Blog

Democracy in America Today

Democracy in America Today

Democracy in America Today

Axia College of University of Phoenix

Pos/110

Final Project: Democracy in America

Over time, American Democracy has been transformed from its original foundation’s form. With all its adaptations, it still seems to be a well structured democratic form that supports our nation. The structure of our democracy has both strengths and weaknesses. In this essay, I will provide a review of the state of our democracy in America today. This essay will include my own viewpoint on the weaknesses and strengths of our governmental structure and include a number of subjects that are part of our constitutional rights, civil liberties, civic values, the role of our President and bureaucratic agencies in our government today.

There have been many changes within America’s democracy that have allowed us to arrive at our current state. Some of these changes have actually harmed our democratic process and our citizens. Some have helped us to achieve greater things within our democracy. Some changes have weakened our structure and our ability to take care of ourselves. Some changes have been benign, exerting little overall effect on our democratic processes. We face many obstacles and problems in our society today, but we do not always recognize the threat that these pose to our government and security.

The one thread that all American’s have in common in their position on democracy is that our democracy’s health affects every man, woman and child in our country and affects all those who live here. Everyone has their own perspective on the issue of democracy. One such view is that “Democracy is the means to select any policy maker and government, in which the policy would then represent the citizens’ preferences” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p.14). To me, democracy is the pinnacle of justice, peace and freedom for all people. The most basic freedom accorded to every U.S. citizen is the right to free speech. This is not a universal freedom in other countries and is not to be taken lightly. We also enjoy several other unique freedoms. These are the right to vote, the right to adhering to any religion or to believe and follow no religion, and the right to act as long as we do not infringe upon the rights of others. (Edwards, et al. 2008).

I do feel that our government is quite corrupt. It seems that the trend is towards government worsening our society and this is not likely to change soon. The very right to say this is inherent in our democracy. Criticism of the government includes review of the manner in which governmental officials conduct business. Political instability, the misuse of power and moral decay are all factors that increase the wealth and power of those in places of privilege, allowing them to increase their power further by political access and appointment. (Edwards, et al. 2008). This ability leads only to further corruption. The members of our society that have been marginalized economically are not having their needs met in the current political climate. This lower class has emerged in a way that is limiting their basic rights. The decay in the moral fiber of our society has led government to pass laws that control aspects of our behavior which common sense should rule, such as school prayer and smoking in public places. This process infringes on rights since some members of society act irresponsibly.

Everyone has their individual view of how democracy should function. In my own view, positive changes need to be affected in governmental process for equality and opportunity to be accorded to every American citizen.

The beliefs and values that all members of our society share are our American Civic Values. The most basic belief is freedom and justice for all people. Our democratic society uses a number of programs, laws and regulation to strengthen our civic values. Individuals use volunteerism and sound ethical practices to strengthen them. When we teach our children good civic values, we are teaching them to respect one another, to share and to take responsibility for each other in a positive, supportive way. These things engender a strong civil and political culture that better serves us all.

For example, when community members help one another and stand up for what is right, refusing to tolerate bigotry, drug trafficking and other harmful practices, we engender respect for one another and have healthier communities. The penalties for allowing ourselves to stray from our civic values are imposed through the enforcement of laws and regulations. Anti-discrimination laws uphold the basic right of freedom for all. These laws enforce the rights of individuals to pursue their livelihoods and to live where they please, regardless of their race, ethnic or cultural background, gender or their sexual or religious preferences.

Our world has changed in both technological and economic ways that threaten the intentions and accomplishments of our founding fathers. The Constitution is at risk of being overrun in our current political climate. The gap between the rich and poor in American society had been narrowed during the last 50 years of the last century. It has been widened during the past decade and threatens our social stability. Many people like to say that America is a place of equality and opportunity. In my opinion, it is still a place of disparity and inequality. The most basic element of our democratic process that should be its greatest strength has become our greatest weakness. This is a great issue among those in our society who cannot find access to services or opportunity and is swept under the rug by those members of our society who have been able to find a way to succeed inside the system.

A new type of inequality has crept over us in the recent past. It is the way in which government shows bias to one group of citizens over another. These economic disparities strengthen the cause of those who have against those who do not have. They relate specifically to the disparate distribution of resources, education and income potential. Those members of our society who have been marginalized have much less political voice and therefore can expect to continue to receive less in the way of equal treatment and equal access to services and education. Reviewing the Constitution and American Democracy in light of what I have learned in this course, I find that the Bill of Rights is the foundation of all our rights as American citizens. The Bill of Rights protects us from congress passing any law which would abridge our rights to practice our own religion, our freedom of speech, freedom of press, freedom of assembly, and the right to petition the government. I believe that protection of civil liberties is essential and has to be carefully guarded in our society. The government takes away more rights, often surreptitiously. Freedoms are challenged in ways that have little to do with the intention stated by the government when they enact new laws, such as the Patriot Act, which allows monitoring of private citizens internet use. Spying of U.S. citizens has also become acceptable under current law. Why would that be acceptable? This constitutes unreasonable search and should never have been made law to start with. The level of privacy invasion in today’s U.S. society is somewhat shocking. It is implicit in settings where a large number of people would be at risk, such as in airport travel screenings.

There are a wide variety of ways in which it is up to all of us to strengthen our communities by upholding civic values in our lives. All of the rights that we stifle will continue to affect American citizens in their daily lives. It is up to us as citizens to take responsibility for our rights. We have no right not to know what is being done in our name. This country was founded on first on freedom and it is time to regain civil liberty and equal rights.

The founding fathers framed our United States Constitution so that we would have an established, stable form of government that would function at the will of the people. They designed our government as three branches that were to equally share power in balance with one another. These are the Legislative Branch (Congress), the Executive Branch (Presidential) and the Judicial Branch (The Courts). The stability afforded by the interplay of these three branches is the strength of our government as a whole.

A formal system of checks and balances was established to control each of the three branches. This limits their power so that one branch cannot dominate the government. This system is essential to the proper working of our democracy. The Electoral College was designed to eliminate corruption in our system. It instead serves unethical government officials. The electoral system does protect Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The electoral system is meant to allow a group of officials to make the final decision on the election of the U.S. President. The Electoral College system has an extensive background and is well grounded in our current government. I do not, however, believe that it truly serves the American people to give them representation by vote. It gives government officials the right to elect who they see fit instead of taking the straight one man one vote to elect our President. This is one of the basic precepts of democracy and so, I feel, the electoral process thwarts the intention of democracy. Many people say they do not vote because their vote will not count under the electoral process. Elimination of the electoral system would likely bring an increase in voter turnout and eliminate apathy toward our system.

The U.S. Constitution is grounded in a system of power by the people for the people. We can support and help our President to succeed through being actively involved in our governmental processes. This core value of participation by the people in the interest of the people as a whole has been lost in our country. The majority is meant to rule our government, not the other way around. Minority values are to be represented in our government as well.

The Constitutional powers of our President is accorded allows them the authority to make decisions that affect our immediate national security. The role of “Commander in Chief” is the most important of all of the President’s functions. The President is limited to a reasonable authority through exercising the checks and balances that are in place in our government. The President’s main job is to protect the democratic process in our country. This is the source of our safety and stability.

A number of different bureaucratic agencies have direct effects on my daily life. Some of these are the United States Postal Service (USPS), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Division of Motor Vehicles (DMV), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Each one of these agencies is designed to serve different needs of Americans and to protect the public at large.

We work around the schedules of these agencies so that we can get a motor vehicle or commercial vehicle license, purchase private or public land and to protect our business and personal interests. Some of these agencies have regulatory functions, such as the EPA and others provide us with services, such as the USPS. The requirements that they place in our path during our process is one of red tape that involves considerable performance on our part to meet standards of eligibility. Even things that do not require us to deal directly with government agencies, such as receiving many prescription medications from our health provider, require that they meet regulations and legal requirements to get into our hands.

The matter of governing ourselves is one of our greatest privileges and responsibilities. I believe that our founding fathers did an excellent job of framing a structured government that operates on the basis of morals and strong values. Some changes do need to be affected to discontinue political corruption in our country. The marginalization of many members of our society through economic disparity has yielded political access and corruption in the wealthier members. This is not the democracy that American was built upon. Only with true justice, peace and equality are we doing our best as a nation.

References:

G. Edwards III, R. Lineberry, & M. Wattenberg. (2008). Government in America People, Politics, and Policy. Retrieved on November 9, 2009.

