamentalism is advocating for is the wholesome use of the Sharia law. Muslims believe that this law is divine and that the whole world should be controlled by it.

The Sharia law has brought a lot of fighting between the Muslims and the Christians on which is should be universal. As a result many people have died in the pursuit of this belief. Globalization has made the Islamic fundamentalism to gain popularity because of the connection that countries have. Also, information now can be accessed easily making it possible for a large number of Muslims to be influenced by this ideology.

Social ties

As I had stated earlier, Muslims are very cooperative. They are united and they support each other. Consequently, they trust each other very much and are willing to do anything that they are told without questioning. As long as they have been told to do something by their religious leaders, they do not question.

In the process of globalization, the Islamic fundamentalism has been spread even further. There was a time when a European cartoonist had allegedly drawn a cartoon of a Muslim in a way that Muslims thought it was offensive to their religion. This activity sparked a lot of chaos in the whole world. It was by the help of technology and the interaction of people from everywhere in the globe that such a demonstration was orchestrated.

In this situation we clearly see how the Muslims can be brought together in a very short time to protest what they believe and they have been told is an insult to their religion. Were in not for the internet and other technological devices, such a scenario would not have occurred. This is why I am saying that the process of Islamic fundamentalism has been propelled by the realization of globalization.


Globalization has been attributed to advances in technology. This technology has been brought by education. In this case, the education which the Muslim children are receiving has been modeled to be in accordance to their own beliefs. That is why they can be able to be united the way they are. Their religious classes have been made easier due to globalization in such a way that the syllabus can be in sync everywhere.

Another thing that the Islamic fundamentalism is advocating for is the establishment of the Sharia courts everywhere. As it is now these courts can only be found in specific areas but since people are now living everywhere, Muslims are now pushing for the creation of these courts countrywide. For example, in Kenya the Sharia courts are only allowed on an eight mile strip off the coastline. However, there was a lot of debate if that clause should or should not be revoked in their new constitution that was promulgated last year.

The Islamic fundamentalism has got everything to do with globalization. Islamic celebrations such as Ramadan are now coordinated across the world with the new communication gadgets. The new moon has to be sited before the celebrations begin. In that case, communication can be made from wherever the new moon was sited and as a result, the whole Muslim faithful indulge in the ceremony that follows the break of their long fasting.

Such occasions and many other have been coordinated globally. This clearly depicts the level of globalization. This is a very sophisticated way to keep in touch with the rest of the world. The way Muslims follow their Islamic religion has made them embrace globalization in order to ensure that their activities are all done at the same time without major delays or hitches.

In the same light, there is the major Islamic pilgrimage in which Muslims go to worship in Mecca. This is one of the most important things that a Muslim can do in his lifetime. The Islamic fundamentalists do strongly advise the Muslim faithful to take part in this pilgrimage. This function strengthens their faith and binds them together.

With this regard, Muslims are able to coordinate their travel arrangements with their family members who are in different parts of the world. It is now possible for Muslims who are in the developing countries to attend this pilgrimage. Before, it was difficult to travel to Mecca due to transport problems. It was only the ones who were near who could manage to travel by road. In fact, going to Mecca was preserve of the affluent. However, with globalization and commerce and technology, more people have been able to save up for that trip. Money obtained from international trade is used to fund this trip. Again, technological advances like the availability of airplanes have made it possible for the Muslim faithfuls to attend this important occasion.

It is not in doubt that globalization has helped the spread of Islamic fundamentalism. In addition, the international connection that has been made so far can facilitate the transfer of money from one country to another. With this rapid transfer of money a lot of things can be done. If there is a project that needs funding then donors can send money with ease. The Muslims who have this Islamic ideology have benefited from this fact. If they want to build a mosque in order for them to continue teaching their ideology, then it easy for them to obtain funds for the development of the new mosque. These possibilities have been enabled by the new things that globalization has introduced in the world. Otherwise, if globalization would not have brought in these developments, then the Muslims would find it very difficult to advance in their ideology of Islamic fundamentalism.

We are all aware of the controversy surrounding the building of an Islamic center near Ground Zero. The land near the September eleventh catastrophe was acquired by a Muslim faithful. He wanted to build among other things a mosque. Americans, who are not Muslims, were against that move. They felt that the disaster victims needed to be respected. Building of a mosque near the Ground Zero would be disrespectful to the victims owing to the fact that the attack was done by Muslims.

As a mode of protesting this accusation, Muslims came out in large numbers to condemn the objection of building a mosque there. They were very supportive of the imam who had this project in mind. From all over the world there were supporters who voiced their concerns about that controversy. I am certain that the Islamic fundamentalists rallied support for the construction of this center. That is why the whole Muslim world came out in support of one of their own. Muslims became defensive claiming that they have the right to worship and that the denial of their right would be against the constitution.

