Nuclear Bombs

Nuclear Bombs

Nuclear Bombs

Indeed, while nuclear weapons have only been used once during times of war, dropped in Japan in August 1945, killing over 215,000 innocent people, there are a greater number of countries acquiring nuclear capabilities in the 21st Century making them more of a threat than ever before. Nuclear weapons are just one of many weapons of mass destruction that threaten innocent citizens worldwide (“World Mysteries” 1),

There are weapons of mass destruction other than the different kinds of nuclear warheads. Anthrax was a threat to our country not more than one year ago, and Smallpox is a current threat talked about quite often. Only a few countries possess Anthrax, but Iraq, North Korea, Russia, France, and the United States all possess Smallpox. The International Terrorist Group “al Qaida” is also thought to possess the deadly disease according to the State Department (Staff A6). An outbreak of Smallpox would bring the disease back from over 25 years of eradication, and could cause the death of thousands of people (McEnery B1).

Nuclear weapons pose a great threat to the world, by not only third-world countries, but also terrorist organizations using “Dirty Bombs”. Dirty bombs are conventional explosives, however encased by nuclear material such as Uranium or Plutonium. In addition to atomic bombs, and dirty bombs, there are over seventy-five other different variants of nuclear weapons, creating a constant threat to countries all around the world, including the United States of America.

There are over seventy-five top-secret presidential nuclear bunkers in which the President and some select few can go to during and after a nuclear war (“50 Facts” 3). On September 11, 2001, George W. Bush and others went to one of these facilities in Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha, Nebraska (Gibbs 33). Also until 1988, there was over $2,000,000,000 stored by the Federal Reserve in a facility for use after a nuclear war (“50 Facts” 3). There are many other precautions the United States Government takes to protect the country from nuclear war.

The history of nuclear warfare goes back hundreds of years. Uranium was discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth in the mineral pitchblende, and it was named after the planet Uranus. Pitchblende was only known about eight year’s prior to the discovery of Uranium. Uranium has a high density. The heaviest of all naturally occurring elements; Uranium is 18.7 times as dense as water, making it a common material in the keels of yachts and as counterweights in aircraft rudders and elevators. Also, it is great for radiation or heat shielding, as its melting point is 1132 degrees Celsius (“WNA: What is Uranium?” 1).

Atomic Bombs work as fission, where particles, or nuclei, are split exerting massive amounts of energy. This force expelled violently and explosively, is the atomic bomb, from the power that harnesses the atom. Atomic bombs are made up of one of the most unstable elements on the current periodic table, Uranium-235. Uranium’s atoms are unusually large; therefore, it is hard to hold them together. Plutonium-239 is also one of the materials used in making atomic weapons, however not harnessing the fission of Uranium; it acts as a catalyst to an even greater reaction (“World Mysteries” 2).

The concept of radioactivity has barely been around for 100 years. Discovered by Antoine Henri Becquerel in 1896, it was quickly studied by the scientific community. Albert Einstein formulated his “Theory of Relativity” in 1905, stating if mass could be transformed into energy, the energy liberated would be massive. Einstein’s theory would be proved thirty-three years later by Otto Hahn, along with his partner Fritz Strassman (“World Mysteries” 2).

It wasn’t until August 1942 when the United States established the Manhattan Project, when it developed, constructed, and tested the world’s first atomic bomb. Many prominent American scientists, associated with the United States Army, and their engineers, headed the project. It was three years later, July 16, 1945, when the first atomic bomb was tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico, using it less than one month later against Japan during World War II (“World Mysteries” 3).

There was tremendous competition in the race to develop nuclear weapons. The United States was far ahead of their competition, beating out the Soviets by over four years, when they tested their first test, August 29, 1949 (“World Mysteries” 3)?

Today both the Unites States and Russia have just about the same amount of active nuclear warheads, around 10,000. There are nuclear-arms treaties between the two superpowers, attempting to erase nuclear weapons from the weapon stockpile of countries worldwide. So many countries, and now terrorist organizations, now or soon will have nuclear weapons; some believe it could bring our world to an end. But once a country abolishes the weapons, their national security would be put at risk (“Nuclear Powers” 1).

Nuclear bombs are not the only form of weapons of mass destruction. There are various other methods, such as viruses, diseases, bacteria, etc. Actually, one of the greatest threats to the United States currently is the deadly smallpox virus. In preparation for an attack, the United States government is taking drastic action by vaccinating medical personnel in case of such an attack, who in turn would vaccinate the general public and by ensuring a stock of vaccinations is available (McEnery B1).

Nuclear bombs are not the only kind of nuclear weapons; the biggest threat comes from terrorists, and their “dirty bombs”. Dirty Bombs are not dropped out of an airplane; they are not launched from a missile site. They are conventional bombs; such as those used in car bombings, bus bombings, etc. The difference between conventional bombs, and dirty bombs is that at the core of dirty bombs is compacted radioactive nuclear material, which expands quickly after the conventional TNT explosion (“NRC: Fact Sheet” 1).

If a dirty bomb were to go off in Times Square, New York, the explosion would kill less than ten people, however it would kill or injure thousands more due to radiation exposure. There are several ways nuclear material can be acquired; there are over 21,000 licensed organizations in the United States legally using radioactive or nuclear material for medical, academic, research, or industrial purposes (“NRC: Fact Sheet” 1).

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stated that they receive on average 300 reports of lost or stolen radioactive materials per year that could be used to build a dirty bomb. Due to the tragic events of September 11, the NRC is taking greater steps to safeguard higher-risk nuclear devices against terrorists. However, terrorists are not the only people attempting to obtain nuclear weapons (“NRC: Fact Sheet” 1).

There are countries attempting to obtain full nuclear warheads for use against other countries, and in one case against it’s own people. Iran, North Korea, Iraq, India, Pakistan, and Israel all have nuclear warheads. India, Pakistan, and Israel are commonly called the “de facto” states, while India and Pakistan conduct nuclear tests, Israel is widely assumed to have nuclear weapons of their own, despite not declaring any. Iran and Iraq both posses nuclear material and may be close to developing nuclear warheads (“Declared Nuclear Powers” 1).

Nuclear waste from nuclear power is another possible threat for nuclear bomb fuel. The most common nuclear element exerted as a waste product from Nuclear Power Plants is being tested for use in an atomic bomb, both for government and terrorist use. Since it is the most readily available radioactive element, there are threats that quantities may be stolen for terrorist use, providing radioactive material for both weapons making, and research (Vergano 1).

Weapons scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico are studying the energy expelled when two halves of a neptunium sphere gets closer together over a four-day period. Americium, another nuclear waste product, was investigated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1999, along with neptunium. The IAEA found it could also serve as a weapons material, however it was viewed as less of a threat (Vergano 1).

While the detonation of a nuclear weapon anywhere would cause extensive damage, its power would depend on the altitude at which it explodes- high in the air, or at ground level. It also on whether it was detonated in an urban setting, such as a major city, or in the open country (“Effects of a Nuclear Bomb” 1).

Nuclear explosions give off a great pulse of radiation, leaving everything intensely radioactive. The air-burst given off from the explosion would completely vaporize most everything within the blast radius, rising into a giant fireball. Not only would immediate effects obliterate the affected area, but also electricity, communications, water, and other city utilities would be destroyed. Rescue services would be impaired from responding due to the severe damage to the immediate vicinity, and the inaccessible roads. Hospitals and medical personnel would be overloaded, due to the massive number of injured requiring medical attention (“Effects of a Nuclear Bomb” 4).

The effects to a major U.S. city of between one and two million people, by a one-megaton bomb would be devastating. One third of its population, would be killed immediately, another third would be seriously injured, while the remaining third would go with little or no injury. A whole year’s supply of blood would instantly be needed for transfusions, with new patients covering one third of all hospital beds in North America (“Effects of a Nuclear Bomb” 5).

Nuclear power plants use the neutrons surrounded by neutron-absorbing material to limit the chain reaction process in a controlled “slow burn,” instead of an explosion. The energy omitted by nuclear fission is used to heat water into steam, which in turn rotates a generator. There are over 107 nuclear power plants in the United States providing power to the country every day. Over 16% of the world’s electricity is from nuclear reactors powered by Uranium, all together generating enough power to provide five times the world’s most populated country, India (“WNA:What is Uranium?” 3).

Plutonium, Uranium, and other nuclear materials are often considered “Radioactive,” but what does radioactive mean? Radioactive materials atoms are continuously “falling apart,” resulting in such intense extra energy in the form of leftover neutrons that it damages human cells. In spite of this, the energy that is emitted is not an adequate amount of energy to create a nuclear explosion. The force of the Trinitrotoluene, or TNT, squashes the radioactive element to its ‘critical mass’, making it so dense that every escaping neutron bumps into another atom creating large explosions; this describes ‘nuclear fission’ (“Nuclear Bombs” 1).

When the atoms bump into each other, other nucleuses break down as well, whether it was ready to or not, releasing even more energy, and more neutrons. Those newly released neutrons are bumping into and breaking up more nuclei, quickly triggering a chain reaction. Within a fraction of a second, trillions of neutrons release energy, creating the massive explosion associated with a nuclear bomb (“Nuclear Bombs” 2).

Uranium is all around us in nature, often seen in rocks in two to four parts per million. It is also commonly found in seawater in small concentrations, which could be mined from seawater if demand rose high enough (“WNA: What is Uranium?” 1).

The world’s foremost miners of uranium in order are Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, South Africa, Namibia, Brazil, Russia, and the United States of America. There are other smaller deposits that could be mined when deemed necessary as well. Uranium is only sold from these countries to countries who have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and who allow international inspectors to verify it is being used for peaceful purposes only.

Peaceful purposes for uranium include use of radioisotopes in medicine, emitting gamma radiation treating illnesses, cancer, sterilizing syringes, and other medical equipment as well. Smoke detectors also often contain radioisotopes derived from plutonium. Over 200 ships use nuclear reactors for power, submarines, aircraft carriers, icebreakers, and others enabling them to stay at sea for long periods of time without refueling (“WNA: What is Uranium?” 2).

Due to the disarmament agreements world wide, methods have been developed to dilute military uranium for use in peaceful purposes. Radioisotopes from such methods are currently being used in the preservation of food, crops, and livestock. Today’s uses for uranium are expanding to the thought of nuclear powered aircraft, and much more. Nuclear bombs are a threat that is never going to be erased, however, the power coming from radioactive elements for peaceful purposes is something that we cannot live without (“WNC: What is Uranium? 2).

Nuclear research has benefited mankind in many ways. But today, the nuclear industry faces huge, very complex issues. The future will depend on the advanced engineering and scientific research. The concept of the atom has existed for many centuries, but we only recently began to understand the enormous power contained in these tiny molecules. This power has been put to use for peaceful purposes, however it still posses the threat Albert Einstein stated in 1939 to the American President “It is possible to set up nuclear chain reactions in a large mass of uranium creating a new phenomenon in bombs” (“World Mysteries” 1).


Works Cited

50 Facts about U.S. Nuclear Weapons. 11 Nov. 2002 .Countries with Nuclear Bombs. 6 Nov. 2002 .Cozic, Charles P. Nuclear Proliferation. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1992.

Declared Nuclear Powers. 11 Nov. 2002 .Dirty Bombs. 6 Nov. 2002 .The Effects of a Nuclear Bomb on an American City. 11 Nov. 2002 .The Effects of a Nuclear Bomb on an American City – Page Two. 11 Nov. 2002 .Gibbs, Nancy. “If you want to humble an empire.” Time 11 Sept. 2001: 32.

How Nuclear Weapons Work. 6 Nov. 2002 .Hydrogen Bombs. 6 Nov. 2002 .Landau, Elaine. The New Nuclear Reality. Brookfield: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.

Levi, Michael, and Henry Kelly. “Weapons of Mass Disruption.” Scientific American Nov. 2002: 76.

McEnery, Regina. “Threat of Smallpox hunts us.” The Plain Dealer [Cleveland, Ohio] 6 Nov. 2002: B1+.

NRC:Fact Sheet on Dirty Bombs. 11 Nov. 2002 .Nuclear Bombs….How They Work. 5 Nov. 2002 .Nuclear Fusion. 5 Nov. 2002 .“Proliferation.” National Review 11 Nov. 2002: 16.

“Resolution, at last, from Security Council.” Economist 9 Nov. 2002: 14.

Smallpox. 6 Nov. 2002 .Squitieri, Tom. “Inspectors have plan for flushing out illicit weapons.” USA Today 12 Nov. 2002: 1.