Posted in Uncategorized

Dementia Pathophysiology and Etiology

Dementia, Pathophysiology and Etiology

Dementia: Pathophysiology and Etiology

Dementia is a brain disorder that affects an individual’s thinking and reasoning capacity. Dementia involves a combination of many neurodegenerative diseases and conditions that affect daily activities as opposed to a single disease. It mainly affects neurons and cells in the cerebral cortex causing deterioration of function in the cortex (Alzheimer’s Association Web). Dementia mainly affects older people aged 65 years and above because old age is a contributing factor. Neurodegenerative disorders are the main causes of dementia, with Alzheimer’s disease contributing 60-70% of the cases (Davis Web). Other diseases associated with dementia include dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia. The diseases often cause brain damage leading to premature brain degeneration and cell death. Thus, an individual’s mental activity is affected, causing memory loss and thinking incapability. The collection of isolated proteins in the brain is the main cause of brain damage that leads to dementia. Dementia is often not a hereditary disease, but a few cases of frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer’s disease can be hereditary. Shortage or interruption of blood supply to the brain often causes vascular dementia. Other causes of dementia include vitamin B and thyroid hormone deficiency, head injury, brain tumors, prolonged alcohol abuse, and depression (Bourgeois and Ellen 17).

Signs and Symptoms of Dementia

Dementia often manifests itself in various symptoms, both mental and physical. Memory loss and inability to reason are the main symptoms of dementia, where an individual fails to keep track of vital things such as wallet and keys, forgets to pay bills, prepare meals, or appointments. The individual also experiences difficulty communicating, organizing, planning, handling complex tasks, coordinating and other motor functions. In addition, the individual also suffers detrimental mood swings, hallucinations, paranoia, irritability and other personality changes. Visual perception and disorientation such as getting lost easily are also symptoms associated with dementia. Most dementia signs and symptoms are progressive and worsen with time; thus, early diagnosis is recommended for treatment, management and future planning (McNamara 35).

Treatment of Dementia

Most cases of dementia such as Alzheimer’s diseases have no cure, and treatment options often aim at reducing symptom development. Both drug and nondrug options are available for the management of dementia. Drug based options include medications that help in boosting the levels of chemicals associated with memory and judgement in the brain. The drugs include galantamine, rivastigmine and donepezil. Memantine is another drug that helps in the regulation of glutamate, a brain chemical that controls essential brain activities such as memory and learning. Nondrug options include therapies and lifestyle adjustment (Bourgeois and Ellen 133). Occupational therapies are often recommended to help an individual cope with the condition and adapt to daily activities and movement while living with dementia. Modifying the environment helps an individual function and focus by reducing noise and clutter. Handling the individuals with care, such as avoiding scolding, correcting, or quizzing them helps improve the condition. Making tasks easier to reduce confusion for people with dementia is also essential in managing the condition.

Prevention of Dementia

Dementia can be prevented by adopting various behavior and lifestyle changes. Both physical and mental activity helps in delaying the onset of the condition and reducing its symptoms. Engaging in various activities such as board games, memory training, sports, and social interactions help in keeping an individual active. Lifestyle changes such as adopting habits that aim at lowering the blood pressure and quitting smoking help in reducing the risk of dementia. Maintaining a healthy diet rich in omega 3 fatty acids, vegetables and fruits helps in boosting an individual’s health and reducing the risks of dementia. Research has also revealed that reading and pursuing education helps the brain to build a strong network of nerve cells that help in compensating the brain damage caused by neurodegenerative diseases (MediLexicon International Limited Web). Thus, education helps in reducing mental decline that often leads to dementia.

Works Cited

Alzheimer’s Association. What Is Dementia? 2014. Web. 26 May 2014.

Bourgeois, Michelle and Ellen Hickey. Dementia: From Diagnosis to Management – A Functional Approach. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2011. Print.

Davis, Charles. Dementia. Medicine Net, 1996. Web. 26 May 2014.

McNamara, Patrick. Dementia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2011. Print.

MediLexicon International Limited. What is dementia? The signs, symptoms and causes of dementia, 13 Mar. 2009. Web. 26 May 2014.

Dementia It is normal for people to become more absent minded,

Dementia It is normal for people to become more absent minded,

Dementia

Introduction

It is normal for people to become more absent minded, forgetful and experience mild cognitive impairment as they grow older. This is often described as age associated memory impairment that causes people to experience gradual memory loss in daily activities like remembering names, phone numbers or misplacing objects. Although a certain degree of memory decline is associated with normal aging, their intellectual functioning will still remain intact. Normal memory loss due to aging is also not an indication for onset of Alzheimer’s disease. However, when people start to get lost in familiar place, begin repeating the recent conversations and experiences difficulty to perform familiar tasks it could signal the beginning of more serious problems like dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia will cause memory loss and a decline of cognitive abilities in patients. Although the prevalence of dementia increases with age, young people are also known to be affected by problems of dementia. A medical professional can help by accessing the cognitive impairment in a patient and recommend the type of treatment. The available drugs cannot repair brain damage or cure dementia but they can help to slow down the dementia progress and improve its symptoms. This aim of this article is to use current literature for describing the best practices and multidisciplinary approach for identification, assessment and management of dementia. The article will first begin by offering a brief explanation about what is dementia. It will then proceed to discuss about the processes involved in the identification of dementia in patients. This will be followed by a discussion on how the assessment of dementia is being performed. The article will then proceed to discuss on the best approaches for managing the behavioral and psychological symptoms shown by patients with dementia.

About dementia

Dementia is a condition that is characterized by memory impairments and multiple cognitive deficits. It occurs when degeneration of brain cells takes place in the region of the brain called cerebral cortex. This is the part of the brain that is responsible for our memories, thoughts, personality and actions (Sue et al., 2008). The most common cause for dementia is Alzheimer’s disease. Between 50% and 75% of dementia cases are found to be cause by Alzheimer’s disease. Other common causes for dementia are Lewy body dementia caused by the presence of abnormal protein chunks in the brain and vascular dementia that is caused by reduced blood flow to the brain (Sue et al., 2008). Dementia is also caused by fronto-temporal dementia, Huntington’s disease, brain injury and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (Weiner and Lipton, 2008). Dementia is an incurable progressive condition that affects the functional ability and the quality of life of a person (Chang and Johnson, 2008). People with dementia gradually lose their ability to think well which results in being unable to perform normal activities like eating or getting dressed. They also experience personality change, hallucinate, become easily agitated and experience mood disturbances (Miller, 2009).

About 4.5 million people in US had been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease in 2003 and this figure was estimated to reach 14 million by 2050 (Sue, et al. 2008). Similarly the prevalence of dementia in Australia is also expected to be increasing by four-fold over the next 40 years (Terpening, Hodges and Cordato, 2011). There had been 210,000 cases of confirmed diagnosis for dementia in Australia during 2006 (Chang and Johnson,2008).This could be attributed to the fact that Australia’s aging population of people over 65 years is expected to double by middle of this century (Kohsaka, 2012.). Incidence of dementia is known found to double every five years between the ages of 65 and 90 years. Prevalence of dementia in people who live beyond 90 has also been found to rise exponentially (Corrada, Brookmeyer, Paganini-Hill, Berlau and Kawas, 2010). This condition is expected to produce a growing burden on public healthcare for coping with incidence of dementia in an aging population.

Identification of dementia

From a clinical perspective, the identification of dementia has shifted from the diagnosis of a full-blown dementia to an early diagnosis of dementia causing illnesses so that they could be treated before it causes the irreversible state of dementia (Weiner and Lipton, 2008). Early diagnosis of dementia will help the patients to plan for their future by making necessary arrangements with their caregivers and preparation of legal matters like authorizing power of authority to a trustworthy person. Although it has been found that more than two thirds of the people who have noticed symptoms of their cognitive decline will consult with a physician to be evaluated, over 90% of mild dementia cases had been missed during primary care assessment (Terpening, Hodges and Cordato, 2011).

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a standard that is published by American Psychiatric association to help standardize the criteria and categories for psychiatric diagnosis. The DSM-IV-TR helps to list major etiological categories that cause dementia into general medical conditions, substance-induced persisting dementia, multiple etiologies and unspecified dementia (Sue et al., 2008). General medical conditions that are described will include Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson Disease, cerebro-vascular disease or brain trauma. DSM-IV-TR uses clusters of symptoms to meet threshold levels to identify specific subtype of mental disorder. This is important because it enables guided prognosis and appropriate treatment plan. However its minimal threshold level can reduce the sensitivity of the diagnosis which can cause failed early detection and delayed disease modifying treatment (Weiner and Lipton, 2008).