Islamic fundamentalists allude that there are a lot of shortcomings in the theories and trends of thought of the West. These Muslims differ from the Western scientists who claim that life is inherent in nature of matter. They therefore claim that God gives life to dead substances. HYPERLINK “″ This difference in the school of thought between these two groups has generated a lot of debate among scholars. Globalization has made it possible for these Muslim scholars to research and work on this claim. It has been easier for them to consult with each on their findings and thus made concrete their claim that life is given by God.

Muslims believe in the story of creation as it is written in the Quran. Therefore anyone who does not have the same belief as them is not entertained. Muslims believe the Quran is the most reliable law and they can defend it with all that they have.

“According to the prophet and Muslims throughout the centuries, Islam is the best economic, social, religious, legal and political system on earth,” Jabbour, N, T VOL 11:2 APRIL 1994 A study in Egypt show that the this is not the case. Muslims are not as rich as they should be. Generally, Muslims are not where they are supposed to be in the aspects just mentioned.

According to Jabbour, the Islamic fundamentalists blame corruption, hypocrisy and lack of dedication for causing this ‘catastrophe’. They are now trying to educate the younger generations so that they do not get these vices. These vices are taking the Muslim people backwards and are hindering them from achieving their ‘divine’ goal. Here we see that globalization is now being used as means of educating the younger generations.

Not only is Egypt providing this special education to its children but also other nations that share the same feelings. These nations connect with each other in providing the suitable education for the Muslim children. Some of these lessons are conducted online. These lessons may be posted on the web and thus they can be accessed globally. Another way in which globalization has facilitated the growth of this religious fundamentalism is by teleconferencing. The Islamic fundamentalists may use these means of communication to reach an audience that is at a distant location.

The Islamic fundamentalism is a movement that attracts the lower middle class and students; this is according to Jabbour’s findings in Egypt. What this means is that this ideology is for those who have despaired in life and feel that the world does not recognize and value them. Consequently, the fundamentalists thrive on these feelings. They indoctrinate these groups of people into believing that they have been denied the chance to be great. As a result the movement spreads to many people.

Globalization has indeed fuelled the progress of this ideology in this manner: the Muslim world has a lot of poor people. If the fundamentalists tell them that the West has denied them equal chances to develop, they will definitely believe. By so doing they will be accepting to be indoctrinated by these fundamentalists. Since the world has become a global village due to globalization, these disillusioned people can clearly see the suffering of their fellow Muslim brothers and sisters. As a result, they will confirm what the fundamentalists are saying to be true.

The realization of globalization has definitely impacted the world in a negative way. As much as it has brought many good things, there is no doubt that some groups of people have misused the goodness of this great thing called globalization. It is obvious that globalization has improved the quality of lives of many people, there is also the side of negatively it has impacted on the same people. We can definitely find fault in globalization.

I cannot say that the rise of religious fundamentalism has nothing to do with globalization. In fact it is this globalization that has fuelled most of these religious movements. Though the ideology is mostly taught to people of a certain area, the availability of connection between people has largely fuelled the spread of Islamic fundamentalism.

As I have just discussed herein, the things that these Islamic fundamentalists are doing are not right. Furthermore, they are not even sane. It is the extremists who are leading this Islamic fundamentalism movement. These extremists are the ones who are coming up with crazy ideas and filling them in the minds of people. These extremists are the ones who are going to the extent of killing innocent lives in the name of protecting their religion.

‘Islam means a religion of peace through submission to God.’ Sahib Mustaqim Bleher. It is ironic how such a ‘peaceful’ religion can cause a lot of harm to people. The Islamic extremists have on many occasions been involved in suicide bombings. These attacks have been targeted towards Christians. It is very unfortunate how these Muslims would take away the lives of fellow human beings and still expect the whole world to follow their Sharia law.

The rise of Islamic fundamentalism has been propagated by globalization in this among other ways. For the attacks to be implemented there must be someone who orchestrated them. These masterminds definitely know what is happening in the whole world at one particular time. These are some of the negative effects of globalization. Information can be used in order to cause harm. For example, the bomb attacks at hotels in Kenya and Tanzania were meant to kill Israelis who were staying there. This is because Israel supports the U.S. in some of the decisions which she takes.

What I am trying to show here is the fact that globalization has been used by these extremists to do harm to people. If a person can put on an explosive vest and goes to bomb a bus or a building in the name of eliminating pagans, then that is the highest disregard for human lives. It is very sad that such occurrences should be witnessed in the world.

In my view, I suggest that these religious fundamentalist movements should be checked and controlled. The whole population should be taught on what is right. There should be no pointing fingers and blaming other nations for your own misfortunes. It would be in order to reconcile your differences and find the best ways in which countries can help each other. By so doing the world will be peaceful.

In addition, countries that are privileged to have more wealth than others should not take advantage of the poor nations. They should strike deals which are equal or better still which benefit the poor nations more. After all this is said and done, globalization will have done a good thing to the whole world. Otherwise, if this is not taken into consideration, then globalization will continue being inappropriately used to propagate Islamic fundamentalism.