Staff. “U.S. Expresses fear of Smallpox.” The Plain Dealer [Cleveland, Ohio] 6 Nov. 2002: A6.

U.S. Nuclear Power Plants 6 December 2002

Vergano, Dan. “Common Nuclear Waste Element could be bomb threat.” USA Today 21 Oct. 2002: D6.

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NTR 198


You will be required to research a nutrition topic of your choice based on the subjects we are discussing. You must find one article of original research on your topic, from an accredited journal (i.e. The Journal of Clinical Nutrition, The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (JADA, JAMA. The Journal of the American Medical Association or any other medical journal available the library or on the library’s database. You will submit the first page of the article with your paper and include a bibliography of the article read and proper citations when necessary. The final assignment will consist of the following components: Minimum of 500 words

A summary of your topic, including issues of concern or what research is being done and why.

Include a copy of the first page of the article, bibliography and citations.

Write a summary of the research article including who the subjects were, how many subjects were involved, what exactly was being studied, the methodology, the results and conclusion. – IN YOUR OWN WORDS

Then write your own conclusion on the topic relating to the research your just read what you learned. Was it good science? Why? What did you come to believe about the topic?

*Topics must be specific, i.e. not simply “Vitamin A” but “Vitamin A and Cancer Prevention” or not just “Pediatric Nutrition” but “Parental Influence of Food Choices of Children.

*** Research articles must have subjects, methods, experiments and conclusions. It must be the original research NOT an arable about research. Not all articles in journals are original research, choose carefully.

**** All citations must be written in APA format (see directions). Help is available at the Library and the Writing Center

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NSG124 Pharmacology Study Test Plan Exam 3

NSG124 Pharmacology Study Test Plan Exam 3

NSG124 Pharmacology Study Test Plan Exam 3

Unit 3 Module 9 & 10 Location Student Notes

Therapeutic uses

Adverse effects

Patient education


RAA Drugs Patient education

Nursing interventions

Nursing considerations

NSG124.09.01.03 (x2)

Nursing Care for RAA Drugs Adverse effects

Patient education

Nursing Interventions

Nursing Considerations

NSG124.09.02.02 (x3)

Nursing Care for Calcium Channel Blockers Therapeutic uses

Adverse effects


Drug to drug interactions

NSG124.09.03.01 (x2)

Vasodilator Agents Therapeutic uses

Adverse effects


Nursing considerations

Drug to drug interactions


Hypertensives in Emergencies & Pregnancy Nursing interventions

Nursing considerations

Adverse effects

Patient education NSG124.09.04.04 (x3)

Nursing Care for Antihypertensive Agents

Nursing considerations

Adverse effects

Patient education

Therapeutic effects NSG124.09.05.04 (x3)

Nursing Care for Antihypertensive Agents

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Patient education

Therapeutic effects

NSG124.10.01.03 (x4)

Nursing Care for Antidysrhythmic Agents Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Patient education

Therapeutic effects


Atherosclerotic drugs Nursing considerations

Adverse effects

Patient education NSG124.10.02.03 (x3)

Nursing Care for Atherosclerotic Agents Nursing considerations

Adverse effects

Patient education

Therapeutic effects

NSG124.10.03.03 (x3)

Nursing Care for Antianginal Agents Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Patient education

Adverse effects


Anticoagulant Drugs Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Patient education

Adverse effects

NSG124.10.04.03 (x5)

Anticoagulant Nursing Considerations Nursing considerations

Adverse effects

Patient education


Thrombolytic Nursing Considerations Treatments

Patient education



Myocardial Infarction Agents Nursing considerations


Patient education

Adverse effects

NSG124.10.06.03 (x3)

Nursing Care for Deficiency Anemia Agents Unit 3 Module 11 &12 Location Student Notes


Patient education

Nursing considerations

Adverse effects


SSRI & SNRI Depression Agents Patient education

Nursing considerations NSG124.11.01.05

Atypical Antidepressant Agents Patient education

Nursing considerations

Adverse effects

NSG124.11.01.06 (x2)

Antidepressant Agent Nursing Consideration Examples

Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects

NSG124.11.02.02 (x2)

Antianxiety Agents Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects


Bipolar Disorders & Nondrug Therapy Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects

NSG124.12.01.03 (x2)

First-Generation Antipsychotic Nursing Considerations Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects


Second-Generation Antipsychotic Agents Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects


Barbiturates Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects


Controlled Substance Act & Healthcare Impact Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects


Alcohol Pharmacology & Alcohol Use Disorder Patient education

Nursing considerations

Nursing interventions

Adverse effects


Nicotine & Smoking Cessation

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Nsecurity,Firewalls and VPN solutions

Nsecurity,Firewalls and VPN solutions

Nsecurity, firewalls, and VPN solutions







Data security is very important in safeguarding private, personal or business information. Personal data like credit card information should be well protected from access by unauthorized individuals or hackers. Any company that deals with credit card transactions via computer network should therefore employ reliable security measures if they are to maintain trust by their customers. This paper gives an overview of network security fundamentals, threats and issues with a detailed network security recommendations followed by summary with reference to one medium-sized start-up company that processes credit card transactions on a daily basis (Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).

Overview of network security fundamentals, security threats, and issues

The entire network security implementation will depend on the size of the company or organization and hence the number of computers to be linked. In case just a dozen of computers with inclusion of Wi-Fi devices are to be connected, then a simple business wireless router is considered. These routers can offer sufficient Wi-Fi coverage and to provide Ethernet ports for wiring computers into the network or for addition of extra components like printers, wireless access points and others(Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).

If more than a dozen computers are to be connected like the case of this medium sized company, then security devices such as VPN router/firewall and unified threat management gateway or firewall will be needed. All these devices are step up from the basic wireless router. The virtual private network (VPN), server and at times other enhanced feature like VLAN support and multiple SSIDs are all integrated in these routers. Unified threat management (UTM) routers are normally for Ethernet only with limited number of ports and hence need separate access points for network links. Apart from offering functions of router and internet gateway with VPN server and firewall, these devices also include protection against threats of malware and viruses, anti-spam, content filtering and issues of intrusion detection and prevention as well as any form of unauthorized access to sensitive information(Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).

3.0 Detailed network security recommendations

3.1 Fundamentals of firewalls and VPNs

Since this middle sized company requires remote access to the network services, this can be implemented by employing a router, gateway or firewall having VPN server that supports remote connections. In this way, users will be capable of accessing the network away from their offices. In addition, two or more offices can easily be linked together in a site to site configuration (Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).

There are a number of VPN types that can be used. First is the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) with built in VPN. However, PPTP has low level of security with other issues arising from users remotely connecting from networks that do not permit VPN services. Second is Layer 2Tunneling protocol (L2TP/IPSec which has better security as compared to PPTP. L2TP is also supported by many operating systems and popular mobile devices. Nevertheless, L2TP is hard to configure and can lead to connectivity issues from remote network connections that don’t permit VPN services. Third is the Secure Sockets layer (SSL) protocol which permits remote access by users who connect through web browser there by removing the VPN service issue. Next is the OpenVPN which is not supported by most built in clients on computers or mobile devices. Due to this, a third party VPN client software has to be installed on the computers or devices to support connections for remote users. However, OpenVPN provides high security and extra reliable connections from other networks that do not permit VPN pass-through (Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).

3.2 Recommendations for firewall and VPN solutions for the new company

First of all, this is a medium sized company where security is crucial to credit card transactions. Due to this size of the company, I recommend VPN/firewall which is able to support more than a dozen computers. These routers configured as firewalls also has integrated VPN server with virtual local area network support together with many SSIDs in case of wireless connections (Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).

As far as the discussion in 3.2 above is concerned, I also recommend the company to employ the use of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol since it eliminates the VPN pass-through problems. In addition, this protocol of VPN does not need full client software .With SSL, it is also possible to install a small plug-in through the browser in order to smooth the progress of tunneling of email traffic along with web browsing for users. A number of SSL VPN approaches also provide web portal whereby users can get the right of entry to applications in addition to emails without any VPN client. This kind of setup will also be suitable when the connection from home is needed or on different non corporate computer instead of a work laptop (Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).

3.3 Recommendations for implementing my proposed solutions

I would like to recommend the following for the implementation of the proposed solution. First is that the credit card information for every client should be encrypted for safety across the network in order to compliment on the security offered by the provision of Firewalls and VPN routers as mentioned above. Next is that both the company management team together with the anticipated company users of the expected system should participate fully during the implementation part of it. This kind of participation is important in ensuring that everyone’s opinions is taken in to an account for purposes of avoiding future complaints of network security system inefficiency(Tipton & Krause, 2012; Paul et al., 2012).

If the success of implementation is to last for longer time, then I also recommend that the company should have some staff assigned specifically to data security. The assigned staff should also be trained on regular basis to make them aware of all technical and legal issues of security. Safety guidelines should also be created for both laptops and other portable computing devices when they are used off-site. All employees should also adhere to the use of strict passwords and virus protection procedures. The company should also consider using payment card industry (PCI) standards to enforce encryption procedures for the protection of personal sensitive information like those of credit card transactions especially when it comes to their transmission across the network. In addition, the company should also carry out system penetration tests to find out if their system is hacker proof. Lastly, extra precautions ought to be taken to safeguard against information leakage just in case the company is vulnerable for industrial espionage (Tipton & Krause, 2012; Paul et al., 2012).

3.4 Practices that I will use to ensure security within the enterprise

Some of the security practices I intend to use within the enterprise include the following. First is to use sufficient access restrictions such as audit trails as well as strict penalties for violations on the company employees in order to safeguard against unauthorized access. The use of authentication procedures such as log in passwords will be enforced for every user. Secondly is to instruct the company employees during their initial orientation and on the ongoing training programs so that data for customers are confidential. Third is to ensure that the company security list is secure and that the company also has the sufficient security to prevent remote computer access to the company list. The forth practice is to make sure that the list recipients use adequate safeguards by ensuring that security measures are in place during the transfer of the list. Next is to ensure secure and timely return or description of lists used by other entities. I also intend to employ checking system to track usage list like the use of decoy names. Last but not least, I will ensure that there is always someone in the company who is responsible for the list security in such a way that he/she keeps up to date laws and regulations concerning fair information practices (Tipton & Krause, 2012; Gajrani et al., 2013).


From the discussion above, it is clear that the type of Routers/firewalls for VPN is determined by the size of the organization or company. This is because; company size also translates to the number of computers to be linked within the network. In our case of medium sized company, it is apparent that the number of computers required exceeds the dozen sizes. Therefore VPN router configured as firewalls which are a step up from the simple wireless Wi-Fi router is used for network security. Authentication and encryption measures are also needed for data security of unauthorized access.

The VPN and firewall protocols available for our case include PPT, L2TP/IPSec, SSL and Open VPN. This report has recommended the use of SSL because it is more reliable as compared to the rest in terms of remote access, that is, free from problems of VPN pass-through problems and other strengths as explained above. The recommendation also goes with the fact that daily credit card transactions calls for extra high security in terms of network and data itself if the issues of hacking and virus threats are to be eliminated. However, the success of this implementation will require full participation of all stakeholders involved in order to get maximum support.


Tipton, H. F., & Krause, M. (2012). Information security management handbook. CRC Press.

Paul, S., Gupta, S. D., Islam, K. A., Saha, K., & Majumder, S. (2012). Challenges of Securing the Smart Grid and Their Probable Security Solutions. International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering, 44.

Gajrani, K., Bhargava, A., Sharma, K. G., & Bansal, R. (2013, November). Cyber security solution for wide area measurement systems in wind connected electric grid. In Innovative Smart Grid Technologies-Asia (ISGT Asia), 2013 IEEE (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

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NSA not only one watching

NSA not only one watching

NSA not only one watching



Course Instructor


Americans do complain about confidentiality of their information. According to McClatchy of Tribune Business News in their article “NSA not only one watching” that was published on 14 July, 2013, the NSA is not the only institution accessing confidential data. There are businesses that also track customers without their knowledge such as the one instituted by Nordstrom that connects clients phones with the Wi-Fi systems. Companies doing the tracking system have largely gained customers from both the corporate world and even individuals. According to the self-proclaimed leaker Snowden, NSA has revealed a lot concerning government’s ability of using complicated scrutiny and data mining procedures on the citizens without much consideration (Dilanian, 2013).