A reliable diagnosis for dementia needs full mental assessment, comprehensive history record and physical examination. A detailed neuropsychological test may be the best tool for diagnosis but it is only available to specialist psychologists, will be time consuming and costly (Terpening, Hodges and Cordato, 2011). Brief screening instruments like mini-mental state examination (MMSE) can be used to evaluate patients with cognitive complaints but it is also reported to have many shortcomings like lacking in diagnostic specificity, being unsystematic and unable to detect milder cognitive impairment (Zarit, Blazer, Orrell and Woods, 2008). It may be unrealistic to rely on brief screening tools for diagnosing dementia but it can become a more accurate instrument when used alongside a reliable clinical history. Screening tools like Addenbrooke’s MMSE help to detect mild cognitive impairment and it is already being used in Australia (Lonie, Tireney and Ebmeier, 2009). Other tools used for diagnosing dementia in Australia are Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination–Revised (ACE-R), General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCog) and Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS) (Terpening, Cordato, Hepner, et al., 2011). These tools contain statements that are systematically developed as being best practice guidelines for identification of dementia and achieving better health outcomes.

Assessment of dementia

The diagnosis of dementia will need to identify two deficits consisting of memory impairment and a functional disability (Ham, 2007). Therefore the assessment of patients with symptoms for dementia will include examining their cognitive status, functional status, medical condition, behavioral issues and other forms of regular assessments. These assessments must also consider the capacity of a patient for decision making, address the support system available to the patient and identify a primary caregiver.

The assessment of cognitive status by a clinician will begin with a review of the patient’s attentiveness and alertness (Ham, 2007). If any deficit is found, a further assessment of cognitive status for a suspected dementia patient can be done using the MMSE (Zarit, Blazer, Orrell and Woods, 2008) and for mild cognitive impairments the Addenbrooke’s MMSE can be used by physicians (Lonie, Tireney and Ebmeier, 2009). The MMSE will test for five domains consisting of the patient’s orientation, memory, attention, language and praxis (Ham, 2007).

Assessment of a patient’s functional status will include domains of psychological, physical and socioeconomic status. It is used to determine if the patient is having any functional disability that is being caused by a cognitive impairment (Ham, 2007). This assessment can be more difficult to perform in a primary care environment because it requires information from someone close to the patient to determine their baseline for comparing with the present functional performance. It helps determine the capacity of the patient for living independently and self care.

The suspected dementia patient should also be assessed for other medical conditions that can begin with a structured interview with the patient or a reliable informant to understand their past medical history. Laboratory tests can be done to find for medical illnesses that can contribute to cognitive impairment. Physical examination is also done to determine presence of neurological conditions that can suggest disorders like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease. The types of medications taken by the patient should also be examined to identify drugs that are sedative or having anti-cholinergic side effects (Ham, 2007).

Patients are also assessed for physical and psychological behavioral problems. Their physical behavioral changes can include aggression, restlessness and wandering. Psychological changes associated with dementia are hallucinations, delusions, anxiety and sleeplessness (Krishnamoorthy, Prince and Cummings, 2010). It may be difficult to administer these assessment tests directly on the patient and gathering the data from family members or a reliable informant may be necessary. Since symptoms of dementia are progressive over time, a longitudinal monitoring of the patients with regular reassessments will also be required to access the progression of their condition and to review the treatment.

Managing behavioral symptoms of dementia

Although extensive research has been done on dementia, an effective form of treatment is yet to be found (Terpening, Hodges and Cordato, 2011). However, evidence from studies show that early diagnosis of dementia during its mild or early stage of cognitive decline enables for a more effective patient care plan. Non- pharmaceutical interventions are used to improve the cognitive outcomes of patients (Naismith, Glazier, Burke, et al, 2009). Such early intervention helps to improve patient and caregiver’s quality of life. It also delays a patient’s transition from their home to an institutional care (Gitlin, Kales and Lyketsos, 2012).

The cores features of behavioral symptoms in dementia are wandering, repetitive speech and disturbed sleep (Krishnamoorthy, Prince and Cummings, 2010). If these behaviors are not addressed and treated quickly, the progression of dementia becomes accelerated resulting in worsened quality of life and functional decline. The use of systematic screening for the detection of behavioral symptoms is a vital prevention strategy that enables early treatment for behavioral symptoms through the identification of underlying causes and tailored treatment plan (Gitlin, Kales and Lyketsos, 2012).

The recommended first line of treatment for dementia is often non-pharmacologic (Freeman and Joska, 2012) because the existing pharmacologic treatments have notable risks and only have modest effectiveness. These medications are not able to offer effective treatment for patient behaviors that are distressing to caregivers. Types of non-pharmaceutical treatment that can be provided include providing support and education for caregiver, problem solving training and therapy that is targeted at specific behavior’s underlying causes. Such non-pharmaceutical intervention helps to enhance the satisfaction and quality of life for both patient and the caregiver (Gitlin, Kales and Lyketsos, 2012).

Managing psychological symptoms of dementia

Psychological symptoms that are associated with dementia include hallucination, delusions, anxiety and sleeplessness (Krishnamoorthy, Prince and Cummings, 2010). Antipsychotic medication developed for psychotic disorders have been found to be useful for management of psychological symptoms in dementia like depression, psychotic issues, mood disorder and delirium. The judicious use of these antipsychotic drugs for treating symptoms of dementia has the support from research studies (Grossberg, Jarvik, Meyers and Sadavoy, 2004).

Depression can exacerbate functional and cognitive decline, increase mortality, impair quality of patient’s life and increase the burden of caregiver. Treatment of dementia with depression includes use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However the response to treatment may take longer that normal adult recovery. A high level of co-morbidity is also found between symptoms of anxiety and depression. Although there are limited guidelines for treatment of anxiety in dementia patients, clinicians recommend the use of antidepressants (Freeman and Joska, 2012). However, their use is cautioned against the risks of other side effects. Use of antipsychotic drugs is recommended for treatment of psychotic condition like hallucinations and delusions in dementia patients (Woodrow, Colbert and Smith, 2010). Selection of drugs used must weigh the individual need of patient against its benefit and risk profiles. Dementia patients can experience sleep disorders due to reversal of day-night or Rapid Eye Movement (REM). It is also found that people will require less sleep as they grow older. Intervention using anti-depressants has been found to help dementia patients will sleep problems. However use of benzodiazepines is strictly not recommended due to possible cognitive side effects (Freeman and Joska, 2012). Psycho education also helps to address sleep disturbances by better management of daily routine, sleep hygiene and avoiding daytime naps.

Conclusion

Dementia is a condition that is associated with memory impairment along with multiple cognitive declines. Although it is more common among aged patients, symptoms of dementia can also be found in young people. The incidence of dementia is expected to quadruple by the middle of this century and place additional burden on existing healthcare systems. Best practices guideline for the identification and assessment of dementia are available through standards like DVM-IV-TR or MMSE. DVM-IV-TR lists major etiological categories that cause dementia whereas the MMSE is used to assess cognitive impairments. Clinical assessment of dementia will include evaluation of cognitive status, functional status, medical condition, behavioral changes and psychological symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach is used to manage the symptoms of dementia. Behavioral symptoms are addressed by early detection to identify underlying causes and plan effective treatment. The first line of treatment for dementia is non pharmaceutical. It involves providing training to enhance the satisfaction and quality of life for caregiver and the patient. Psychological symptoms of dementia are often managed using medication. Anti depressant drugs are used for anxiety and depression whereas antipsychotic drugs are used for hallucination and delusion. However the drug prescription should weigh the medication’s benefit and risk profiles against the individual needs of the patient.

References

Cayton, H., 2008. Alzheimer’s and other dementias: Answers at your fingertips. London: Class Publishing Limited.

Chang, E. and Johnson, A.,2008. Chronic Illness and disability: Principles for nursing practice. Australia: Elsevier.

Corrada, M. M., Brookmeyer, R., Paganini-Hill, A., Berlau, D. And Kawas, C. H., 2010. Dementia incidence continues to increase with age in the oldest old: the 90+ study. Annals of Neurology, 67 (1), pp. 114 -121.