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definition of culture

definition of culture

Definition of Culture

(Author’s name)

(Institutional Affiliation)

The term culture holds several, different meanings to different people. For some individuals it might mean an appreciation if good music, literature, food or art. For others like biological scientists it might mean a colony of microorganisms growing in some nutrient medium in the lab. However, for behavioral scientists, especially anthropologists, culture can be defined as the whole range of pattern of human behavior that is learned. Edward Tylor, the pioneer English anthropologist in his book, first used the word to define such patterns. The anthropologist defined culture as that complex whole that includes belief, knowledge, law, art, custom, morals and any other habits and capabilities acquired by human beings as members of a community (Tylor, 1871). This is one of the most traditional definitions of culture that has since become the key focus of anthropology.

While culture is a strong and powerful tool for human survival, it is a fragile and complicated phenomenon, it is easily lost and it is constantly changing because in the minds of the people. The written languages, building, governments and other things made by humans are just the products of the phenomenon, but in themselves, they are not culture. It is for this reason that we cannot say that archeologists dig up pieces of culture when they do their excavations, the artifacts they find during their excavations of ancient people are only things and materials that reflect the cultural patterns of the ancient people or the things that were created through the cultural skills and knowledge of these people. The APA dictionary of Psychology defines culture differently, as the distinctive values, customs, knowledge, beliefs, language and art of a community or society (APA dictionary of Psychology, 2007).

One can identify culture in urban plans and works of architecture. In today’s world, these two are excellent examples of culture and heritage in many cities. It takes people years to design and build buildings like these. People can tell what a society’s culture is or looks like by looking at different works of architecture and urban planning. For instance, it is easy to identify the work from the Renaissance period because the culture of the people from this period was marred with architectures adorned with magnificent oil paintings and glasses with different colors. Another example is the design of buildings in Washington DC. The buildings are short and uncomplicated but with clear design and structures. The skies are visible from the sidewalks, as exceedingly tall buildings do not harbor them.

The building’s height is limited to the road’s width so that the clouds can be seen from different angles and places all over the city. It is only culture that can result to such distinctive building styles, as the culture in Washington DC has played an essential role in coming up with such detail in design and architecture. People walking around the city have the sense of openness and freedom, as a result, of such design and detail in designing buildings. This design and architectural technique is also mostly unique to Washington. There might be numerous reasons for this, but mostly the culture of the people living in the city contributes to the outcome of the way the city is build and the way it looks.

The term culture means different things to different people. This is because culture is set and formed by people with similar techniques, skills, ethnicity, interests, place of stay and so forth, and these are varied.


Tylor, E. (1871). Primitive culture. New York: J.P. Putnam’s Sons.

Vanden Bos, G. R. (Ed.) (2007). APA Dictionary of Psychology Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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Definition of Cultural Diversity

Definition of Cultural Diversity

Definition of Cultural Diversity

Name of Author

Definition of Cultural Diversity

Universally, there is no acclaimed definition of cultural diversity; however, anthropologists approve of it as a way of conducting affairs by different ethnic groups and races across the world. In order to comprehend the meaning of cultural diversity, it is important to break it into its major components. Consequently, differences in cultures worldwide are because of variation in economic and social activities of dissimilar ethnic classifications and races.As opined by Chryssochoou (2004), a vivid way of giving meaning to cultural diversity is through sampling of economic activities in different parts of the world. He asserts that the economic activity is influenced by geographical and climatic factors. As a result of this, people living in polar, desert, plain, mountainous, semi-arid, lake-side, and forest regions have adopted different ways of sustaining themselves. Mostly, the resources present in a geographical region determine whether inhabitants of that locality adopt farming, hunting, fishing, mining, and trading among others as their major economic activity, which ultimately constitute their culture (Parvis, 2007). As a result, there is cultural diversity. Parvis (2007) explained that cultural diversity can be well understood from the social aspects of communities worldwide. He explains that how people conduct themselves socially is due to influence of beliefs and traditions they have inherited from their forefathers. According to Siapera (2010), these inherited beliefs and practices influence religion, marriage, food, attire, and morals, which are fundamental components of any society in the world. Chryssochoou (2004) admits that due to globalization, erosion of some inherited social activities has occurred through interactions of communities. However, Parvis (2007) affirms that large proportions of the societies still exercise their original traditions. Therefore, it is because of these social differences that diversity of cultures exists. To wrap it up, attempts by anthropologists to establish and document all the cultures in the world has not been successful due to its diversity. Nonetheless, most of them define cultural diversity as a variation in social and economic conduct of different communities globally that portray their uniqueness.


Chryssochoou, X. (2004). Cultural Diversity: Its Social Psychology. Oxford : Blackwell.

Parvis, L. (2007). Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today’s Complex World. Morrisville, NC: Lulu Press.

Siapera, E. (2010). Cultural Diversity and Global Media: The Mediation of Difference. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell.

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