However, it is believed that data gathered and oppressed by the internet gurus such as the social media are more superior to the information gathered by the National Security Intelligence. Of course the NSA cannot gather sufficient information from individuals concerned without using very powerful IT tools. The clients to these internet specialists are very ignorant about how their data is used (Dilanian, 2013). They do not understand where all the information that they have provided online are shared and cannot even tell the importance of their information by the respective companies.

According to the Chief technology officer of Madison Logic, the notion that NSA has advanced technologically compared to the corporate America is not true. Indeed the corporate American corporate are in a better position of acquiring all the information belonging to the citizens compared to the government. The government must therefore get the information from the companies because they are the only source. The government has to rely on technology to enhance their data mining job (Dilanian, 2013).

It is apparent that most companies access some of the most crucial and confidential information without the citizen’s knowledge. Google accesses all the emails that we send and receive anytime as Amazon company gets to know more about our shopping and even people we shop for. It therefore remains clear that the emails we send or4 receive are never as confidential as deemed by the users. This is really disturbing and it leaves one wondering whether advancement in technology means an increase in interference with individuals’ confidentiality rights (Dilanian, 2013).

The Big Data revolution has catapulted the issue of collecting and analyzing citizens data particularly clients to the internet giants. Though the idea of Big Data Revolution is of great help to consumers because the companies are able to design products according to the consumer’s opinions it is still privacy arbitrage. The customer satisfaction has been raised to a certain standard of their own feedbacks and recommendations as a result of automated analysis of customer preferences. The Big Data revolution is further essential in streamlining services offered by the government such as reduction of crime but the question is whether the need to provide services and security by the government overrides the need to ensure one’s confidentiality rights (Dilanian, 2013).

All the information about an individual can be manipulated due to ease of access and can therefore be wrongly used by groups such as identity thieves or even opponents in a civil lawsuit. Data access should therefore be regulated as much as possible to avoid such kind of access. It is unfortunate to see smartphones acting as tracking gadgets due to their ability to occasionally send signals about user’s locations. There are many other applications that give more details about individuals thus interfering with the confidentiality rights (Blanpain & Gestel, 2004). Just like the NSA argues that they only use personal data for security purposes such as terrorism, the companies such as Google and Verizon Wireless insist on using these data purely for sales purposes. However regardless of the different purposes and reasons suggested by these parties, whatever they do is privacy arbitrage. Every individual has a right of privacy which is very essential. The fact remains that they still hold very confidential information belonging to the citizens and they can manipulate them anytime because they may not be able to control the data (Dilanian, 2013).

This argument is very valid and effective because it addresses the main concern of Americans in an openly manner. The authors have pointed out several instances such as the way Google and Amazon companies accesses people’s data without their consent. It is also very true that the companies and the NSA may not be able to fully control the data they collect from people thus subjecting the information to manipulation (Blanpain & Gestel, 2004). It is very important for the individual’s confidentiality rights to be respected by both the internet companies and the NSA. Although it may seem difficult controlling these issues, their need a strong law constituted to at least minimize the effects of privacy arbitrage.


Blanpain, R., & Gestel, M. V. (2004). Use and monitoring of e-mail, intranet, and internet facilities at work: Law and practice. Hague [u.a.: Kluwer Law Internat.Dilanian, K. (2013, Jul 14). NSA not only one watching. McClatchy – Tribune Business News. Retrieved from

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Now a days, life has become very fast

Now a days, life has become very fast

Now a days, life has become very fast. Most of the people do not prefer going to shops for shopping. Instead they prefer to do the same by sitting at home and ordering online. Thanks to the advancement of technology. It has brought the entire world within the grip of our hands. Just a click of a mouse on the computer can perform transactions of thousands and lacs. Thus most of the business today is taking place online. This feature is termed as e-commerce.

E commerce or electronic commerce is defined as the sale and procurement of supplies and servicesusing information systems technology. Sometimes it is also called as internet commerce. There are several definitions of e-commerce. According to Zwass, e-commerce is “the sharing of business information, maintaining businessrelationships, and the conducting business transactions by meansof telecommunications networks”. Daniel Minoli and Emma Minoli gave their view of Internet-based commerce as follows – “Electronic commerce is the symbiotic integration of communications, datamanagement, and security capabilities to allow business applications withindifferent organizations to automatically exchange information related tothe sale of goods and services.”

Benefits of Internet Commerce

Business benefits:

Reduced costs to buyers from increased competition on-line

Reduced costs to suppliers by on-line auction

Reduced errors, time, and overhead costs information processing

Reduced inventories, and warehouse

Increased access to real-time inventory information, speed-up ordering &purchasing processing time

Easier enter into new markets in an efficient way

Easily create new markets and get new customers

Automated business processing

Cost-effective document transfer

Reduced time to complete business transactions, speed-up the delivery time

Reduced business overhead and enhance business management

Marketing benefits:

Improved market analysis, product analysis and customer analysis.

Low-cost advertising

Easy to create and maintain customer o client database

Customer benefits:

Wide-scale information dissemination

Wide selection of good products and goods at the low price

Rapid inter-personal communications and information accesses

Wider access to assistance and to advice from experts and peers.

Save shopping time and money

Fast services and delivery

Now, we can see that, e-commerce not only benefits the consumers, but also the sellers a lot. To cope up with the increasing competition today, every organization has to develop selling option of its product through internet. Bunker Books, a twenty year old book company has also found this.

To set up e-commerce is not the only way out for the book company. It is also required proper advertisement to reach out to its customers. Bunker books was selling its product via traditional means of counter purchase since the last twenty years. Since it is now introducing e-selling facility, it must convey this to its existing customers and also try to attract new customers. Now a days, social networking is a very well known fashion. Hence, the company can target the youths by giving its advertisement in several social media sites. To make the customers attracted, it has to give some promotional offers like cash back, free gifts, discount coupon etc. These features attract more and more customers. They can also retain the new customers by sending offers on their email ids or mobile numbers.

The technological foundations of e-commerce are largely hidden, but they are the base on which electronic commerce is built. Kalakota and Whinston use the analogy of a traditional transportation company to describe the complexity of the network and how the different components that make up the technology infrastructure are interlinked.

The network infrastructure is like the network of roads that are interconnected and are of different widths, lengths and quality – for example, the Internet, local area networks, intranets. Network infrastructures also take different forms such as telephone wires, cables, wireless technology (such as satellite or cellular technology). The publishing infrastructure (including the World Wide Web, Web servers) can be seen as the infrastructure of vehicles and warehouses, which store and transport electronic data and multimedia content along the network. Multimedia content is created using myriad tools such as HTML and JAVA. This content can be very different with varying degrees of complexity similar to different vehicles travelling on the roads. For example, text only, or more complex is an application, such as a computer game, containing audio, video, graphics and a programme. Messaging and information distribution infrastructure are the engines and fuel, which transport the data around the network. Once the multimedia content is created, there has to be a means of sending and retrieving this information, for example by EDI, e-mail, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. Once content and data can be created, displayed and transmitted, supporting business services are necessary for facilitating the buying,

selling and other transactions safely and reliably. For example, smart cards, authentication, electronic payment, directories/catalogues.

Another method for classifying e-commerce is by identifying the partners directly involved in the transaction. An informal version of this framework is being loosely applied in the use of the terms business-to-business (B-to-B), business-to-consumer (B-to-C) and consumer-to-consumer (C-to-C).

Business-to-Business (B-to-B): It is the exchange of products, services or information between business entities.

Business-to-consumer (B-to-C): It denotes the exchange of products, information or services between business and consumers in a retailing relationship. Some of the first examples of B-to-C e-commerce were and in the USA and in the UK.

Business-to-Government (B-to-G): The exchange of information, services and products between business organizations and government agencies on-line denotes business to government.

Business-to-Peer Networks (B-to-P): This would be the provision of hardware, software or other services to the peer networks. An example here would be Napster who provided the software and facilities to enable peer networking.

Consumer-to-Business (C-to-B): This is the exchange of products, information or services from individuals to business. A classic example of this would be individuals selling their services to businesses.

Consumer-to-Consumer (C-to-C): In this category consumers interact directly with other consumers.

Consumer-to-Government (C-to-G): Examples where consumers provide services to government have yet to be implemented. See Government-to Business.

Consumer-to-Peer Networks (C-to-P): This is exactly part of what peer-to-peer networking is and so is a slightly redundant distinction since consumers offer their computing facilities once they are on the peer network.

Government-to-Business (G-to-B): It is also known as e-government. It is the exchange of information, services and products between government agencies and business organizations. Government sites offering information, forms and facilities to conduct transactions for individuals, including paying bills and submitting official forms on-line such as tax returns.

Government-to-Government (G-to-G): (Also known as e-government). Government-to-government transactions within countries linking local governments together and also international governments, especially within the European Union, which is in the early stages of developing coordinated strategies to link up different national systems.

Government-to-Peer Network (G-to-P): As yet there is no real example of this type of e-commerce.

Peer–to-Peer Network (P-to-P): This is the communications model in which each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a communication session.

Thus, while setting up e-commerce, Bunker books has to well establish all these networks very efficiently. Besides this, the store can tie up with major online shopping websites to attract more customers. For example, if Bunker book shop tie up with flipkart, world’s one of the leading online shopping website, then many more people can come to know about the book store. Then later on they can visit the book stores webpage particularly later on. If the book store offers higher discounts or give more offers on its own website, then number of buyers will increase.

This was just one aspect of increasing online sales by Bunker book store. Beside this, there are several other criteria, which the store should keep in mind. The book store must keep on notifying the customers via e-mail or sms about new books launched and new offers. This will attract more customers. The book lovers are crazy about the new launch. So, if they can get the same at their doorsteps with a few clicks on their gadgets, sales will really increase.

Again there are several books which are really expensive. For those books, the book store can launch some easy payment option. Suppose, the book store allows EMI option as an alternative payment mode for the expensive books, then it will attract many more customers. This will include those readers who are fond of reading, but cannot help restraining them from buying the books because of their budget constraint.

All these methods will attract new customers and improve the sales figure. But besides attracting new customers, the book store must value its old customers also. Habits seldom change. Hence, people with a regular habit of reading are always inclined towards book. Therefore, its important for bunker book store to retain its old customers. To achieve this, the book store can give special offers and discount to their old customers.

To increase the current sales a system of points can be introduces. Some points based on the value of the transaction will be accrued to each customer. Then on the basis of accumulated points, the company can give them some gifts or allow the customer to redeem their points according to their own wish.

Besides this, the website must be very user friendly and the transaction process must be very efficient. The transaction process should be very safe and secure so that the customers can rely on it.

One of the best ways to establish the credibility of the company is to include customer testimonials in its sales letter. These should be excerpts from genuine e-mails or letters from customers expressing how useful or how good the books are, or how good the service of the company is.

Instilling urgency in the copy and convincing the readers they need to buy now is very important for the sales of the company. Sales copy instills a sense of urgency in the visitors, compelling them to buy now. One important way is to denote like this – “Last few copies of this edition, Flat 20 % off, HURRY!!” These will all attract more and more customers.

Boosting own product’s desirability by adding images. Images of the books make them seem more tangible and “real” to the visitors in the website and are a powerful sales tool. But sometimes revealing what the product is too early in the sales process can kill the sale–you may need to highlight the product benefits and value before you reveal exactly what it is.

Make the Most of Local Reviews: When the customers leave good comments about the company’s business on local review websites it helps give its business credibility among prospective clients and website visitors. Hence bunker book store should request that their existing customers post honest reviews on sites like Google, Foursquare or Yelp. Many times, potential customers will check out these review websites for indications of previous customer satisfaction. Having powerful, positive reviews will go a long way in helping the potential customer choose our service or product.

Everyone is familiar with pop-ups. They’re the small windows containing a special offer or other information that sometimes “pop up” when you visit a website. Love them or hate them, pop-ups have been a very useful, online marketing tool for years. However, because a percentage of internet users disliked them, Google, AOL, Netscape and others developed pop-up blocking software to combat them.

Directory and Article Submissions: This strategy is one of the oldest and most reliable methods of website promotion for building an online presence. Pen articles rich in keywords that relate to your business niche and submit them to respected article directories. By having website links in important directories you build quality back links back to your site thereby reinforcing your online presence.

Establish the Problem: It is needed to firmly establish the problem or issue before providing the solution. The headline might start with a problem but you need to really get into it to ensure the entire target audience will view it as something that needs to be remedied. People want to know that you understand “their problem” not just something general because then they will feel more confident that Bunker book store can solve it.