Freeman, C. and Joska, J., 2012. Management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Continuing Medical Education, 30 (4), pp. 110 – 113.

Gitlin, L. N., Kales, H. C. and Lyketsos, C. G., 2012. Non-pharmacologic management of behavioral symptoms in dementia. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 308 (19), pp. 2020 – 2029.

Grossberg, G. T., Jarvik, L. F., Meyers, B. S. and Sadavoy, J., 2004. Comprehensive textbook of geriatric psychiatry. US: Norton Professional Books.

Ham. R. J., 2007. Primary care geriatrics: A case-based approach. US: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Kohsaka, A., 2012. Aging and economic growth potentials in the Pacific Region. US: Routledge.

Krishnamoorthy, E. S., Prince, M. J. and Cummings, J. L., 2010. Dementia: A Global Approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lonie, J. A., Tireney, K. M and Ebmeier, K. P., 2009. Screening for mild cognitive Impairment: A systematic review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, pp. 902 – 915.

Miller, C., 2009. Nursing for wellness of older adults. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Naismith, S., Glazier, N., Burke, D. et al., 2009. Early intervention in cognitive decline: Is there a role for multiple medical or behavioral interventions? Early Intervention Psychiatry, 3, pp. 19 – 27.

Payton, G., 2009. A caregiver’s journey: Dealing with the aspects of dementia. US: Xlibris Corporation.

Sue, D. and Sue, D. W. and Sue, S., 2008, Understanding Abnormal Behavior. US: Cengage Learning.

Terpening, Z., Cordato, N., Hepner, I, et al., 2011. Utility of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination: Revised for the diagnosis of dementia syndromes. Australasian Journal on Aging, 30, 113 – 118.

Terpening, Z., Hodges, J. R. and Cordato, N. J., 2011. Towards evidence – based dementia screening in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 194 (2), pp. 60 – 61.

Weiner, M. F. and Lipton, A. M., 2008. The Dementias: Diagnosis, Treatment and Research. US: American Psychiatric Publications.

Woodrow, R., Colbert, B. J. and Smith, D. M., 2010. Essentials of pharmacology for health occupations. US: Cengage Learning.

Zarit, S. H., Blazer, D., Orrell, M. and Woods,B., 2008. Throwing down the gauntlet, Can we do better than the MMSE? Aging and Mental Health, 12, pp. 411 – 412.

Posted in Uncategorized

Demand schedule for ice cream cones

Demand schedule for ice cream cones

Macro Economics

The graph depicting the supply and demand for ice cream cones will usually depend on the supply schedule and demand schedule for the ice cream cones. It is with the demand and supply schedules that the equilibrium price and quantity of the ice cream cones will become established (Henderson, 2004). The demand schedule for ice cream cones indicates a table showing the quantity of ice cream cones demanded at a given price. Therefore, this helps to determine what charge an individual is likely to pay for demanding a given quantity of ice cream cones. The illustration that follows shows a table depicting the demand schedule for ice cream cones. The price for ice cream cones is in dollars. This will be associated with buyers of ice cream cones.

Demand schedule for ice cream cones

Price of Ice cream cones (p) Quantity of ice cream cones demanded (Qd)

0.5 45

1.0 40

1.5 35

2.0 30

2.5 25

3.0 20

3.5 15

4.0 10

On the other hand, a supply schedule for ice cream cones indicates the price charge for every quantity of ice cream cone supplied. It is with the supply schedule for the ice cream cones that an individual is capable of determining the price he will earn by supplying a certain quantity of ice cream cones. This will usually become associated with sellers or suppliers of ice cream cones. The following table shows the supply schedule for ice cream cones.

Supply schedule for ice cream cones

Price of ice cream cones (p) Quantity of ice cream cones supplied (Qs)

0.5 4

1.0 8

1.5 12

2.0 16

2.5 18

3.0 20

3.5 22

4.0 24

From the supply and demand schedules, it is possible to come up with the supply and demand curves for ice cream cones. The intersection of the two curves will indicate the equilibrium price and quantity (Mankiw, 1998). At equilibrium, the quantity of ice creams supplied will be equal to the quantity of ice cream cones demanded. The following graph indicates the demand and supply of ice cream cones and the subsequent equilibrium price and quantity standing at $ 3 and 20 units respectively.

PriceSupply curve

4.0

A

3.0E

B

2.0

1.0

Demand curve

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Quantity

Point E indicates the equilibrium. At this point, quantity supplied equals quantity demanded, and the price of ice cream cones at this point is $3.

Consumer surplus depicts the difference between the entire amount, which consumers are willing and have the ability to pay for a commodity and the actual amount, which they pay for the commodity (Mankiw & Taylor, 2006). In the case above, the market price indicates what consumers actually pay for ice cream cones while the demand curve indicates the total amount, which consumers are willing and capable of paying. Therefore, area A represents the consumer surplus since it falls above the prevailing market charge for ice cream cones. On the other hand, producer surplus depicts the difference between the total amount that producers are willing and capable of charging in order to supply a commodity, and the actual amount that they receive for the commodity (Mankiw & Taylor, 2006). In the case above, producers can only charge a maximum of $ 3 as provided by the prevailing market. Therefore, area B represents the producer surplus since it falls under the charge of $ 3.

References

Henderson, D.H. (2004). Supply and Demand. New York: Prentice Hall.

Mankiw, N. G. (1998). Principles of microeconomics. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press.

Mankiw, N. G., & Taylor, M. P. (2006). Economics. London: Thomson.

Posted in Uncategorized

Demand and Supply of Malabar Gold and diamond

Demand and Supply of Malabar Gold and diamond

Demand and Supply of Malabar Gold and diamond

Name

Affiliation Executive Summary

To start with, the diamond industry has an exceptionally high focus, which Malabar Gold and diamond controls all of South African creation and all deals through its own auxiliary (CSO), in London, amid the time of Rhodes. Second, Malabar Gold and diamond is the value pioneer. The purchasers have no privilege to deal with Malabar Gold and diamond. Despite the fact that, the quantity of sight holders has diminished from more or less 350 in the 1970s to 120 in the 1990s, and the quantity of shareholders was under 100 in 2014 (Simoni, Rabino & Zanni, 2010). The image below shows the image of diamond demand and supply.

Image 1

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://www.diamonds.net/Magazine/FilesRep/Gallery/MR_July%20RDR%206_070509.JPG” * MERGEFORMATINET

Third, Malabar Gold and diamond makes agreeable social connections between members of the cartel, which is advantage for its long haul advancement. From these three separate periods, it demonstrates that Malabar Gold and diamond keeps the idea of maintainable advancement whether in the past or later on.

Introduction

The greatest open door is the UAE market, which has the greatest utilization capacity. Despite the fact that Malabar Gold and diamond by implication offer diamonds to the UAE business sector, its benefit is still separated by mediators, who are the way to maintain a strategic distance from the strict UAE laws. The current travel deals techniques have turned into a vital obstruction of budgetary increment for Malabar Gold and diamond. A sensible way to deal with stay away from the UAE law could productively advantage the money related increment for Malabar Gold and diamond later on.

Another open door is creating nations, particularly China and United Arab Emirates. These nations have been encountering riches increment and idea redesign. A decent notice may influence new era to acknowledge the estimation of diamonds. Once the necessary origination for diamond wedding has been made, consolidated with the expanding riches amid these potential nations, this opportunity must turn into another development point for Malabar Gold and diamond (Nyame & Grant, 2012). At long last, after the advancement of society, there is an expanding number of social issues expected to be understood particularly in the diamond creating nations. As a noteworthy way to deal with make notoriety, CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) reflects more specifically and obviously the commitment to society, particularly for the customers.

Image 2

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://www.diamondsinafrica.com/catalog/view/theme/dia/image/historical_prices.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

The rollercoaster direction of the diamond market lately hinted at directing in 2013 with 2-4 percent development at each point along the worth chain. Looking ahead to the following decade, the viewpoint ought to stay solid, the length of the business can venture up its emphasis on driving request and maintaining a positive picture for the business. Nonetheless, macroeconomic vulnerabilities, coupled with industry difficulties, including waning access to financing – one of the greatest obstacles confronting the diamond esteem chain’s center market– could affect future development; this as indicated by the fourth yearly worldwide diamond industry report, Diamonds: Timeless Gems in a Changing World, grew by Bain & Company and the Antwerp World Diamond Center (AWDC).

Bain’s examination discovered the diamond business’ development a year ago was focused essentially in the UAE , China and United Arab Emirates. The UAE affirmed its position as the world’s driving diamond retail market, fueled by financial development of give or take 2 percent – a huge change from the 1.6 percent decrease posted amid and quickly after the worldwide monetary emergency. In the meantime, United Arab Emirates and China kept on commanding the cutting, cleaning, and gems producing divisions, separately.

In spite of the business’ bounce back, determined macroeconomic instabilities are prodding inquiries around diamond request elements in these businesses and around the world.

The financial tops and valleys that the worldwide diamond business sector experienced in the course of the most recent couple of years are unfaltering, in any event for now, yet the business can’t bear to get excessively agreeable,” said Olya Linde, lead creator of the worldwide diamond industry report and a Bain accomplice. “Macroeconomics, alongside different elements – financing, advertising difficulties, undisclosed manufactured diamonds, ecological concerns, social mindfulness, and even nation particular inclination – hinders a simple, straight way to supported diamond industry development over the long haul.

Bain foresees that starting in 2019 the worldwide diamond business sector is ready to experience a broadening crevice of up to 5-6 rate focuses, because of waning diamond supply and expanded interest drove by extending riches and a developing working class in created and creating nations alike. Bain is exclusive estimating strategy suspect’s harsh diamond interest to develop at a normal yearly rate of 4-5 percent throughout the following decade in accordance with noteworthy patterns:

UAE – Diamond utilization in the UAE is required to proceed with its current bounce back pattern of the previous couple of years, before focalizing with its recorded long haul development rate in accordance with GDP and extra cash development, which is relied upon to develop in the scope of 2-3 percent throughout the following decade.

China – Expansion of China’s white collar class, a rising urban populace and a spike in individual riches ought to help the diamond adornments business sector support solid development. Diamond interest is relied upon to twofold by 2024. In United Arab Emirates, a resuscitated economy and a white-collar class that is required to grow 2.8 times by 2024 will convey high single-digit development for the nation’s diamond market.

The supply standpoint for unpleasant diamonds over the same time period will grow in accordance with the arranged decrease in worldwide generation levels. Bain foresees worldwide supply will develop, overall, 3.5- 4 percent amid 2013-2019 and afterward decay by 1.5-2 percent through 2024, as a consequence of maturing mines and a movement to underground mining. The report gauges supply will achieve 163 million carats in 2019, which is underneath the precrisis generation of 177 million carats in 2005, dropping to 163 million carats in 2008.

Notwithstanding tending to the developing inlet between diamond supply and interest, the industry confronts a few issues that will likewise impact the future standpoint and advancement for the business – the most noteworthy of which is declining accessibility of financing, especially for the center business sector, which incorporates brokers, cutters and polishers, and, to a certain degree, gems producers.

Image 3: Price of Diamond

INCLUDEPICTURE “http://riograndeblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/demand.supply.chart_.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET

In the midst of a recently wary and obliged environment brought on by expanded getting, the industry’s rising credit danger and more tightly bank regulations, numerous conventional diamond banks have diminished their introduction to the business. Now and again they are lessening the rate of stones financed from 100 percent to 70-75 percent. Therefore, a time of deleveraging could hit with accessible levels of financing diving by as much as $3 billion in the medium term. For all partners to catch the opportunities made by the anticipated development of the diamond market throughout the following decade, banks must change the way they work together. In the short- to medium-term, this incorporates expanding straightforwardness of the reporting and stock for the center business section, presenting new and more secure items, and upgrading collaboration between conventional business banks and diamond banks,” said Ms. Linde.

Conclusion

The report likewise distinguishes three extra key difficulties that are essential in characterizing the long haul viewpoint for the business’ improvement. These include: maintaining the passionate request, and consequently, the interest for diamonds; securing long haul access to diamonds – especially for diamond adornments players – as long haul supply decreases; and characterizing the part that engineered diamonds ought to play in the business. The Antwerp World Diamond Center is glad to contribute for the fourth time to an exhaustive report, furnishing worldwide partners with an understanding into the condition of the worldwide diamond industry and its future patterns,” said Ari Epstein, CEO of AWDC. Similar to other worldwide businesses, the diamond area is defied with difficulties, while being centered around conveying on future open doors,” said Stephane Fischler, AWDC President. “In spite of an all around created purchaser society with regards to diamonds, our industry must verify we comprehend and make an association with the new era of customers and location their needs and desires. We are likewise seeing the ascent of mechanical progressions, which have an impressive effect on the elements of the diamond pipeline and are a colossal open door for those enthusiasts.

References

Heyne, Paul; Boettke, Peter J.; Prychitko, David L. (2014). The Economic Way of Thinking (13th ed.). Pearson.  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number” o “International Standard Book Number” ISBN  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-13-299129-2” o “Special:BookSources/978-0-13-299129-2” 978-0-13-299129-2.

https://www.malabargoldanddiamonds.com

Mankiw, G (2007). Principles of Economics. South-Western Cengage Learning. p. 470.  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number” o “International Standard Book Number” ISBN  HYPERLINK “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-324-22472-6” o “Special:BookSources/978-0-324-22472-6” 978-0-324-22472-6.

Nyame, F. K., & Grant, J. A. (2012). From carats to karats: explaining the shift from diamond to gold mining by artisanal miners in Ghana. Journal of Cleaner Production, 29, 163-172.

Simoni, C., Rabino, S., & Zanni, L. (2010). Italian and Indian gold and diamondry SMEs, marketing practices in the USA: A comparative case study. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(3), 403-417.

Posted in Uncategorized

Demand and Supply Curve for Tuna Fish

Demand and Supply Curve for Tuna Fish

Name:

Class:

Date:

Q3.3 Demand and Supply Curve for Tuna Fish

From the question, increased demand for Tuna Fish fueled by Americans, Europeans and Chinese who are switching to more healthy sources of protein causes a rightward shift in the demand curve. At the same time, in the labor market for fishermen, the increased number of vessels and fishermen represents a movement along the supply curve. This is primarily because a movement along the supply curve occurs when the price of the good changes and quantity supplied changes in line with the original supply relationship. If any of the factors affecting supply of vessels or labor market changed then the supply curve would shift either side (Arnold, 2013).

If people discover that tuna has heavy concentrations of mercury the fish labor market would suffer. Though price has been increasing due to healthy consciousness about tuna fish as a rich source of protein, this discovery would drastically lower the quantity demanded causing leftward shift in demand curve from D1 to D2. Thereby, the quantity demanded for the fish would lower because of deadly effects of mercury in food which also see price lower from p1 to p2. The supply curve would remain the same and quantity of labor and vessels supplied would move along the curve. If there is no remedy, the entire tuna market would collapse unless fishermen go fishing is safe waters where there are no contaminated fish.

Q 4.1: Price Ceiling in Argentina’s Electricity Market

With increase in demand for electricity in urban and rural areas with a price ceiling, it would put an upward pressure on price of electricity to increase and utility companies would require funds to expand their capacity to meet increasing demand (Q1) at lower and cheap prices (Po). Since there is an incentive to buy air conditioners to cool the houses, power blackouts would continue to increase more in urban areas than in rural areas. The difference arises because more urban centres are connected to power and residents have more disposable incomes to purchase air conditioners. In its worse form as inflation bites, utility companies would have to produce lower units of power at prevailing prices further increasing power blackouts. The supply curve would shift to the left resulting into lower units of power output (Q2) but because of the price ceiling the price remains the same instead of increasing as would have been the case under free market.

Q 4.5: Price of entrees/ dinner during recession and during economic boom

If the restaurant management is seeking less-price conscious clientele, it would therefore mean that during an economic boom, the target clients would have more disposable income and therefore willing to spend extra cash on the same quantity to enjoy a leisurely dinner at the restaurant. Likelihood of the management to increase prices under economic boom would depend on price elasticity of demand among the target customers. If the elasticity of demand is more that unity, then it would mean that a unit change in price would result into more than one unit change in quantity demanded. On the other hand, if elasticity is less that unitary, then a unit change in price would result into less than a unit change in quantity demanded (Landsburg, 2011).