Use social media: Social media networks are taking over internet marketing. These are popular sites, including, Twitter, MySpace, and more that provide a natural online network. Essentially, it offers companies a built in opportunity for viral marketing. Your company can network with others, submit articles and news for users, and essentially help direct the movement of word of mouth through the web.

Building an online presence is a critical function of every business in today’s world of fierce online competition. When several companies set out to start their businesses they believe that they have a hard road ahead of them. But even beyond the already difficult job of business setup is the daunting task of marketing and promotion. Marketing and promotion is a part and parcel of the online business world that is critically important, but unfortunately, too few business owners realize its importance. However, this lack of awareness is slowly changing as business owners start jumping on the bandwagon by doing all they can do promote their service and business. The marketing strategy that is gaining in popularity is online marketing.

With the advancement of technology, smart phones have become very popular these days. People prefer to do all the things on their phones on the go. This had lead to the concept f mobile banking and mobile shopping. Mobile shopping is becoming popular day by day. To attract more customers, the bunker book store has to cope up with this technological advancement. They have to redesign their website and create a mobile version and a mobile application for online mobile shopping. People can browse the books n their mobile and can even buy using their handsets and mobile banking facility.

Faster is Better: Life has become very fast these days. People have no time to wait. People are becoming more impatient these days. They are using their phones for several shopping purpose, but cannot wait for sometime giving it some time to load and all. If you have time to sip your latte while waiting for it to load, then it’s too slow. Hence Bunker books must develop a new platform and new version of the mobile application which can work really faster.

It is often found that many people though prefer online shopping, but they do not want to pay for the product in advance. Many people prefer the cash on delivery option. Hence bunker book store should also keep that facility open to its customers.

 Offer Free Shipping: Research shows this is the number one thing that convinces visitors to buy. Today most of the online shopping websites are providing free shipping to most of the locations. Bunker book store should also follow that.

Exchange links: A common technique for online growth is link exchange networking. It is a process of finding partner sites that are willing to provide a link to your site, in exchange for you doing the same for them. This adds another location for consumers to find you. More importantly, links from sites that are popular and high in traffic can be very beneficial to your Google popularity, and ultimately, your search engine positioning.

Now, these suggestions are simple but very effective strategies that the bunker book store can use in the effort to enhance their online presence.

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Nothing is more apparent in the genre of satire than the ridicule of the vices and immoralities of society

Nothing is more apparent in the genre of satire than the ridicule of the vices and immoralities of society

Nothing is more apparent in the genre of satire than the ridicule of the vices and immoralities of society. This focussing on the defects of society as a whole doubles as a function of this genre of literature and a framework within the plot or theme of the novel or story. The satirist emphasizes the ugly ramifications of society, but to do so the satirist needs a vehicle for the observation of society’s actions and effects as a whole. This society is often represented as a microcosm or series of microcosms along a journey and the vehicle for the observation of the presented society is an individual located on the outside. To ensure that the individual is fully isolated from society and thus capable of objectively observing the follies of the world, the individual is given characteristics of a distinctive identity. The concept of an individual may be summarized in a statement made by Rick Hoyle: “The human self is a self-organizing, interactive system of thoughts, feelings, and motives that characterizes an individual. The self is reflexive and dynamic in nature: responsive yet stable” (Hoyle 2). Therefore, the outsider must be an individual, fully capable of organizing his or her thoughts and emotions and the consequences of each upon the self and the world. Logically proceeding the definition of the individual outside of society is the definition of society; a term that “can be used to designate the specifically relational system of interaction among individuals and collectivities” (Sanford 219). By positioning the polarities of individual and society in a conflict of values the satirist has created an effective method for criticizing society. The major trends the satirist may attribute to the individuals separated from society are the inability to integrate themselves into society, a certain degree of naiveté, and have definite flaws. These trends are apparent in the protagonists of the satiric novels: Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn Joseph Heller’s Catch 22 and Kurt Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle.

Mark Twain’s satirical novel Huckleberry Finn has a main protagonist that is a precocious boy named Huckleberry Finn. Huck Finn’s initiation into society and society’s values is at Miss Watson and the widow’s home after his father’s death presents the civilized part of the society that Huck has not been exposed to before. It aggregates Huck’s education both as an individual and as a part of society up to the time when he sets out on a raft to Jackson’s Island; and his acceptance of Jim begins his exclusion from society. Huck Finn is forced from the nineteenth-century society, which he lives in; his estrangement is initiated when he fakes his murder to escape from his abusive father and sets off downstream. The only time that Huck has a true sense of freedom is when he is on the raft with Jim, heading down to the Mississippi. Hut his view of the stupidities of society is magnified and his sense of freedom is lost when he is thrown into society once again.

When Huck stumbles upon the Grangerford family under the assumed name George Jackson, he is exposed to a higher level of society than he has ever seen. Upon first meeting the Grangerfords and seeing their house, Huck states: “It was a might nice family, and a might nice house, too. I hadn’t seen no house out in the country before that was so nice and had so much style” (Twain 120). The family is well mannered and civilized, the father, Col Grangerford a gentleman and kind. Huck is given new clothes, a servant to follow him around, and attends church every Sunday. However, Huck attends church but feels that it “was pretty ornery preaching—all about brotherly love, and such like tiredness” (Twain 131). But when Huck is faced with the violence of the feud between the Grangerfords and the Sheperdson’s he is horrified and disgusted at the pointlessness at the cruelty and violence of the feud between the two-aristocratic families. The two brothers and the father of the Grangerford family are killed and Huck witnesses the brutal shooting of his friend Buck and his cousin Joe. Huck gives an account of his feelings after witnessing the murder:

It made me so sick… I ain’t agoing to tell all that happened—it would make me sick again if I was to do that. I wished I hadn’t ever come ashore that night, to see such things. I ain’t ever going to get shut of them—lots of times I dream about them. (Twain 137)

The horror of this sight stays with Huck, and he does not feel his freedom from that side society until he is back on the raft with Jim, floating away from the violence that horrified him. Huck states: “I was powerful glad to get away from the feuds, and so was Jim to get away from the swamp. We said there warn’t no home like a raft, after all” (Twain 138). Mark Twain effectively used Huck in the world of the Grangerfords to show the senselessness of family feuds and the senseless violence that even well bred men are capable of inflicting.

In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain has created a character that has a degree of naiveté and innocence. Despite Huck’s audacity and brazen curiosity about his surroundings, the fact that he is indeed still a young adult is a point to consider when viewing Huck as the vehicle for the satiric viewpoint. Huck Finn, in spite of his unconventional childhood, has a lack of experience that comes with years. His naiveté is most apparent when he is at the circus in the “little one-horse town in a big bend” (Twain 160). Huck declares that it:

was a real bully circus. It was the splendidest sight that ever was…every lady with a lovely complexion, and perfectly beautiful, and looking just like a gang of real sure-enough queens, and dressed in clothes that cost millions of dollars and just littered with diamonds. It was a powerful fine sight; I never see anything so lovely (Twain 171).

When a circus performer pretended to be a drunken man from the audience and stumbled into the ring, Huck is fooled along with the crowd into believing what was only a regular part of the circus act. He admits that “ I felt sheepish enough, to be took in so, but wouldn’t a been in that ring-master’s place, not for a thousand dollars” (Twain 173). Even after the trick, Huck is convinced it was a one-time performance and still considers the circus “bully”. Mark Twain has placed Huck in a position where he is representative of the gullibility of the average man. It was not just Huck who was tricked at the circus; the entire crowd was astonished and amazed.

Mark Twain also instilled Huck with flawed characteristics, which are used as a trend by the satirist to convincingly portray an outsider from society. If the protagonist is a flawless, knowledgeable and perfect individual, the readers would not relate and identify to him and a large part of the function of satire would be lost. If flaws in the protagonist signify an individual outside society, then Huck Finn is very much isolated. Ever since he walked into Tom Sawyer swinging a dead cat, Huck Finn has been immortalized as a rapscallion and a scoundrel. His flaws are more pronounced at the beginning of the novel, and though they never disappear, are somewhat alleviated by the time of the novel’s conclusion. Huck has a tendency to put on many different identities; at few times in the book is Huck actually Huck. When staying with the Grangerford’s he is George Jackson, with Mary Ann’s family, he is Joe, and English servant to Reverend Blodgett, and to the lady in St. Petersburg he is first Sarah Mary Williams and then George Peters. While staying with the Phelps, he was posing as Tom Sawyer. One literary critic explained that “Huck assumes either voluntarily or through external pressure ten different identities during his progress down river, inventing elaborate and excessively lugubrious family history for himself” (Strickland 52). The almost uncanny ability of Huck to take on another personality is astonishing, as is his ability to lie on when put on the spot. Curiously enough, each time he creates a new role, it adds up that “death, illness, or destruction of the family are involved in seven of the ten roles” throughout the novel (Strickland 50). Twain’s Huck Finn is so isolated from society and a family that he can, through these roles, convince someone that he has escaped from a violent past and thus gain sympathy and aid. Mark Twain, as a satirist, created an isolated character with both innocence and flaws. Huck gazes in on a cruel, sad society that is capable of killing, enslaving human beings and twisting people’s emotions.

The novel Catch 22 by Joseph Heller was published in 1961 and is a strong satirical novel. The main protagonist is an Armenian named Yossarian who is an individual with the characteristics used as a trend to produce functional satiric literature. Yossarian is a character who has a strong, definitive personality; he is realistic, cynical, paranoid and skeptical. Heller has placed this character, as the main protagonist, in a war setting on a small island called Pianosa. Yossarian is under the command of the bureaucracy of the army, but does not share the patriotism and willingness to die for his that, other people in his unit have. His major concern is for his own life and his main goal is to come out of the war alive; a goal which is increasingly complicated wch time the number of missions he has to fly is raised. Yossarian’s overt attempts to get out of combat duty and his cynical method of viewing the world soon cast him as an outsider. Yossarian’s paranoia is grounded on the premise that your friends may be against you just as well as your enemies are. Yossarian’s opionion is that “The enemy is anybody who’s going to get you killed, no matter which side he’s on, and that includes Colonel Cathcart. And don’t you forget that, because the longer you remember it, the longer you might live” (Heller 134). Heller emphasizes Yossarian’s creed in the next sentence: “But Clevinger did forget it, and now he was dead” (Heller 134). Yossarian’s anti-war views, his paranoia, his cynicism cast him as an outsider in the camp. Unlike Huck Finn, Yossarian is forced to stay on the island of Pianosa or in one of his two retreats. Yossarian is one of the representatives of society that Heller uses, and cannot totally escape. Yossarian’s only methods of retreat are to the hospital or to Rome. Joseph Heller makes it clear that Yossarian is using the hospital only to escape from flying the missions. “Yossarian ran right into the hospital, determined to remain there forever rather than fly one mission more than the thirty-two missions he had…He could enjoy himself in the hospital, just as long as there was no one really very sick in the same ward” (Heller 174). Yossarian viewed the hospital as better than flying missions; his main emphasis was on himself, his individual life, and not the establishment or the war. From Yossarian’s point of view: “Being in the hospital was better than being over Bologna or flying over Avignon with Huple and Dobbs at the controls and Snowden dying in back” (Heller 174). Joseph Heller’s character Yossarian works effectively as a satiric protagonist because his strong individual traits place him outside the conventionalities of society for him to comment on objectively.

Yossarian is not a typical naïve character in a satiric novel. Satirists can use the trait naivete in their characters as a trend to distance the protagonist further from the convention on which he is evaluating. However, Heller realizes a character does not have to be completely naïve or inexperienced to be viewed as a satiric character. Although Yossarian is admittedly not innocent, as is clearly evidenced throughout the novel, he does make an important discovery about war. The experience catapults him forward to the human destruction and horror in Rome after its bombing, his eventual desertion to Sweden and ultimately shapes his final view on the senselessness of war. The occurrence of Snowden’s death is the event that Yossarian faces that makes his knowledge of the brutality of war complete. His education is concluded “on the hideous first mission to Avignon the moment he realized the fantastic pickle he was in” (Heller 340). Snowden represents to Yossarian the full brutality, senslessness and horr of war. Without this knowledge a man in combat has a large quantity of innocence in his character. The reader, knowing that Yossarian now has a comprehensive knowledge of war and death, the perception of the events that Yossarian changes focus. The new roommates in Yossarian’s tent appear as more innocents and to the reader, and his treatment of them more understandable. The roomates are presented as ignorant of war and devoid of all the knowledge Yossarian posseses.

The moment he saw them, Yossarian knew they were impossible…They were obtuse; their morale was good. They were glad that the war had lasted long enough for them to find out what combat was really like. They were halfway through unpacking when Yossarian threw them out (Heller 357).