Therefore, in this case because the assumption is that target clientele is less price sensitive, then it means that price elasticity of demand is less than unitary. As a result, if the management decides to increase prices during an economic boom, then a unit change (increase) in price would result in less than a unit change (reduction) in quantity demanded (or number of clients). The resultant effect is that total revenue would increase more than before the original status because change from P0 – P1> Q0 – Q1. This therefore would let the management to allow customers to eat a leisurely dinner because they will have covered their costs and accrue more revenue. In addition, the ambience that comes with the restaurant having fewer customers would attract more customers who are less price sensitive and will to pay extra penny to get the leisure.

Q 10.8: Television service

With satellite television technology it implies that news content can be broadcast from a central location to the rest of the world with minimal cost. Since more people will pay for the service, revenues will be more than cost implying that the marginal cost of production will be lower. In addition the fixed costs associated with acquisition and installation of services will be spread over several users resulting into lower average fixed cost (AFC). With lower average cost, marginal cost and average fixed cost the break-even point for US TV shows would definitely have to be lower.

Satellite technology unlike cable technology has lower costs in terms of acquisition and maintenance. With cable technology one has to lay cables and incur huge maintenance costs. With lower cost for satellite TV companies would have an incentive to go small but niche markets all over the US. The increased revenue streams from the numerous niche markets with limited cost would result into lower breakeven point.

Q18.14: Managing negative externalities efficiently.

Negative externality is the imposition of a cost to other parties not involved in the transaction or activities (Sexton, 2011). In this case, negative externality exists in that the method used to get rid of the skunk will result into noise making to the neighbors and the skunk will end up in a neighbor’s residence who will also incur a cost to remove the animal. If the neighbors don’t unite and engage the reluctant city government on how remove the skunk permanently out of the suburbs, the neighborhood would become noisy and smelly making less attractive.

Some of the efficient way in the short run to address the problem of negative externality is to negotiate with the pest control company to remove the skunk out of the suburb permanently and all the neighbors contribute to pay the firm for the service. This would ensure that neighbors don’t spend their nights under noisy radio and bright lights shining over their houses. In the long run, the neighbors can negotiate with city government to give subsidies or tax relief to companies that offer such services. This will help to lower the costs of dealing with negative externality and offer an incentive for the neighbors to continue engaging the pest control company in future.

Work cited

Arnold, Rogers. Micro-economics, 11th ed. Manson: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2013, Print.

Landsburg, Steven. Price Theory and Application, 8th ed. Manson. South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011, Print.

Sexton, Robert. Exploring Economics, 6th Ed. Manson: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011, Print.

Posted in Uncategorized

Delta Analysis On 1999 Bridge Creek OK F5 Tornado

Delta Analysis On 1999 Bridge Creek OK F5 Tornado

Delta Analysis On 1999 Bridge Creek OK F5 Tornado

Prevention- Shape the Battlefield

The United States has the top occurrence of tornadoes of any country in the world. Over the decade, an average of 1,200 tornadoes struck across the continental United States. Practically a third of these tornadoes happen in the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, a region recognized as “Tornado Alley”. This is the region where environment conditions combine for the period of the springtime and early summer for the development of super cell tornadoes and thunderstorms. Over 55% of a year’s tornadoes take place between the months of April and June, when cold dry air from Canada collides with hot moist air from the Gulf of Mexico. These factors, when combined with a storm system, generate strong to severe thunderstorms and, in some cases, tornadoes.

HYPERLINK “https://www.facebook.com/childcaresafety/posts/521989571182654” t “_blank” o “Video Footage of Moore Oklahoma Tornado”Tornadoes can attack quickly so it is imperative to monitor the weather closely incase of any type of storm activity. Alerts are issued by The United States National Weather Survey during storms to notify people of the possibility of a tornado forming. Close monitoring these broadcasts and comprehending what the various alerts mean can assist you respond rapidly and appropriately.

The term Tornado Watch means the Current weather conditions are perfect for the development and formation of a tornado. Boost weather monitoring and get ready to seek shelter immediately

Tornado Warning means that a tornado is taking place someplace in the area or a tornado touchdown is about to happen. This is normally when a tornado siren sounds. Look for shelter immediately and hang around until weather stations broadcast it is safe to exit.

Preparation- CONOPS, Assets & Infrastructure

Be prepared! Many times the biggest victims to tornado deaths injuries and is failure to react to warnings. Unprepared people are often caught unaware by tornadoes and lack enough time to seek appropriate shelter or warn their neighbors about approaching tornadoes. In order to prevent these following tips should be followed.

Formulate a plan for your organization incase of a tornado. The plans vary greatly depending on place, type or organization, as well as what is happening during the tornado strikes, but all the plans comprise the following:

Identified and marked shelter areas when tornado strikes

A program of when drills and worker training will occur

Put in order tornado relief kits (water, battery power flashlights, food, blankets, radio, etc.)

notify members of tornado disaster procedures

Train staff on how to help guests and what to do in the process of a tornado. Employees should be taught on what areas to look for for guests, where the secure areas are depending on their area, and how to be in touch with other staff.

Be familiar with your community’s warning system. Depending on your location your warning system may vary from somewhere else. It is vital to be acquainted with what the system is in order to respond immediately.

Situate all electrical, gas, and water on/off switches and ensure all employees are familiar with their positions and the correct procedures for shutting them off. This step is essential because after a harsh storm or tornado gas discharges can result in flare-ups, water leaks can cause additional damage, and the power that is left on can cause electrocutions.

Check radio and television for information. Radio and television monitoring for stormy weather is always good, particularly if any outside activities are planned. It is significant to augment the rate of monitoring when thunderstorms are forecasted or skies appear threatening.

In order to receive warnings it’s good to have a NOAA Weather Radio that has a warning alarm. These devices are triggered during harsh weather and turn and sound an alarm instantly once distress call or watch is issued.

Ensure that chosen tornado shelters are accessible and clear. Normally these designated spaces are used for storage of other items.

Surveillance- Scope, Sensitivity, Reliability, Security & Cycle Time

Generally, a disaster occurs when the local emergency response system’s means for managing and coordinating a response are overwhelmed and require outside intervention to succeed. There for state, federal, local government and private response agencies must become involved in the relief effort. Major disasters involve a multitude of different organizations that provide a broad range of resources and services. Unfortunately, the effort to organize a disaster response structure involving multiple public, private, and non-profit agencies is disrupted in a number of unpredictable way

Millions of acres in the United States are affected by wildfires annually. Hundreds of homes and businesses are destroyed by wildfires each year as well as the destruction of wildlife and the ecosystem, and the challenge of wildland fire management is growing. An average of 83,894 wildfires have burned during the past 10 years, an average of 7.4 million acres annually, and more than 74,000 wildfires burned more than 8.7 million acres in the United States in 2011 alone.

Identification- Specificity, Confidence, Immediacy

The strongest tornado ever recorded moved through the Oklahoma City suburbs of Bridge Creek and Moore in the late afternoon hours. This tornado killed 38 people and injured hundreds. A total of 69 tornadoes occurred from this outbreak. The tornado’s path was judged to be more than a mile wide at times. A Doppler radar On Wheels (DOW) team measured a 318 mph wind speed in this tornado, the highest measured wind speed ever recorded within a tornado. The National Weather Service was able to give Moore residents 35 minutes warning lead time on this tornado. Total damages exceeded $1.1 billion in general, planned management insights for disaster organizations responding to a major disaster over an extended geographical area such as a city, county, regions, or states or region can be very complex, and no two situations are ever the same. Major disasters have a low probability of occurring, but when they do, they have devastating consequences. Designing response structures for such events is a difficult task.

II. EXECUTION

Once a warning is issued it is important to act quickly and make sure everyone is accounted for and safely located in the designated tornado shelter area. Depending on where you are when the warning is issued there are varying degrees of safe locations to be in during a tornado. The following instruction is based off recommendations by the Federal Emergency Management Agency or FEMA, are designed to help individuals determine the safest place to protect themselves.

Tornadoes are one of nature’s most powerful and destructive forces. Here’s some advice on how to prepare for a tornado and what to do if you’re caught in a twister’s path.

Notification- Timely, Robust, Orderly, Functional

• Prepare for tornadoes by gathering emergency supplies including food, water, medications, batteries, flashlights, important documents, road maps, and a full tank of gasoline.

• When a tornado approaches, anyone in its path should take shelter indoors—preferably in a basement or an interior first-floor room or hallway.

• Avoid windows and seek additional protection by getting underneath large, solid pieces of furniture.