This episode magnifies Yossarian’s cynicism, yet after the Snowden scene, the reader now knows Yossarian’s action of throwing the roommates out is justifiable and sane. Once Joseph Heller has achieved this understanding with the reader his job as a satirist is nearly complete.

Yossarian, as a character, is flawed. His treatment of women is certainly questionable, he drinks, and he visits whorehouses. When Yossarian was flying with Milo to distract Orr from watching where Milo gets his eggs; “Yossarian and Orr found themselves jammed into the same double bed with the two twelve-year-old twenty-eight-year-old prostitutes, who turned out to be oily and obese and who kept waking them up all night to switch partners” (Heller 239). Besides his behavior in regards to women, some would say he shirks his duty by hiding in the hospital and refusing to fly missions. However, as discussed with Huckleberry Finn, the satirist creates the protagonist of the satiric novel with flaws to create a believable tension between the individual and society. Joseph Heller makes Yossarian’s multiple flights to the hospital bed seem very plausible, rational and sane. However, despite his flaws, if Yossarian were a perfect individual, and always kept his temper, followed commands unquestionably, and moralized over other men’s actions, Joseph Heller’s Catch 22 would not have served any purpose but to chronicle Everyman’s conquest by society.

The novel Cat’s Cradle by Kurt Vonnegut is also a satiric novel and was published first in the 1960’s. The novel’s protagonist follows many of the trends that satirists apply to their main characters. The main character in Cat’s Cradle is John—or Jonah—and he is an outsider like Huck Finn and Yossarian. His trip to Illium is the first place that the reader comes in contact with John, and his actions and words seem only to accentuate his pessimism. When he first meets Breed, John contrasts himself with him. “Breed…was civilized, optimistic, capable, serene. I, by contrast, felt bristly, diseased, cynical. I had spent the night with Sandra. My soul seemed as foul as smoke from burning cat fur. I thought the worst of everyone…”(Vonnegut 27). When he returns to New York his apartment is ruined by a nihilist that he barely knew and his cat is dead, and he is suspended without a place to belong. His history of pessimism has left him alone and divorced twice: “My second wife had left me on the grounds that I was too pessimistic for an optimist to live with” (Vonnegut 77). John’s description of himself before Bokonism sums up his past as a pessimist well: “When I was a younger man—two wives ago, 250,000 cigarettes ago, 3,000 quarts of booze ago…I began to collect material for a book to be called The Day the World Ended. It was to be a Christian book. I was a Christian then” (Vonnegut 1). At the beginning of his journey from Illium to San Lorenzo, John is left with nothing. He leaves to San Lorenzo almost on a whim, after falling in love with a girl in a photograph. He comes into San Lorenzo having shed his past and society, with no possessions and no place in life. John is an individual on the outside of society, too pessimist to be an optimist, not enough of an idealist to be a realist. He belongs to no one and to no where, and he steps onto San Lorenzo knowing only about the island what he read in a book. Kurt Vonnegut has created a character that, almost completely, is an outsider from everywhere he has been and to the place, he is going.

Huckleberry Finn was naïve because of his youth, and his lack of experience. Yossarian’s was naïve because he did not fully comprehend the gruesome savageness of war until the confrontation with Snowden’s death. Vonnegut’s protagonist John also has a degree of innocence. As with Yossarian, John does not have the conventional definition of innocence. He has more experience with the world, yet is much vulnerable and accepting than Huck Finn. Most of his naiveté comes from his almost implausible and impulsive love of Mona, whom he travels to a tiny Caribbean island to meet based on the impression from a photograph. Before his love for Mona, John focuses several times on the lack of love in his life: “…and two wives and no wife…And no love waiting for me anywhere…And the listless life of an ink-stained hack…” (Vonnegut 201). When Mona marries him (because he is President), he demands that she not perform boko-maru with any other people, despite the fact that it is part of her religion. When Mona threatens to leave him, he offers to take on her religion: “Could I have your religion, if I wanted it?”(Vonnegut 209). John’s innocence of San Lorenzo and Bokonism enables him to be a qualified individual to demonstrate societies’ blind acceptance of religion, even when continually reminded that is all “foma”.

Kurt Vonnegut’s character John also has flaws, which are similar to Yossarian’s in Catch 22. On John’s first night in Illium, he got drunk in a bar, the Cape Cod Room, which doubled as a “hangout for whores”. He had a discussion with a whore named Sandra (who he ended up spending the night with):

We talked about truth. We talked about gangsters; we talked about business. We talked about the nice poor people who went to the electric chair; and we talked about the rich bastards who didn’t We talked about religious people who had perversions. We talked about a lot of things. We got drunk (Vonnegut 22).

This account of a conversation with a whore both serves to simultaneously highlight John’s pessimissim, insight into society and his loneliness. John’s obsession with Mona Monzano also could be seen as a flaw. “The mirage of what it would be like to be loved by Mona Aamons Monzano, had become a tremendous force in my meaningless life” (Vonnegut 85). John’s sudden love for Mona discloses a much larger facet of his personality that includes impetuosity and impulsiveness.

Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn, John Heller’s Catch 22 and Kurt Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle all have protagonists that exhibit, in various degrees, some of the major trends of that satirists use in their characters. Huck, Yossarian, and John are all isolated from society, have flaws and are innocent in some respects. The satirist can control what areas of society he wants to focus on by weighing the degree of their isolation, the proportion of the flaws to the whole person and how naïve they are and to what factors of society.

Works Cited

Heller, Joseph. Catch 22. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1994New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1994.

Sniderman, Stephen L. “It was All Yossarian’s Fault”. Twentieth Century Literature. Vol 19:4, pg 251-257. Oct. 1973.

Strehle, Susan. “Satire Beyond the Norm”. Contemporary Lit. XXXVII. Pg 45-47. 1996

Strickland, Carol C. “Of Love and Loneliness, Society and Self in Huckleberry Finn”. Mark

Twain Journal. 21:4, pg 50-53. 1983.

Twain, Mark. Huckleberry Finn. Ed. Jane Ogborn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Vonnegut, Kurt. Cat’s Cradle. New York: Dell Publishing, 1998.

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Notes on the Gilded Age

Notes on the Gilded Age

Notes on the Gilded Age

Overview of the Gilded Age (1877-1900)

The Civil War and Reconstruction had divided America. However, even before Reconstruction ended America’s industrial expansion was well under way. England and Germany had gone through a similar transformation earlier, but American industrialization was larger in scale than either country, transforming the national culture more profoundly.

Businesspersons and industrialists received unprecedented government support during the Civil War and reached unprecedented heights in the postwar period, continuing to rise with few interruptions for the rest of the 19th century.

Much of the aid came in the form of the government’s most plentiful asset, millions of acres of land.

As the Industrial Revolution gained momentum, it was reinforced by a resurgence of the “Ideology of Success,” the belief that everyone who exercised hard work (industry) and economy (restraint) could become successful in America.

Although the idea would generally be untrue for most Americans for several generations, and for some never, it nonetheless provided the hope, people needed to believe in and embodied the “Gospel of Wealth.”

However, some, especially in business, espoused “Social Darwinism” as the reason for the success of individuals. Wealth, leadership, success, and prosperity were determined by evolutionary superiority (survival of the fittest).

The population to operate the factories and swell the markets poured in from Europe and to a lesser extent Asia. Between 1877 and 1900, the U.S. population grew from 38,500,000 to 76,000,000.

-More than 12,000,000 came from Southern and Eastern European countries like Italy and Poland. However, many Anglo-Saxon Americans questioned whether these immigrants could be absorbed. However, in the end the extraordinary needs of industry for laborers, plus the American commitment to free immigration, generally won out.

The impact of railroads and industry :

The growth of the railroads after the Civil War was phenomenal. By the early l900’s America possessed 1/3 of the world’s railroad tracks. The early railroads were local, catering to regional service. However, with the federal giveaways of 54 million acres of public domain and $60 million dollars in loans, by l869 the first transcontinental railroad was completed. In addition, with other land grants and public loans, other railroads were built.

By l871, the federal government had given the railroads more than 135 million acres of land and millions of dollars in interest-free loans. Federal support, plus generous state policies, eventually led to the creation of three transcontinental routes and the consolidation of hundreds of smaller railroads.

These smaller railroads had also been given federal aid but went bankrupt through competition with other railroads using ruthless strategies like “the discrimination in railroad freight rates.” Once monopolies ran the smaller railroads out of business, they continued to charge, “whatever the market would bear.”

Critical changes to railroads also facilitated their growth. This included the standardization of track gauge, improved engines, and eventually refrigerator cars to carry goods over long distances.

A by-product of this period of long-term capitalization in the railroads was the rise and development of new industries, or booms to existing industries like coal and steel, glass, lumber, rubber, etc.

Generous government policies plus regional and national monopolization led to abuses including stock manipulation, rate discrimination, and rebates along with bribery and other forms of corruption.


Countless businesspersons contributed to the growth and power of the national economy; men like Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, and Gustavus Swift.

Other captains of industry including Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt and Philip Armour were considered “Robber Barons” for their questionable morality taking advantage of poor laborers and their ruthless accumulation of wealth.

Often the “captains of industry” professed a belief in unfettered free enterprise and unrestricted competition. However, this led to savage price wars between competitors to dominate their particular industry.

This led some business leaders to believe open competition created chaos and sought ways to bring order.

-One example was Gentleman Agreements; unwritten agreements between owners in different industries looking to control prices and competition—such agreements failed.

-A second example was the so-called Pools. Unlike Gentlemen Agreements, these were written agreements between businesses to control prices and competition in the same field. However, they too failed and replaced by Trusts.

Trusts dominated a particular industry through monopolization, often using vertical and horizontal consolidation.

Despite the dominance of business during the late nineteenth century the captains of industry remained insecure, fearful that despite their financial power, generous support from the federal government and states, their unethical behavior would come back to haunt them.

This was especially true in the agrarian mid-western and western states where farmers were exploited by the railroads and other businesses. They could not always be sure they, or their lobbyists, would have judges, legislatures or supportive states in their corner.

To prevent states from controlling their practices, they sought protection in the Constitution under the so-called “Doctrine of Vested Rights.” This constitutional theory claimed nothing was more sacred and fundamental to “God and Justice” than the sanctity of private property.

Between l869 and 1898, businesses sought indirect and direct protection from potential, state regulation under the Fourteenth Amendment. They sought a substantive reinterpretation of the 14th amendment, one that would provide business protection under the Amendment. This occurred as a result of business appeals to state regulation over their practices in three Supreme Court cases:

Slaughterhouse Cases (1869): The Louisiana State Legislature awarded a virtual monopoly to one slaughterhouse business. The other slaughterhouse businesses filed a suit that worked its way up to the Supreme Court. They argued that the state legislature’s action violated their rights against arbitrary state action and equal protection under the 14th amendment. The Supreme Court rejected their claim, essentially saying they had no standing under the amendment since it was specifically passed to protect the civil and political rights of the recently freed slaves in the southern states, and for individuals, which they were not. The court upheld the Louisiana State Legislature.

Munn v. Illinois (1873): This case presented exactly the scenario big business was afraid of happening, a state attempting to regulate the practices of businesses, specifically the railroads. After years of being victims of railroad rate discrimination, agrarian radicals managed to win a majority of seats in the Illinois State Legislature.

To punish the railroads the Grange (agrarian radicals) controlled legislature passed a law setting the rates for the storage of grain in grain elevators in cities with populations of 500, 000 or more. Chicago was the only city in Illinois with such a population and where 95% of all grain was stored in grain elevators owned by the railroads. Again, the railroads filed suit taking it to the Supreme Court seeking protection under the 14th Amendment. However, The Supreme Court still, took a strict interpretation of the 14th Amendment, ruling the railroads or any business, could not find protection under the amendment.

Smyth v. Ames (1898): By the end of the century, most Americans were less hostile toward business or at least began to see its benefits.

Moreover, the composition of the Supreme Court had changed with presidential appointments of justices who were outright favorable to big business. The court decided to take a more expansive interpretation of the 14th amendment and included business under its protection, striking down a Nebraska state statute that attempted to regulate railroad freight rates. While the decision touched on corporations as individuals, it did not hurt that the case involved a business involved in interstate state commerce and generally beyond the jurisdiction/regulation of the states under the Interstate Commerce Act.

Ironically, the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was designed to regulate the railroad industry, specifically its monopolistic practices. It created the Interstate Commerce Commission to monitor railroads to ensure the railroad rates were “reasonable and just,” but did not give the government power to fix specific rates.

Cities during the Gilded Age:

As mentioned, between the 1870 and 1900 the cities grew at a fantastic rate. There was continual conflict between older Anglo-Saxon stock Americans who had been displaced by the railroads or sought the “milk and honey in the cities,” and the newer immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans. By l916 several books, like Madison Grant’s, The Passing of a Great Race, (l916) and Lothrop Stoddard’s The Rising Tide of Color, (l920) argued that these races were injecting an inferior racial gene pool into America, destroying the exceptionalism of the Anglo-Saxon race.

In certain areas of the country where foreign immigrants, like the Chinese, had been in America since the l840s when they arrived to pan for gold and became the source of cheap labor for building the railroads in the 1860’s under the Burlingame Treaty of l865.

Chinese became the object of xenophobia and race hatred during the 1870’s. A part of this had to do with the exploding growth of San Francisco, a major area for Chinese settlement during the railroad building years and the subsequent white migration to the west with the evolving transcontinental railroads. Suddenly the Chinese represented a “yellow peril,” and American Irishmen like Denis Kearney wrote a manifesto warning that the Chinese were pushing the Anglo-Saxons out of the economic competition. He called on Congress to pass a law stopping the immigration of Chinese.

In truth, anti-Chinese or anti-Asian behavior before the l870s:

The Foreign Miners’ Law of l850, a law originally passed to limit Mexican miners, was increasingly applied to Chinese miners.

Californians fearing economic competition charged $50 for each foreigner, especially Chinese entering California.

In the late l850s, race riots drove Chinese out of the mining regions of northern California. The popular statement, “Not a Chinaman’s chance” became tragically true.

In the late 1860’s “anti-coolie” clubs attempted to keep the Chinese in their place or drive them out of California.

In l871, a fierce race riot in Los Angeles saw large numbers of Chinese injured or killed. Many believed with the completion of the transcontinental railroad the Chinese would surely go back to China. This was not the case. By 1876, more than 116,000 Chinese lived in California.

Race hatred of the Chinese was so strong that San Francisco passed the Cubic Air Ordinance decreeing all adults must have 500 cubic feet of living space, but like the black codes, it only applied to Chinatown. Chinese were arrested for violating the law and sent to jail. In jail whites, understanding the religious importance of their “pigtails” cut them off.

Anti-Chinese sentiment culminated in Congressional passing of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The law stopped Chinese immigration for a ten-year period. Moreover, in 1892, the Geary Act (“Dog Tag Law”) required Chinese to carry their residential permit with them or risk imprisonment and deportation.

We should also mention scholars and writers believed the expelling of Native Americans from their land and their virtual extermination through wars and broken treaties was genocide. Helen Hunt Jackson writing about this period titled it A Century of Dishonor in her 1881 book. To soothe their consciences, Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act (1887). The Act stated its objective was to assimilate Indians into American mainstream society. For those who accepted it they would receive 160 acres of land to be theirs “forever,” and education to help with their assimilation. Individual ownership of land on the European-American model was seen as an essential. The act also provided that Indian reservation lands remaining after allotments would be sold on the open market, allowing purchase and settlement by non-Native Americans.


To meet employer demands, factories and tenements sprang up overnight. There was virtually no city planning and concern for the new urban workers. The lack of planning and the pursuit of profit resulted in unsafe and unsanitary work and home environments. By 1900 cities, especially New York, suffered from high mortality rates, cholera, tuberculosis and other environmental diseases. Immigrants frequently found themselves in crowded tenement buildings while middle-class residents took advantage of new transportation like streetcars and moved to suburbs or other “bedroom communities” which allowed them to work in the city but avoid the overcrowding, air pollution, and noise.

The Gilded Age represented the first time a significant number of women and children entered the labor force on a full-time basis. Employers provided no workmen’s compensation for accidents or illness, and certainly no health benefits.

The medical treatment of women reflected outdated Victorian values and male chauvinism. The origins of women’s illnesses were often attributed to “nervousness or some dysfunction of the uterus.” Treatments from the 1870’s to the end of the century involved massive doses of mercury, lead, or opium. Later gynecologists prescribed the use of leeches placed around or in the uterus. Later in the century, doctors prescribed complete bed rest, massage, and electric shocks to cure their illnesses. In addition, there was a double standard in the way female doctors were treated compared to male physicians.Labor and Farmers:

Labor’s response to big business domination over their wages, working conditions and even homes (company homes) was a series of attempts at organizing labor beginning with the National Labor Union in l866. The union was virtually ineffective.

The Knights of Labor was established in l869 by a minister named Uriah Stevens but most prominently led by Terrence V. Powderly. Both believed using “moral suasion” to get employers to give laborers better wages and living conditions. It was an industrial based union, welcoming both skilled and unskilled labor. In the beginning, it even attempted to bring blacks and women into the union.

In general, the Knights endorsed the restriction of child labor, a graduated income tax, more land set aside for homesteading, cooperatives, and the nationalization of the telegraph and railroad.

In 1884, a spontaneous strike against the railroads of Jay Gould demonstrated the power of the strike. While the Knights leadership continued to support “moral suasion” as the main tactic, rank and file members revolted and led strikes. By l886, the membership of the Knights had grown to 600,000. Ironically, in the same year, a strike by the McCormick Reaper workers in Chicago led to the Haymarket Square incident. Over l, 500 people gathered for a mass meeting at Haymarket Square to protest against the brutality against striking workers the day earlier. While several speakers were denouncing the violence, someone threw a bomb. In the days that followed known anarchists like August Spies were rounded up, charged, and convicted of murder. Blamed by the media, the Knights of Labor had nothing to do with the strike. Still, such accusations led to its demise in the same year its membership peaked.

The American Federation of Labor succeeded the Knights of Labor. Founded by Adolph Strasser in 1888 it grew to prominence under Samuel Gompers. The AFL was a craft or guild union (skilled labor only) and used an apprentice system for controlling the number of skilled craftsmen in every guild. This made bargaining with businesses more effective in a strike. It was much harder to replace skilled labor as opposed to unskilled labor. It sought recognition of its union status to bargain with employers for better working conditions, higher wages and shorter hours.

Farmers during the Gilded Age sought to imitate the practices of manufacturing in the North which succeeded by mass production. To achieve this Farmers Alliances (Northern, Western, Southern and Colored) introduced education and cooperatives. However, unlike manufactured products growing more crops did not result in greater profits. The more they produced, the more prices fell. Increasingly in the l880’s farmers especially in states like Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas fell into foreclosure. This led many to arm themselves to resist eviction. According to Populist radical Mary Lease, it was time to produce “less corn and raise more hell.” The farmers succeeded in taking over a number of southern but mostly western state legislatures, including Texas. In 1892, they organized a third political party, the Populist and ran James Weaver as a candidate for President against the Republican Benjamin Harrison and the Democrat Glover Cleveland who won. Farmers accused both parties of neglecting the farmer and supporting a banking system that favored of business over the farmers.

Use the following essay questions based on the notes to guide your study for the Gilded Age:

1.Compare and contrast the views of Social Darwinism, the Ideology of Success, the Gospel of Wealth, and Laissez-faire. What do they all have in common and in what ways are they different? Explain why each had a popular appeal in America in the late nineteenth century.

2.What factors account for the dramatic growth in business after the Civil war?

3.What factors shaped the growth of labor unions during this period? What factors delayed or weakened their growth? What were their limitations and what achievements can they claim.

4.Compare and contrast the goals, tactics, leadership, and accomplishments of the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor, and the Industrial Workers of the World.

5. Who financed the railroad expansion in the late nineteenth century? How did this expansion affect the economic development of the country?

6.How did immigration to America change in the latter half of the nineteenth century, and what was the response to that change?

7.Describe the explosive growth of urbanization in the late nineteenth century. What factors led to this growth, and where did the largest growth take place?

8.Discuss the most serious challenges the urban population faced, how were those challenges addressed, and how effective were the solutions.

9.How did big business seek protection from state control during the Gilded Age?

10.What economic, political and social reforms did farmers seek during the Gilded Age? What organizations arose to fight for those reforms?

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Notes on American Foreign Policy 1877-1920

Notes on American Foreign Policy 1877-1920

Notes on American Foreign Policy: 1877-1920 Few would argue that America had a clearly defined and articulated foreign policy at the end of Reconstruction in l877.

It was common to read newspaper editorials and comments belittling America’s Foreign Service.

The New York Sun decried the diplomatic service was “a costly humbug and sham.” Instead of making ambassadors, Congress should wipe out the whole service.” The New York Herald declared the “Trans-Atlantic cable had made diplomats unnecessary” and called for the abolition of the foreign ministry.

Perhaps most telling of American indifference to the outside world was Admiral David Porter’s comment in the l870s that the Navy’s fleet was so decrepit that it reminded him of the Chinese who painted dragons on their forts to frighten away their enemies.

Notwithstanding this, a number of factors between 1877 and 1900 pushed the country in the direction of a clear and identifiable American foreign policy:

New Manifest Destiny: The Industrial Revolution gave Americans a greater sense of themselves and America’s place in the world. The replacement of regional markets with a single national market, business sought to expand beyond the continental United States.

Bold new nationalism: Americans took greater pride in their country, reflected in singing the national anthem at sporting events and even comic operas. Americans were vocally unhappy with the attempt of Ferdinand De Lesseps’ attempt to sever the Isthmus and build the Panama Canal. Another example of this new nationalism was Secretary of State James G. Blaine’s tireless effort to create arbitration treaties with Latin American nations and congressional authority to negotiate reciprocity trade agreements. The efforts resulted in the Pan American Conference in l889.

The world became smaller: The New York World’s reporter Nellie Bly’s (real name Elizabeth Jane Cochran) recording shattering trip around the world in 72 days made it increasingly difficult for Americans to view the world through “isolationist lens.”

The popularity of Admiral A. T. Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power Upon History struck a chord with both civilians and the military that any country is seeking to make its imprint on history needed to follow the example of England and build a robust navy and acquire coaling stations for commercial and military dominance.

Need for Overseas Markets: The remarkable growth of the American economy pushed businesses to find markets outside of the continental United States to unload their surplus goods.

The impact of these various forces, impulses, and factors, pushed Americans to involve themselves in countries and events outside the United States.

Samoa (1878-1899): As early as 1838 American whaling companies stopped off at the Samoan archipelago for rest and refueling. The friendly reception by the Samoan people led the United States to secure a foothold in Samoa.

In l878, the six-foot-four head of Samoa, Le Mamea (referred to as the “tattooed Prince”) was invited to Washington where a treaty was negotiated. The treaty provided that in return for the rights to a coaling station in Pago Pago, the U.S. would employ its “good offices” to adjust any differences between Samoa and other foreign powers.

The weak government had formally bound the United States to support it against foreign powers. This notwithstanding, Samoa the following year made treaties with Great Britain and Germany. Not long after, the Germans pressed demands on the Samoan king for “alleged” wrongs, forcing the U.S. to push against the Germans, leading to a naval standoff in 1888 at Apia. With naval guns trained on one another, a storm blew in and nearly sank both the American and German ships. Great Britain’s navy which was out of the storm’s reach, sailed in to save both countries.

The next year the three countries create a three-headed Samoan protectorate, with the native dynasty nominally “ruling from the royal hut.” However, as the saying goes about too many cooks in the kitchen, it failed. In late 1899, Samoa was permanently divided between Germany and the United States (American Samoa).

The Americanization of Hawaii (the 1870s to 1900):

As early as the 1820s, American whalers and missionaries journeyed to Hawaii. The fishing companies for rest and relaxation, and the missionaries to save souls. By the 1850s, European countries and America saw the strategic and economic value of Hawaii. In fact, American President Franklin Pierce negotiated a treaty for the annexation of the Hawaiian kingdom but blocked by the United States Senate (primarily because it included a provision for immediate statehood).

However, by the l870s the son of the missionaries had become wealthy sugar growers. Moreover, in l875 the U.S. entered into a reciprocity treaty with the Hawaiian kingdom. The treaty bound Hawaii not to make any territorial concessions to any other foreign power and allowed the U.S. a major coaling station. Furthermore, Hawaiians were allowed to ship sugar and other products to the U.S. duty-free. The treaty had little value to native Hawaiians but was of great importance to the white sugar growers who near the end of the nineteenth century owned two-thirds of Hawaii’s real estate.