• Avoid automobiles and mobile homes, which provide almost no protection from tornadoes.

• Those caught outside should lie flat in a depression or on other low ground and wait for the storm to pass.

Marshalling- Firstest with the Mostestâ

After a tornado, majority of families recover over time, mostly with the support of family, close friends, and organizations. The duration of recovery depends, partly, on how frightened persons were and the level of the damage and loss. A number of families will be capable of going back to their normal everyday life rather quickly, while some will have to contend with mending their damaged homes and possessions, looking for medical care, or facing economic hardship. A number of families will have a dead loved one or a pet. Some will need to adapt to changes in school program or school closings.

Recovery

Children’s functioning is influenced by the way their parents and other care providers manage during and after the tornado. Youngsters often turn to grown-up for information, consolation, and assistance. Children do fine when parents and teachers stay (or at least appear) calm, respond children’s questions truthfully, and answer as best they can to needs.

Human life is affected by Tornadoes in regards to the necessity of being prepared if one occurs where you live. This can comprise having a safe room, basement, storm cellar, etc. It can also have an effect on the community’s reaction, such as siren testing, drills, volunteers, and temporary shelter/food/water in areas like a local school.

The first concern after a disaster should be the family’s health and safety. You should consider possible safety concern and keep an eye on family health and well-being.

Check for injuries. Do not try to move badly injured persons except when they are in danger of death or more injury. If it’s a must for you to move an unconscious individual, first stabilize the back and the neck and then seek assistance immediately.

If the wounded is not breathing, cautiously position the wounded for artificial breathing, clear the airway, and begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Stabilize body temperature with blankets. Ensure the victim doesn’t get overheated. Don’t feed fluids to an unconscious person. Take care of exhaustion. Don’t try to do a lot at once. Set your main concerns and pace yourself. Get sufficient rest. Drink a lot of clean water and also eat well. Wear strong work gloves and boots. Wash your hands carefully with soap and clean water regularly when working in debris. Be alert of new safety issues formed by the disaster. Observe for washed out roads, unhygienic buildings, damaged electrical wiring, unhygienic water, broken glass, gas leaks, and slippery floors. Notify local authorities concerning health and safety issues, as well as, downed power lines, chemical spills, smoldering insulation, washed out roads, and dead animals.

 Contact the local American Red Cross chapter in your residence for information about missing family members. Don’t contact the chapter in the catastrophe area.If you are looking for or reporting information on a missing youngster, please contact the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children’s Hotline at 1-800-THE- LOST (1-800-843-5678).

The American Red Cross in addition to other volunteer agencies will offer you with water, food, and clothing. Listen in to radio or watch local television for the location of the nearby volunteer agency facility. There are hot water heater is a good source of water. Switch off the power that you use to heat your tank and allow it cool. When you need water, place a container beneath and open the drain tap on the underside of the tank.

 The American Red Cross as well as other volunteer agencies will set up set up shelters for people who have urgent accommodation needs, and cannot go back to their homes. Pay attention to your radio or watch local television for the place of the closest volunteer agency facility. For space and health reasons, pets are not allowed in communal emergency shelters. call the emergency management agency or your home animal shelter or humanitarian society to see if there is a asylum set-up to keep pets in an emergency.

 For those who have extended duration housing needs, FEMA provide several kinds of assistance, consisting of services and grants to assist people renovate their homes and locate replacement housing.

References

Galiano, D. (2000). Tornados. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

Park, M. (2010). Tornados. Elwood, Vic ; Gosford, N.S.W: Lemonfizz Media ; Scholastic

Torrecilla, J. (1998). Tornados. Madrid: Ediciones Lengua de Trapo.

Posted in Uncategorized

DELL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT CASE ANSWERS

DELL SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT CASE ANSWERS

Dell supply chain management case answers

Name

9144008549640[Date]

[Company name]

[Company address]

1000000[Date]

[Company name]

[Company address]

INSTITUTION AFFILIATION

centerbottom[Company name] | [Company address]

1154000[Company name] | [Company address]

4565657948930Name

hp

1154000Name

hp

6267450233680[Year]

76009800[Year]

Dell uses a build-to-order strategy, which permits customer to custom form their Pcs the way they incline toward. When the request is gotten by Dell, the gathering procedure for the custom assembled machine starts. Dell can keep up a low stock of components in light of the fact that segments are requested like clockwork from the supplier focused around each one request. When the components arrive each one request a generation pack is assembled and send to the gathering group to fabricate and bundle for conveyance (Jacobs, Chase, R & Chase, 2010). Dell has made an exceedingly fruitful operation by making an immediate model channel instead of the retail direct like the others in the PC business. By removing the dissemination focuses and retailers out, Dell has the capacity cut the time and expenses connected with these steps. Truth be told, not at all like most PC contenders, Dell offers straightforwardly to their clients. As indicated by the reading material, Customization permits Dell to fulfill clients by providing for them an item that is near their particular prerequisites (Chopra & Meindl, 2012, p.90).

Dell’s immediate plan of action sidesteps the merchant in the inventory network and offers machines straightforwardly to clients, constructing each to request. Dell does not make the machine segments; they only gather machines focused around components that are accessible in the business sector. Dell’s utilization of engineering and data to smudge the conventional limits between suppliers, fabricates, and clients is named virtual coordination. To accomplish the focal points of a coordinated organization, Dell treats suppliers and administration suppliers as though they were inside the organization. Their frameworks are connected progressively to Dell’s framework and their workers take an interest in outline groups and item dispatches.

This kind of firm with many customer has ended up being leeway, on the grounds that Dell now knows their end clients machine inclination through their request. Further, this will permit Dell to acquaint shoppers with extra items and segments that may be of investment connected from their request inclination. As an issue of online deals, absolute transportation costs in the Dell store network are high than in a production network offering equipment through merchants and retailers (Gold, Seuring & Beske, 2010). Dell sends the custom manufactured Pcs specifically to their shoppers as opposed to sending truck burdens to circulation focuses and retailers. Dell’s high transportation expense make up a vast share of the ease Pcs sold. Dell was known for their fabricate to-request system. Shockingly, when the request was gotten, the turnaround time would be a couple of weeks due methodology to hold up until the request has been set before pulling the component of the assembly.

This method is appealing to much esteemed consumers with adaptable requests, however there are numerous shoppers that need to purchase a standard machine without paying more for tweaked segments. Customers not inspired by the adjustable segments are not so much pulled in to the online channel in view of the postponement to get their standard PC. At the point when Dell consolidates the loss of enthusiasm from purchasers requesting standard Pcs, it influences the online channel, as well as it expands the transportation costs as a result of dispatching less machines on trucks then what the expense of the ease Pcs cost. Before long there will be a shortage if not rectified. “A watchful study, be that as it may, demonstrates that a half and half model consolidating retail locations and the online channel can be exceptionally viable” (Chopra & Meindl, 2012, p.91). Dell would profit more if adaptable segments are sold through the online channel and institutionalized machines without modified components are sold in retail location. Along these lines Dell has a more ascertained approach to estimate their interest. Offering the institutionalized machines would likewise permit Dell to demonstrate a sparing in their transportation costs.

Dell wasn’t going to abandon their fabricate to-request procedure, however rather growing their store network outline to take care of purchaser demand in an adaptable and effective way. Dell has adjusted their production network configuration to address the needs of their purchasers, yet Dell didn’t simply fall in accordance with their rivals. Dell recognized their inventory network capacities were diverse for their shopper, so they deliberately manufactured the portions need to meet their customers’ needs. Dell reallocated some of their get together to create the institutionalized fittings and machines. Dell embedded the custom-made approach by outsourcing their generation for the institutionalized part to distinctive nations for the retail locations, for example, Wal-Mart. Has this methodology promptly fulfilled customers, as well as this has eliminated generation fetched and diminished their transportation costs (Waters, 2010). Also, this permits the Dell plants to concentrate on the much esteemed adaptable components their purchasers keep on ordering. This procedure expands the creations and conveyance to their consumers.

Reference

Chopra, S., & Meindl, P. (2012). Supply chain management: Strategy, planning, and operation (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.  

Gold, S., Seuring, S., & Beske, P. (2010). Sustainable supply chain management and inter‐organizational resources: a literature review. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, 17(4), 230-245.