Queen Liliuokalani ascends to the throne and declared “Hawaii for the Hawaiians”

The sugar-growers conspired with John L. Stevens; the American minister stationed in Honolulu and stages the fake, so-called “Revolution of l893.”

With American troops, stationed ostensibly to protect American property, the sugar-growers deposed Queen Lil.

Immediately a commission composed of three white Americans and one Englishman sail to Washington and push for the annexation of Hawaii. President Grover Cleveland refuses the annexation after finding out the Hawaiian people opposed annexation. However, Republican president, William McKinley has no such reservations and annexes Hawaii in 1898.

The native Hawaiians were not the only people unhappy about annexation. Fresh from defeating China in the Sino-Japanese War (1894), Japan was furious. With a quarter of the population of Japanese descent, they believed Hawaii should belong to them. HH

The Spanish-American War (1898)

War resulted from the forces building in America since the Industrial Revolution.

After years of oppression by Spain’s sugar growers, the Cuban peasants revolted. Using the cry “Viva Cuba Libre,” they sought the ouster Spain’s overlords by terror, dynamiting trains, and burning property owned by the Spanish Americans.

The American press sympathized with revolution making the comparison between their revolution and the American Revolution.American reporting of the revolution was influenced by the “rise of yellow journalism” and the competition between William Randolph Hearst’s New New Journal and Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World.

To increase the circulation of their newspapers, they exaggerated, distorted, and made up facts. Or as one contemporary put it, “they snooped, scooped, and stooped to conquer” their competitors.

At the beginning of the Cuban Revolution, the combined circulation of both newspapers was 800,000. By the end of the Spanish-American War, the circulation doubled to 1.6 million.

To end the rebellion Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to Cuba. General Weyler positions forces between the cities and countryside, and constructs huge wired concentration camps with no humanitarian provisions. Cuban women, children, and men die from the lack of sanitation and brutality.

In the midst of putting down the rebellion, tensions escalate the United States. Spain accuses the U.S. of sympathizing with the revolutionaries and running guns from Florida to support the revolution. Segments of the population pressure the American government to take action to end the revolution. This is especially true of the business community, which is losing money from the destruction of their investment in sugar growing on the island. Men like William Randolph Hearst who has invested millions of dollars in growing sugar on the island.

Still, President McKinley is reluctant to get America involved in the revolution but issues two strongly worded demands of Spain in 1897. He insists on the modification of the concentration camps to make them more humane and granting the Cuban people some sort of autonomy or democracy.

Spain accepts the demands and the crisis appears averted, when early 1898, the USS Maine on a “friendly” trip to Cuba suddenly explodes while in the harbor of Havana. While there were multiple suspects and causes for its explosion, for the American people, the only acceptable suspect is Spain, embodied in the cry, “Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain.”

Congress declares war on Spain in April, 1898.

It was a short war lasting roughly four months (August). Yet, it had important implications for America’s place in the world. England hails the quick defeat of Spain praises America for taking its rightful place among the great nations.

The Treaty of Paris, Dec. 10, 1898, officially ended the war. The major consequences of the war are:

a. It ended Spanish Empire in America and the Pacific.

b. Spain gave up rights to Cuba. To let the world know the war was not fought for territorial gain, Congress passed the Teller Amendment as it declared war on Spain. The Amendment specifically declares the U.S. did not covet one an inch of Cuban territory.

c. Spain cedes Puerto Rico, an island in the Marianas, and ultimately Guam to the United States.

d. Spain surrendered the Philippines, but the Phillippine citizens who fought beside the Americans to gain their independence were left with their fate in the hands of a “commission.” Unfortunately “duty, dollars, and destiny” got in the way of America’s outright recognition of Phillipino independence. Betrayed by the United States, the Phillippinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, fought the Americans. The Americans used the same concentration camps they denounced the Spanish for erecting. The U.S. employed nearly 70,000 troops to put down the Phillippines.

f. In the end, the U.S. annexed the Philippines.

John Hay and the Open Door Notes 1899, 1900

The annexation of the Philippines made the United States a far eastern power and forced to become increasingly concerned over the dramatic events on the Asiatic mainland. After China revealed her weakness in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), the imperialistic European powers descended on the “paper tiger.” They extorted long-term leaseholds and created valuable spheres of influence. Although trade with China was relatively small, it was growing with promising rapidity.

The British, who had the largest foreign trade stake in China, were worried about their presence in the far east. Twice in 1898 and1899, Britain proposed a cooperative arrangement with other countries to ensure equal commercial opportunities in China. This became known as—the Open Door Policy. On both occasions the U.S. said no, arguing it was inconsistent with its traditional no entanglement policy. However, during further discussions with British officials the idea of equal commercial opportunity met with increasing favor. In the end, business pressures on the State Department became strong that some kind of action became imperative. In the late summer of 1899, several British officials working with President William McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay worked out a memorandum that became the Open Door Policy.

Open Door Note One September 6, 1899:

Secretary John Hay sent Open Door notes to Germany, Britain, and Russia. Shortly after, he included Japan, Italy, and France. The note requested each country to provide assurances they would abide by the following:

1. Within its sphere of interest or leasehold in China, no power would interfere with any treaty port or any vested interest.

2. The Chinese tariff treaty would be applicable with such spheres of interest (influence), and the duties were to be collected by the Chinese government.

3. Within their spheres, no power would discriminate in favor of its own nationals in the matter of harbor dues and railroad charges.

Naturally, England and America supported the first open door, while others responded generally or not at all. In truth, the original Open Door Note was merely a dramatic statement of America’s commercial interest, and did not spring from unselfish motives.

Open Door Note Two July 3, 1900:

The Boxer Rebellion prompted the second open door note. A group of fanatical Chinese, called the Boxers, rose up against the foreign “devils” taking over China. After widespread murder and pillaging, a group of whites, including members of various foreign legations found themselves besieged in the foreign legations in Peking, China. American Secretary of State, John Hay led an effort to create an 18,000 international rescue force and free the beseiged foreigners. In August, 1900, the besieged legations were freed. Still, Hay was suspicious that some of the imperialistic powers would take advantage of the chaos to unhinge the Open Door, and issued the Second Open Door.

The note proclaimed that the policy of the Government of the United States was to seek a solution which preserved “Chinese territorial and administrative entity.” Unlike the first Open Door Note, it did not call for an answer. Hay understood that the powers were so strong and suspicious of one another that no one of them was in a position to challenge the Open Door; thus in the end, acquiescing in China’s territorial integrity. Equally important, as countries sought seeking alliances, no wanted to unnecessarily offend the United States, a rising star.

Foreign Policy l900-1920

American and Canal Zone Diplomacy

After the Spanish-American War, public interest of a canal in the Western hemisphere was revived

A.Roosevelt’s Big Stick or Cowboy diplomacy

A French company, headed by Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal, threatened to deny the American people the long dream of severing the two continents at Panama. After the French Canal Company had excavated two-fifths of the canal, the whole enterprise collapsed in scandalous ruin—a victim of incompetence, extravagance, disease, heat, and jungles. The collapse allowed President Roosevelt the opportunity to realize America’s dream of severing the Isthmus.

To understand Theodore Roosevelt’s opportunity we need to go back to the 1842 Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. In the treaty, the United States and Great Britain agreed that neither country could construct, hold or fortify a canal in the area that became Panama. It should also be mentioned that with the assassination of McKinley, Roosevelt want to prove he was not “his Accidency” but entitled to be president in his own right. Nothing he believed would prove this than “making the dirt fly” building a canal severing the isthmus and drastically cutting American miles and time to reach the Far East.

He pushed through the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901 with Great Britain abrogating the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty allowing the U.S. to honorably build, hold, and fortify a canal in this part of the world.

Following an American instigated revolution in Columbia, and recognition of Panama as a sovereign country the U.S. signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty. The treaty had the following conditions:

1.The U.S. gave Panama a payment of 10 million dollars and $250,000.00 a year.

2.The U.S. received a canal zone of ten miles and granted extraordinary sovereign rights.

6.Dismayed with Cuban instability and the fear a major power might secure a foothold there, jeopardizing the Isthmus and the U.S., it-forced Cuba to sign the Platt Amendment, reversing the Teller Amendment, and making it a quasi-protectorate.

The Platt Amendment (1901):

a.Cuba could not make a treaty impairing her independence or permitting a foreign power to secure lodgment in or control over the island.

b.Cuba pledged not to incur indebtedness beyond her ability to pay.

c.The U.S. was at liberty to intervene for the purpose of preserving order and maintaining Cuban independence.

d.Cuba agreed to an American-sponsored sanitation program aimed at yellow fever, malaria, and other mosquito-related diseases (not so much for the Cubans but the Americans visiting and living in the Canal Zone).

e.Cuba agreed to sell or lease to the U.S. sites naval and coaling stations. [Guantanamo became the principal base].

The Roosevelt Corollary (1904)

Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy was also seen in his willingness to take on the role of a regional policeman. Following Spanish-American War and his canal diplomacy, he grew concern that a crisis between Venezuela and its creditors could spark an invasion of that nation by European powers. Therefore, he announced the Roosevelt Corollary in December 1904. The Corollary stated the United States would intervene as a policeman and last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the U.S., or invite “foreign aggression detrimental of the entire body of American nations.

Santa Domingo (1905) was the first example of an attempt to enforce the Roosevelt Corollary. By 1904, after an orgy of murder and civil war the Dominican Republic was bankrupt. Roosevelt feared the four principal European nations with investments might forcibly attempt to collect their debts. Such attempts, especially if countries decided to remain after retrieving their losses, would violate the Monroe Doctrine and jeopardize America’s interests, forcing the United States in an all our war. Such insurrectionary habits of “these wretched republics” imposed certain responsibilities on the United States. In short, Roosevelt believed he could not permit the foreign powers to collect their alleged debts by force. America had a mandate to intervene and compel these reluctant republics to pay their bills.

Under the Corollary, the U.S. forced the Dominican Republic to invite the U.S. in and take over the revenue-producing customs houses. Santa Domingo retained 45% of the customs for Dominican expenses and the U.S. allocated 55% for its outstanding indebtedness. Such a radical assumption of power, Congress initially balked at the corollary but by 1907 got on board with a new treaty with the Dominican Republic.

Another important example of Roosevelt’s “Walk softy but carry a big stick” foreign policy occurred following the Russo-Japanese War, (1904-1905). U.S. relations with both Russia and Japan were strained over their failure to secure certain spoils of war.

The war developed from Russia and Japan’s rivalry for dominance in Korea and Manchuria. After the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan acquired the Liaodong Peninsula from China, but European powers forced Japan to return it. China subsequently leased it to Russia. During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia had thrown troops into Manchuria, ostensibly to protect Russian lives and railroad interests.

Despite repeated and insincere promises to withdraw, they were still there in l904. Equally important, the trans-Siberian Railroad was nearing completion and Russia stalled until the last stake was driven. Once completed the Russians could ship large quantities of military supplies to attack the Japanese. Aware that the Russian bear was not going to withdraw, the Japanese launched a damaging “sneak” attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur, Manchuria. At the outset, American sympathies went out to the “clever little Nipponese.” America’s former Secretary of State, Elihu Root praised the Japanese for showing how to fight a “bully.” Americans would not feel the same with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.

By the spring of 1905, the Japanese, running dangerously short of men and money, secretary invited President Roosevelt to act as a mediator. He agreed after some hesitation and brought to two belligerents to the negotiating table at Portsmouth, New Hampshire in August of 1905.

Results of the treaty:

The Japanese demanded the Siberian island of Sakhalin and a huge monetary indemnity of $600 million dollars to cover the cost of the war. In the end Japanese did not get $600 million dollars and all of the Siberian island of Sakhalin, It did settle for the southern half and wrested from Russia the Southern Manchurian Railway, and virtually hegemony over Korea in the Katsura Memorandum. Katsura Memorandum (1908) was an agreement of understanding that America recognized Japanese “suzerainty” over Korea. It instructed the state department to direct any inquiries about Korea and from Korea to the Japanese government.

Beyond the treaty, American relations with Japan soured following the war resulting in a second xenophobic episode of the “Yellow Peril.” Attempts to segregate Japanese students in the San Francisco public schools created a saber-ratting exchange between the two governments. To prevent a deeper foreign relations crisis between the two countries, Roosevelt invited the entire board of education and the mayor (under indictment for graft) to the White House where he used his charm to convince them to back off their anti-Japanese activities and allow him to deal with the problem.

Roosevelt understood that behind the attempt to create a caste system for Japanese students in the school system was the desire by Californians to stop the immigration of Japanese, period. To ameliorate this problem, he issued the Gentleman’s Agreement.

Under the Gentlemen’s Agreement:

a. The Japanese agreed to issue no more passports to coolies coming directly to the mainland of the United States.

b. The San Francisco Board of Education rescinded the objectionable school order, and the tensions eased.

c. Japanese immigration under the agreement dwindled to a trickle.

d. Japanese could still go to the Hawaiian Islands.

Following the Gentleman’s Agreement, the U.S. signed one other important agreement with the Japanese, the Root-Takahira Agreement.

The Root-Takahira Agreement between the United States and Japan contained the following points.

Both the U.S. and Japan subscribed to the policy of maintaining the status quo in the Pacific area.

Mutual respect of each other’s territorial possessions in that region of the world.

Uphold the Open Door in China.

Support by peaceful means the “independence and integrity of China.”

To demonstrate that America acted out of fairness and not fear, Roosevelt sent the “Great White Fleet” around the world by from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909. The fleet consisted of sixteen new battleships of the Atlantic Fleet and painted white except for gilded scrollwork on their bows.

Both the Katsura Memorandum and the Root-Takahira Agreement reflected Roosevelt’s belief in the United States obligation to become internationally involved in world affairs.

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Delivery-Partner Delivery Service Proposal

Delivery-Partner Delivery Service Proposal





Delivery-Partner Delivery Service Proposal

Executive summary

Delivery-Partner is an online based delivery service specializing in delivery of good bought from online store. The business is a service provider linking online store and their consumer to help overcome the challenges that have been experienced with traditional delivery companies. the business will hive both online existence and virtual existence and will use store located close to bust terminal or easily accessible points where good will be dropped and the customers can pick them up easily and conveniently. The delivery service will be offered to both business and consumers thus serving B2B consumers and B2C consumers. this proposal analyses the viability of this business in the industry using a SWOT analysis and proposes a marketing strategy the will enable the company to gain a market share in the delivery industry.


TOC o “1-4” h z u HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080787” Introduction PAGEREF _Toc332080787 h 3

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080788” Company overview PAGEREF _Toc332080788 h 3

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080789” Vision PAGEREF _Toc332080789 h 3

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080790” Mission PAGEREF _Toc332080790 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080791” Company organization PAGEREF _Toc332080791 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080792” Management PAGEREF _Toc332080792 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080793” Staffs PAGEREF _Toc332080793 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080794” Operation model PAGEREF _Toc332080794 h 4

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080795” Outsourcing PAGEREF _Toc332080795 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080796” Marketing PAGEREF _Toc332080796 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080797” Market Segmentation PAGEREF _Toc332080797 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080798” Market definition PAGEREF _Toc332080798 h 5

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080799” Marketing strategy PAGEREF _Toc332080799 h 6

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080800” SWOT analysis PAGEREF _Toc332080800 h 6

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080801” The 4Ps PAGEREF _Toc332080801 h 7

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080802” Product PAGEREF _Toc332080802 h 7

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080803” Place PAGEREF _Toc332080803 h 7

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080804” Price PAGEREF _Toc332080804 h 7

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080805” Promotion PAGEREF _Toc332080805 h 8

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080806” Financials PAGEREF _Toc332080806 h 8

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080807” Capital estimation PAGEREF _Toc332080807 h 8

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080808” Fixed Assets PAGEREF _Toc332080808 h 8

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080809” Transportation PAGEREF _Toc332080809 h 9

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080810” Human Resources PAGEREF _Toc332080810 h 9

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080811” Technology setup PAGEREF _Toc332080811 h 9

HYPERLINK l “_Toc332080812” Miscellaneous PAGEREF _Toc332080812 h 9

IntroductionOnline business is among the fastest growing forms of business around the world. According to internet world statistics, internet usage worldwide rose by 400% between 2000 and 2010. This is an interesting development which undoubtedly encourages many service providers and sellers of commodities to sell the merchandise online. In most instances, companies or business are establishing B2C business creating web stores or online stores that sell commodities directly to customers. B2B which involves business selling goods or services to other business is also common. There is also an increase in the number of companies that have restricted their operation on the internet alone. All these companies encounter numerous challenges when it comes to delivering physical goods to customers. There are several delivery service which in unfortunately increase the cost of delivering good to the customer thus in turn increasing the costs incurred by the sellers. As usual this cost are also transferred to customers who end up parting with more that they intended or would have wished to acquire a product. This business proposal proposes a delivery business model that aims at enhancing the delivery process, increasing efficiency and convenience, and reducing the costs involved in the delivery of the goods.

Company overviewIn a nutshell the idea is to put up a delivery business that will act as an intermediary between online shop, e-shop, e-store, Internet shop, web-shop, web-store, online store, or virtual stores and their customers. The key elements of this business will be faster delivery and affordability.

VisionDuring the firsts year of operation the business will aim at gaining a good reputation by offering affordable prices, unbeatable customer service and fast delivery.

The company will also realize long term business partnership with online shops, e-shop, e-stores, Internet shops, web-shops, web-stores, online stores, or virtual stores and achieve a steady cash flow.

MissionTo be a trusted and reliable delivery service worldwide.

Company organizationManagementThe business will sue the service of a qualified manager with minimum of an MBA. The manager will have an assistant who will have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in management.

StaffsThe other member of staff the will be instrumental provision of our services will be there office assistant, a receptionist, five drivers, and ten potters.

Operation model

The business will adopt an operation model that is both convenient to the online store and their buyers. Be an online business, customers purchasing goods online will have the option of choosing our delivery service while purchasing their good from an online store. When a customer chooses our delivery service he/she will be directed to our website where they will be requested to enter their information: name, cell phone number, email address, the order number of the goods bought from the online store, customer location and desired point of collection. Once this information has been entered, the customer will be directed to checkout where they will pay a nominal fee. In turn the customer will receive a receipt for payment both as a main in the email and as a SMS in his/her phone. Once the information is received in our system, the office assistant will issue it to the driver the details. The driver using the information will collect the goods from the physical location or warehouse of the online store and deliver it to the customers preferred collection point. When the customers go to the collection point, they will be required to produce some form of identification, the SMS receipt for payment of the goods or a print out of the receipt emailed to their mail.

OutsourcingThe business will outsource warehousing and storage services. These services will be outsourced from stores located close to bus terminals or easily accessible place in urban and suburban areas. it is these storage point or warehouses that the customers will chose from when selecting their convenient collection point.

MarketingMarket SegmentationThis section focuses on establishing the various divisions in the market consisting of groups with different needs. The main segmentations are buyer of fragile goods and the not fragile goods. Fragile goods such as electronics will require extreme care to ensure that they arrive in proper condition

Market definitionIn short, delivery-partner will focus on online sellers who want to minimize the cost the incurred in paying delivery companies to deliver goods to their customers and online shopper who want to minimize the amount to money the pay to have the goods they have purchase online delivered. Many shoppers incur expense up to 20% over what they paid for their goods. Delivery expenses incurred by online sellers also increase the operation costs. However this service will be a double edged sword cutting costs incurred by both the sellers and the buyer.

Marketing strategyIn order for delivery-partner to be successful, a functional marketing strategy must be used. A marketing strategy is an instrument that will evaluate the resources at our disposal and use them publicize our delivery service to give it a competitive advantage over its competitors. It consists of various market analysis instruments that will provide information necessary to create a functional marketing strategy. The analysis strategy will be SWOT analysis examining both internal and external dynamics of the business (Kern, 3). Using the SWOT analysis results the marketing strategy will emphasis the use of the 4Ps to reach the target market (Barker & Charles, 138).

SWOT analysis

Strengths Weaknesses

Strong business model.

Affordable service.

Reliable and convenient service. Little difference from other delivery services.

Since this is a competitive segment, the market share growth is limited

The brand might be dependent on endorsement by online sellers.

Opportunities Threats

There is great room for geographical expansion.

Online shopping is growing since many people are opting to shop online.

Many online shopper and seller need affordable and reliable delivery services. Stiff competition from already developed companies.

Continuous increase in oil prices will have a strong impact on delivery costs

Low operating costs will continue to encourage new entrants to join the industry.

The 4PsProduct

Product stands for the good or service that a business offers to the consumers. The product should meet the needs of the market segment that it intends to serve (Barker & Charles, 139). The product we offer to consumers is a delivery service the will ensure that they can receive goods purchase from online store at their convenience. There are many delivery service companies delivering goods to buyers worldwide. However, our service is different from what the other organizations offer. Our service will involve collecting goods bought from the sellers warehouses and taking to convenient store close to bus terminals where the buyers can pick the on their way home. Good can also be take to stores of customers’ choice where they can be accessed easily.


Place stand for the location where the business can be found (Barker & Charles, 140). Our business will be online, and our clients will be able to reach us through our website. The will be able to order for our delivery services online. Other contact will also be on the website. These include our fax, email and telephone number. The business will also have a physical location where we will have an office with staff to act on the customs instructions. The other physical locations for our company will be our outsourced collection points.

PricePrice is what we will charge our customers for the services we provide them (Barker & Charles, 141). Price must be high enough to meet the costs of operation and low enough to attract customers to our services. At the start however we will not be keen at making the price. We will take penetration pricing strategy which will involve deliberately offer services at low prices to attract customers to use our delivery services. Once the business gets a ‘toehold’, our pricing strategy will change to a cost plus pricing strategy. This is common pricing strategy which involves totaling all cost involved in delivering the service the adding a margin for profit.


Promotion involves making customers aware of the product (Barker & Charles, 142). When choosing a pricing strategy we will base on the target market and the cost incurred in creating the awareness. Since the business will start as a localized service provide operating only in a limited geographical area, advertisements will be conducted in local newspapers, radio stations, yellow pages, billboards and by word of mouth. Advertisements will also be conducted on the websites of the most popular online sellers in the area. Social media will also serve a s tool for advertising the business and popularize it.

FinancialsDelivery partner not only require online start up, but will also need a brick and mortar set up. The set up for the business will be minimal to enable realistic growth in future. The setup will cover a single metropolis and then incrementally take on strategic location in neighboring metropolitans.

Capital estimation

The initial set up will be based on renting space rather than buying it or building our own. This will certainly enhanced the flexibility of the business. For startup we will need the following:

Fixed AssetsA corporate center in New Jersey which will serve as the hub management, and monitoring and business development

Office furniture and computers

Outsourced storage or warehousing around the 50 bus terminals in the city.

TransportationWe will be equipped with four vans for collecting goods for sellers’ warehouse service providers to customers’ collection points.

Human ResourcesThe business will have Manager, an assistant manager, an ICT specialist, three office assistants a receptionist and five drivers, and ten porters.

Technology setupTechnological setup will include 7 computers of which three will be used by the top management and three by the office assistant to monitor movement of goods as well as track the customer orders for delivery. On e of the computers will be lead to the reception desk. We will outsource webhosting service from a reliable webhosting service provider.

MiscellaneousThis includes all other costs incurred in operating the business such as the inventory costs.

Start up and operational costs.

Investment Rate ($) Number Time (In Months) Total

Coordination office 400 pm 1 12 4800

Storage space (outsourced) 250 pm 10 12 30000

Total Infrastructure       34800

Transport Vans (Used Vans) $2,495 7 17465

Office Car 1 3000

Total Transportation Assets       20465

Manager 42000 1 12 504000

Assistant Manager 30000 1 12 360000

ICT specialist 25000 1 12 300000

Office Assistants 18000 3 12 648000

Receptionist 15000 1 12 375000

Drivers 15000 5 12 720000

Potters 15000 10 12 1800000

Total Human Resource Cost       4707000

Computers 200 7 1400

Website Setup 1000 1000

Webhosting 10 10

Internet $50 50

Software 40 40

Total ICT infrastructure Cost       2500

Vehicles 50000 50000

IT infrastructure 10000 10000

Total Maintenance cost       60000

Miscellaneous 20000 20000

Miscellaneous       20000

TOTAL       4844765

Funding sources

EMBED MSGraph.Chart.8 s


Barker, Rachel. & Charles, George. Integrated Organisational Communication. Cape Town : Juta Academic, 2006.

Internet World Statistics. Internet Usage Statistics: The Internet Big Picture World Internet Users and Population Stats. Web. August 7, 2012 HYPERLINK “”

Kern, Russell. S.U.R.E.-Fire Direct Response Marketing: generating business-to-business sales leads for bottom-line success. New York: McGraw-Hall, 2001.

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