Jacobs, F. R., Chase, R. B., & Chase, R. (2010). Operations and supply chain management. McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Waters, D. (Ed.). (2010). Global logistics: New directions in supply chain management. Kogan Page Publishers.

Posted in Uncategorized

Nursing And Millennium Goals

Nursing And Millennium Goals

Nursing And Millennium Goals

Contents

This paper looks at UN millennium development goals, focus being on the fifth millennium development goal which is improvement of maternal health. This goal is divided into two parts. The first part deals with reduction of maternal mortality and the second the second part deals with universal access to reproductive health. The paper also elaborates on the importance of improvement of maternal health to the nation. It further highlights on the importance of this goal to the community. Nurses have a great role in working towards achieving the millennium development goals. These roles are also elaborated in the paper.

Millennium development goal 5A: Reduction of maternal mortality

Almost half a million lives of women and children are lost during pregnancy and child birth. A large percentage of these deaths can be avoided or are preventable. The reduction of maternal mortality is not only an issue because of its effect on development of a nation but also since it posses a challenge in human rights. Low mortality rates means that the nation is better placed in terms of health. It also means that there are measures that have been put in place to ensure a decrease in this maternal mortality rates. If there is a risk of transfer of HIV from an infected mother then caution is taken to prevent this transfer and decrease deaths due to HIV among infants. This decrease in child mortality rate will have a positive effect on the health of the nation since there will be no deaths due to HIV and further more new cases of HIV are not registered. (Hunt, p., & Bueno, 2000.). Reduction of maternal mortality is also important since it promotes the right to life. This means that the nation will be a healthy one with no individual mother or child denied the right to life.

Millennium development goal 5B: Universal access to reproductive health

The access to universal health is important in terms of the health of a nation. Pregnant women are entitled to effective and sufficient health in the preconception period, the prenatal stage and also the postnatal stage. Access to this reproductive health ensures that there are no complications in child birth and also after child birth. Both the mother and the child are expected to be perfectly healthy after delivery. This therefore means that the health of the nation will be improved since there will be reduced cases of pregnancy related deaths.

Application of millennium development goal 5 to the community

This millennium development goal is very important to the community in various aspects. The World Health Organization has the expectation that in each community this goal can be fully realized. The goal is applicable in the community since there is the general need to reduce the mortality rate of children and mothers in cases that relate to pregnancy and child birth. Therefore, proper care should be given to the expectant mothers in terms of check up and advice during the time they are pregnant. There should be adequate health providing facilities within the community that offer prenatal and post natal clinics for pregnant women which arrest any emergency case and hence prevent mortality. The existence of quality education on issues pertaining to reproductive health is also a way in which the community can work towards attaining the goal. Members of the community should be educated on family planning, and ways to prevent mother to child HIV transmission. They can also access information on how they can take care of themselves and the child after birth. Therefore there is building of health institutions and employment of qualified workers in these institutions who will help in realization of this goal. Through this the goal becomes a reality that can be achieved within the community.

Monitoring and Measuring the Progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 5

For there to be realization of the millennium development goal five, the process of putting it into force has to be carefully monitored and measurement of the progress constantly done. There are various international bodies that help in monitoring the process such as the WHO and the Centre for Disease Control.

Health workers within a community can be of great aid in monitoring the implementation (Tanzania, A. 2012). There can be regular checking of the population which should be done carefully and the records used to compare with previous ones and check if there is a decline in pregnancy related deaths within a community. The equipment within health facilities should be checked constantly and any outdated ones should be replaced with new effective equipment. The employees in these health facilities should also be very qualified and fresh talent should be constantly incorporated into these institutions.

Nursing Role in Attaining the Millennium Development Goals

Nurses play crucial roles towards the achievement of millennium development goals. There are various ways through which they aid in achievement of these goals this may be for instance; achieving goal three which is promoting gender equity and empowering women. They can develop understanding of the instruments and the various declarations of human rights. They can educate the public using examples such as violation of human rights, which can take forms such as discrimination based on gender, crude practices such as female genital mutilation and other violence. They can do this through demonstration of their harmful consequences on the health. They can also encourage women to acquire skills that will make them elevate their economic and social status (Christi, 2011). They should also lobby for equity in access and to affordable and effective health.

Nurses also have a role in achieving the fourth goal which is to reduce child mortality. They do this through putting emphasis on the child immunization and highlighting the risks that are associated with lack of immunization which can be causes of deaths. They also encourage parents to attend antenatal and postnatal care. They can also make formal teachings to parents on health and illness where they are the main information providers. They can also provide health services or be supervisors in the process of health service provision (Christi, 2011). They can also organize for door to door immunization services which will reduce child mortality rates.

In conclusion,  the paper shows that there are serious measures that are undertaken in achievement of the various millennium development goals and the key stake holders in the achievement of these goals. The importance of realizing these goals are also highlighted and the effect they have on the community.

References

Hunt, p., & Bueno, j. (2000.). REDUCING MATERNAL MORTALITY. The contribution of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/reducing_mm.pd

Christi, L. (2011). Roles of Nurses in Achieving Millennium Development Goals | Healthmad. Healthmad. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http://healthmad.com/conditions-and-diseases/roles-of-nurses-in-achieving-millenium-development-goals/

Tanzania, A. (2012). Community Health Workers – an important resource towards achieving the MDGs. Community Health Workers – an important resource towards achieving the MDGs. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from www.who.int/workforcealliance/forum/2011/hrhawardscs36/en/index.htmlUNEP & the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – Goals # 4, 5, 6: Improve Public Health – United Nations

Environment Programme (UNEP) –. (2008.). United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) – Home page . Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=448&ArticleID=4893&l=enAchieving Millennium Development Goal 5: Reproductive Health, Poverty Reduction and Health Sector Reform | World Bank Institute (WBI). (2012). World Bank Institute (WBI). Retrieved September 27, 2012, from http://wbi.worldbank.org/wbi/event/achieving-millennium-development-goal-5-reproductive-health-poverty-reduction-and-health-secto

Crawford, B. (2008). Global Health 1. http://www.nwc.cc.wy.us/waw/essays/essay84.pdf. Retrieved September 27, 2012, from www.nwc.cc.wy.us/waw/essays/essay84.pdf

Nurses and Social Media

Nurses and Social Media

Nurses and Social Media

Gayann Taylor

Bow Valley College

CSC1040: Information Literacy and Technology Essentials

Instructor Sonya Davis

January 30th 2022

Nurses and Social Media

Summary of the Scenario

The scenario selected for this assignment is scenario 1, which discusses about Bob, a licensed practical/vocational (LPN/VN) nurse for the last 20 years. In this scenario, Bob takes a photo of a resident after getting consent from the brother since the resident could not offer her consent due to her mental and physical condition. Bob shared the photo with a former colleague during their discussion at a local bar. Bob’s employment was terminated when the group home learned about the situation and the BON imposed disciplinary action. This disciplinary action required him to complete education on privacy and confidentiality, ethics and professional boundaries.

Impact of the nurse’s actions

Bob’s action to share the resident’s photos with his friend may affect all the parties involved in the scenario. Firstly, Bob’s individual nursing career may be affected in the future due to the disclosure of confidential information (ANA, 2011). Bob may find it hard to get employed by another healthcare organization. He may also get sued by the resident’s family when they learn that he has shared the photo with a person working in another healthcare organization (NCSBN 2011). On the other hand, the group home may also be affected since it has to fire one of its experienced nurses. Additionally, the public’s trust in nurses in the group home can be compromised when they learn that a nurse in the organization has disclosed the resident’s confidential information (ANA, 2011).

Guidelines Violated

From the scenario, it is clear that Bob did not consider the guidelines offered to help nurses create awareness and caution in order to avoid disclosure of patients’ confidential or private information. One of the guidelines prohibits nurses from taking photos or videos using their personal devices. This guideline was violated by Bob, who took photos of the resident using a personal phone. Additionally, Bob provided sufficient details regarding the patient to a person who is not a member of the healthcare team, which is against the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which intends to safeguard the privacy of the patient (NCSBN 2011).

References

ANA. (2011). Fact sheet: Navigating the world of social media. Retrieved from https://www.nursingworld.org/~4af5ec/globalassets/docs/ana/ethics/fact_sheet_-_navigating_the_world_of_social_media_web.pdf

NCSBN. (2011). White paper: A nurse’s guide to the use of social media. Retrieved from https://www.ncsbn.org/Social_Media.pdf

Posted in Uncategorized